The formation of cholesterol in the cells (hepatocides) of the liver is an interesting and complex process, which is divided into two stages:
- endogenous – the produced cholesterol molecules directly by hepatocides bind to lipoproteins and are transported to the blood
- exogenous – cholesterol supplied with food, first gets into the liver, where it connects with lipoproteins, and then transferred to cells
There is a close relationship between the amount of endogenous and exogenous cholesterol: the intake of a large amount of food rich in low-density cholesterol provokes an increased production of high molecular weight lipids. This helps keep the balance between “bad” and “good” cholesterol.
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- Ways of decay and excretion
- General information
- How is cholesterol processed in the body?
- Medication Therapy
- Why is cholesterol disturbed?
- Cholesterol and liver: production, lowering, improving performance
- General information
- What else can I eat?
- Animal liver
- Healing products
- How to normalize cholesterol?
- Cholesterol function
- Synthesis regulation
- The role of the liver
- Normal Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT)
- Hepatic tests during pregnancy
- High cholesterol foods
- Foods That Lower Cholesterol
- Withdrawal paths
- 1. Introduction
- What You Should Know About Cholesterol
- Scientific statements about cholesterol
- General Principles
- 3. Tests important for determining cholesterol
Ways of decay and excretion
However, those who consume too much cholesterol because of a very oily diet increase it. Beneficial factors are heredity and stress. However, elevated cholesterol levels can, in rare cases, have their cause in a hereditary state. This is called familial hypercholesterolemia.
Factors that increase cholesterol. Severe thyroid hypofunction, some liver diseases are congenital lipid metabolism disorders. Harmful and healthy cholesterol. Cholesterol is associated with various lipoproteins so that it can be carried with the blood. The names of the white carriers are based on English terms for their density.
The biosynthesis of cholesterol in hepatocides consists of several stages:
- The synthesis of mevalonate. For this process, the body uses glucose, which comes with sweet foods. Glucose is broken down by special enzymes, resulting in mevalonate. If the glucose level drops, the activity of this synthesis slows down.
- Synthesis of isopentenyl pyrophosphate. At this stage, the process of converting mevalonate by phosphorylation begins. After a number of processes, mevalonate is converted to isopentenylpyrophosphate.
- Synthesis of squalene. Through several condensations using energy sources, isopentenyl pyrophosphate is converted to squalene.
- Synthesis of lanosterol. When water molecules are gradually removed from the squalene molecule, it turns into linosterol. This is the penultimate stage of cholesterol formation.
- Cholesterol. A cholesterol molecule appears in the membranes of hepatocide. Under the influence of energy and special enzymes, linosterol is transported to cholesterol.
The pathway for the appearance of cholesterol goes through several difficult stages, which are controlled by various energy sources and enzymes. In addition, hormones and insulin affect the rate of reactions at each stage.
Cholesterol transferred from the cells and the walls of the vessel turn into bile acid in the liver. This can be eliminated by gall juice in the intestines. Nicotine overweight type 2 diabetes, physical inactivity, triglyceride levels too high. Weight Loss Nicotine withdrawal Low triglycerides in sports.
. There it is introduced by special receptors and further processed. Especially common are the so-called plaques on the coronary vessels, quasi vessels that feed the heart with blood.
If vascular occlusion occurs due to these deposits, a heart attack is inevitable. Closed vessels on the neck or in the head can cause a stroke. Diet replaces sports medicines.
. In people who do not have other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, the following values are recommended.
Cholesterol has gained a bad reputation due to a key role in the development of heart disease, blood vessels. A high concentration of sterol really contributes to the formation of vascular plaques, which are the cause of death of every second person. However, cholesterol is necessary for the body for many metabolic processes.
The relationship between cholesterol and the liver is very strong. The body is involved in all stages of cholesterol metabolism. Let us consider in more detail what is common between the liver and sterol, what diseases provoke a change in its level, symptoms, treatment methods.
Cholesterol is necessary for the human body to build cell walls, synthesize vitamin D, bile acids, and some hormones.
Most of the sterol (75-80%) is synthesized by our body – endogenous cholesterol, the smaller part comes with food – food.
In its structure, cholesterol is a fat-like substance that, like any fat, is insoluble in water. Therefore, free blood cholesterol cannot travel through blood vessels. To do this, he needs helpers – lipoproteins. There are several types of lipoproteins, each of which performs a separate function:
- chylomicrons are giant lipoproteins that transport food sterol. Their number does not affect human health, therefore, the level of chylomicrons is not determined in the laboratory;
- very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) – are responsible for the transfer of triglycerides, a small amount of synthesized cholesterol from the liver to tissues;
- low density lipoproteins (LDL) are the main carriers of synthesized cholesterol. Provide fat-like alcohol to all body cells that need it;
- high density lipoproteins (HDL) – transport excess cholesterol from cells to the liver, where it is disposed of.
Elevated cholesterol associated with VLDL, LDL, increases the risk of developing atherosclerosis. Therefore, it is called bad cholesterol. But a high concentration of HDL protects the body from the formation of cholesterol plaques. For this, they were called good cholesterol.
Normal cholesterol levels change with age. In young people, the sterol content is lower than in the elderly. Women have a lower concentration of cholesterol for most of their lives than men. These patterns are well demonstrated by a table disaggregated by gender and age.
Cholesterol metabolism is most associated with the liver. This organ takes part in all stages of sterol metabolism: cholesterol synthesis occurs in the liver, it also converts it into bile acids, lipoproteins, and removes it from the human body. It is not surprising that in case of hepatitis problems, lipid metabolic disturbances develop. Consider each stage of sterol metabolism in more detail.
Cholesterol synthesis is a complex biochemical process that goes through 5 main stages, each of them includes several chemical reactions. To start the formation of sterol, three molecules of acetate are needed. Scientists have calculated: the biosynthesis process has more than 35 reactions.
Cholesterol in the human liver is partially used by the liver itself for the synthesis of bile acids, partially processed into VLDL, LDL. Lipoproteins supply cholesterol to other organs. They circulate through the vessels until some cell that needs sterol takes their cholesterol. VLDL are completely “collected” by the liver, and LDL are formed from VLDL that have fulfilled their function.
HDL cholesterol is taken from the cells and delivered to the liver. The organ removes sterol and processes it into bile acids. With them, cholesterol enters the gallbladder, and then the intestines. Bile acids help the body absorb fats. Some of them are absorbed back into the bloodstream, which delivers the acid to the liver, and some are excreted from the body with feces.
The relationship of the liver and cholesterol is clearly visible in diseases of the organ. Liver pathologies almost always disrupt the production, utilization, and removal of sterol.
Since the diseased organ is not able to synthesize an adequate amount of bile acids, lipoproteins, to engage in their disposal.
Consider the most common hepatologic problems, accompanied by abnormal cholesterol levels.
The most common form of liver dysfunction is non-alcoholic fatty disease (NLB). The term NSAIDs combines several diseases, of which the most serious is non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. It usually leads to cirrhosis, liver failure, or hepatocellular carcinoma.
NSAIDs often develop in patients with diabetes mellitus or people who have extra pounds. The disease is accompanied by dyslipidemia, as well as lipodystrophy – a violation of the distribution of adipose tissue in the body.
Cirrhosis is called the proliferation of connective tissue, which replaces the functional cells of the liver – hepatocytes. The liver is seriously impaired. The amount of synthesized cholesterol drops sharply, which reduces the concentration of plasma sterol. The most common causes of cirrhosis are alcohol abuse, viral hepatitis.
Serious liver problems can be a side effect of taking medications. The liver often suffers from the use of drugs, since most of them are processed by this body. Excess chemicals cause damage to the hepatocytes.
In the human body, cholesterol performs two kinds of functions. It is part of the composition of membranes and the “forerunner” in the synthesis of hormones, bile acids, and other steroids. Some people complain that their liver is “foolish” with cholesterol.
The relationship of the liver and cholesterol is undeniable: one part of it is transformed into bile acids. They are derivatives of cholanic acid. The “birth” of 1-acid acids occurs in hepatocytes.
The next step is the secretion of bile. Then, under the influence of microbial enzymes, the formation of 2-bile acids occurs.
Synthesis occurs as a result of complex chemical reactions.
How is cholesterol processed in the body?
From the liver, cholesterol enters the intrahepatic ducts. There it combines with the bile acids that activate it. Entering the extrahepatic ducts, the resulting compounds are added to the bile stored in the gallbladder. Mass through the papilla of the duodenum flows into the intestines to participate in the digestion of food. Unused cholesterol for the gastrointestinal tract enters the bloodstream.
This happens with the help of lipoproteins. Cholesterol compounds are transported to all organs and systems. Arrived with food, they are absorbed by the intestines, entering the lymphatic vessels, and from there into the veins. Here, cholesterol compounds are broken down by hydrolysis to fatty acids transported to muscles and adipose tissue.
Only 20% of cholesterol enters the body with food, the remaining 80% is produced by the liver and other internal organs. In the blood is not cholesterol itself, but its compounds with protein – the so-called lipoproteins. Particles of this compound can have a different density, which determines their properties.
High density lipoproteins are called “good” or “beneficial” cholesterol, which prevents the development of atherosclerosis. Low density lipoproteins are precisely the “bad cholesterol.” It can oxidize and, having transformed into an unstable molecule, penetrate into the walls of blood vessels.
Examinations can take into account 4 indicators: the number of high and low density lipoproteins, triglycerides and total cholesterol.
- It takes part in the synthesis of sex hormones.
- It is required for the activity of serotonin receptors located in the brain.
- This substance is the basis for the formation of bile.
- It protects intracellular structures from free oxygen radicals, which have a destructive effect.
- It takes part in the synthesis of the fat-soluble form of vitamin D.
So, if the compound is produced inside the body, a logical question arises: why at the household level it is believed that a lot of cholesterol comes to a person with products. Theoretically, the liver would have to regulate the production of this substance according to the feedback principle, i.e., with an increase in the amount of cholesterol that enters the body with food, reduce its own production. In animals, this mechanism works excellently. But in a person everything is much more complicated.
The liver produces a lot of this substance precisely because of malnutrition. Once the level of cholesterol that comes with the products reaches a level of 2-3 g, the internal synthesis, although somewhat inhibited, does not completely stop. At the same time, newly formed molecules inhibit the formation of the aforementioned HMG-coA reductase, but stimulate the production of enzymes that break it down.
The activity of HMG reductase increases when insulin or thyroid hormones enter the bloodstream, and decreases with an increase in glucocorticosteroids. Thus, if there are any lipid metabolism disorders in the body, even with a relatively high level of cholesterol in the products, the liver does not reduce its production due to HMG-coA reductase, which does not show sensitivity to an increase in the level of this component.
In addition, as already noted, the absorption of this substance from the intestine is still relatively small, and since this compound does not dissolve in water, a significant part of it is excreted with incompletely digested food. Part of the cholesterol is produced in the body not in the liver, but on the gastrointestinal mucosa, but it is relatively small.
Thus, the reasons for the increased production of cholesterol are as follows:
- disruption of the main enzymes involved in the synthesis and lip />dysfunction of the thyroid gland, which is caused by an increase in the level of thyroid hormones;
- improper diet, which contains too many simple carbohydrates;
- excess weight;
- diseases of the adrenal glands, including the appearance of neoplasms, leading to impaired glucocorticosteroid production.
When a person knows where cholesterol comes from, he can regulate his level himself. In most cases, it is believed that to lower cholesterol, you need a special diet and that’s it. In fact, this is the most affordable, but far from the most effective method.
Diet can reduce the level of harmful lipoproteins only by 10-15%, that is, it is effective only in the early stages of the disease.
In more advanced situations, LDL can be reduced with the help of special medications. Unfortunately, there are no clear norms for the content of LDL, at which you can already begin to lower this indicator: for each person it is individual, and therefore you should definitely consult a doctor.
The specialist knows how the liver and high cholesterol are related, and therefore, it will probably prescribe additional studies to establish the cause of lipid metabolism disorders and assess the condition of internal organs. Moreover, even if the level of this compound in the blood is low, but there is a risk of complications due to existing diseases of the cardiovascular system, if there are concomitant diseases like diabetes, then the drugs will still be prescribed.
Various drugs inhibit cholesterol production. The most effective class of drugs are drugs from the group of statins. Among their advantages is the fact that they not only help reduce high cholesterol, but also suppress the inflammatory processes on the inner walls of blood vessels, reducing the risk of cholesterol plaque formation on them, which could potentially lead to a heart attack or stroke.
Fibrate preparations are also used: they act on the cholesterol environment described above, and more specifically, on triglycerides. There are also drugs that inhibit the absorption of this compound from foods.
Many experts advise not to rush to take drugs, they believe that it is more important to know how to improve the liver: then it will regulate this process itself. Methods such as proper nutrition and age-appropriate physical activity are important here.
To eliminate disorders of lipid metabolism, weight loss is of fundamental importance. This is proven by research. Moreover, experiments have shown that even if the patient does not lose weight, but does sports (runs in the mornings, goes to the pool, performs a set of exercises for at least 30–40 minutes a day), the degree of liver obesity decreases. Exercise in the fresh air is especially beneficial. Even regular walks can have a good effect.
But strict diets are not always good. Studies have shown that with fasting days, fasting, strict mono-diets, liver dystrophy may increase, but this will not affect the level of lipoproteins. It is better to choose a therapeutic diet or adhere to the scientifically substantiated Mediterranean traditions:
- include more vegetable fats in the diet;
- cook not in butter but in olive oil;
- eat more fish (including fatty varieties) and seafood;
- prov >
Apples, citrus fruits and other fruits containing pectin contribute to lowering cholesterol levels – this helps to remove this compound from the body. But coffee is recommended to be replaced with green tea. Although recent studies have not shown a connection between coffee consumption and LDL levels, green tea is more beneficial for the body as a whole.
Why is cholesterol disturbed?
As part of bile, this substance enters the small intestine. During digestion, part of the cholesterol is returned to the liver, and a certain amount enters the colon. A healthy body in the process of such a hepatic-intestinal cycle removes its excess with feces.
But the output of bile decreases with many diseases of the liver and “bad” cholesterol begins to accumulate in the body. Also, when too much of this substance is ingested with food, its synthesis is activated, that is, the liver produces cholesterol more actively.
The main danger of high cholesterol is the risk of developing atherosclerosis. A lot of this substance in the blood is observed with hypertension, cerebrovascular accident, obesity. With a number of liver diseases, cholesterol is also elevated (for example, in the presence of hemangioma or other neoplasms).
Cholesterol and liver: production, lowering, improving performance
HDL circulating in the blood enters the liver. Of the half of these compounds, bile acids are synthesized, which become part of bile, are sent to the gall bladder and are deposited there. When a person takes food, bile is released into the intestine and takes part in the process of digestion. The remaining cholesterol is exposed to intestinal microorganisms, its metabolites are excreted with feces. The second half of HDL starts in the next round of fat metabolism.
Lipoprotein metabolism in the body
The process of cholesterol formation in the liver depends on its concentration in the blood. With its excess, synthesis slows down, with a lack it intensifies. Healthy liver cells for a long time are able to maintain normal cholesterol in the blood, despite eating a large amount of animal fats, as well as the presence of bad habits and obesity.
There comes a time when the liver cannot maintain normal cholesterol and lipid metabolism is disturbed. There are several reasons for this:
- Its intake in excess with food for a long time.
- The production of own cholesterol in large quantities.
- Insufficient or absent receptors in cells that capture cholesterol from the blood.
- Violation of its removal.
Thus, disturbances in the functioning of organs and eating a large number of foods rich in cholesterol leads to a violation of metabolic processes in the body. The chemical and physical properties of bile change, stones begin to form and deposit in the gallbladder.
With an increase in the concentration of bad cholesterol in the blood, its deposition on the vascular walls begins and atherosclerosis develops
The human body is a self-regulating system, and with an excess of lipoproteins, compensatory mechanisms are activated. Regulation of cholesterol production begins at a certain level in the blood.
For some pathologies of different origins, these mechanisms turn out to be inoperative, and cholesterol begins to accumulate in the body, leading to dangerous conditions.
A high level of low density LP in the blood is not related to a person’s age and gender.
Why does the liver produce a lot of bad cholesterol:
- With a diet high in high-calorie foods.
- With low physical activity and a sedentary lifestyle.
- In the presence of bad habits: smoking, alcohol abuse.
- Due to overeating.
The relationship is obvious: due to the combination of cholesterol, bile acids and phospholipids, mixed micelles are formed. From the intestines, cholesterol is only partially absorbed, usually in mixed micelles. Outside the human intestines, approximately 24/1 of all cholesterol is renewed every 10 hours.
Most often, the total amount of cholesterol that enters the human body along with products is equal to the total number of secreted bile acids.
With high cholesterol, doctors recommend removing both the substance itself and bile acids from the human body. It is important to remember that the synthesis and excretion of bile acids are practically independent of the intake of cholesterol together with products in the human body.
Cholesterol levels in human blood and tissues can be elevated with serious liver disease. In this case, there is a risk of developing such a serious pathology as atherosclerosis. Its rapid progression can lead to death. Also, a high level of cholesterol in the blood leads to an aggressive course of a disease such as gallstone cholecystitis.
Against the background of these pathological processes, the following diseases can develop:
Also, ischemic stroke is far from uncommon. The development of gallstone disease is dangerous with the formation of cholesterol stones. The main cause of this disease is alcohol abuse.
Against the background of stagnation of bile and deposition of cholesterol, with this disease, spasms of the gallbladder and ducts appear. A person complains of pain. When stones block the bile outflow, there is a risk of their proliferation.
Perhaps the development of a serious pancreatic disease.
In severe liver disease, a decrease in total serum cholesterol concentration is observed.
Violation of the exchange of cholesterol, as well as other lipids, often provokes changes in red blood cells in the structure of the membrane. This contributes to the formation of spur-like blood cells. This symptom indicates severe liver damage.
If a person wants to lower blood cholesterol, then he needs to limit the use of chicken eggs. It is important to discard foods containing refractory saturated fats. It is also important to know which food lowers blood cholesterol.
When a patient needs to lower blood cholesterol, he should focus on the following products:
- vegetable oil;
- low-fat meat products;
- oily sea fish;
- oyster mushrooms;
If a person who wants to lower the level of “bad” cholesterol in the blood will take 2 tables a day. spoons of high-quality unrefined vegetable oil, indicators quickly normalize. Effectively reduces the blood cholesterol intake of corn or olive oil. But if a person exceeds the daily norm, the concentration of cholesterol in the blood may increase.
What else can I eat?
The level of bad cholesterol in the blood will decrease if a person uses turkey or chicken meat for food. But it is important to remember that if you eat the skin of a boiled bird or fry the meat, there will be no sense in eating these products.
Fatty sea fish can help lower your bad blood cholesterol levels. If a person eats it daily, he will protect himself from the risk of developing atherosclerosis.
The use of oyster mushrooms also reduces the content of bad cholesterol in the blood. They contain lovastine, which reduces the concentration of this substance. Cabbage does not so much reduce the content of bad cholesterol as it stops its absorption by the body from food. According to doctors, it will be sufficient if every day a person eats at least 300-400 grams of fresh cabbage.
Effectively reduces high cholesterol buckwheat porridge. If a person eats 300 grams of porridge daily, then the resulting atherosclerotic plaques will quickly collapse.
Reduces the high rate of bad cholesterol garden raspberries. Its main advantage is the presence of pectin, which contributes to the elimination of cholesterol plaques. With high cholesterol, you need to eat 200 grams of these berries daily.
Eating green apples rich in pectin and tannins also lowers high cholesterol. With high cholesterol, it is recommended to eat 2-3 apples daily.
Reduces high levels of bad cholesterol and carrots. Also, with elevated cholesterol, it is recommended to eat turnips or beets daily.
Doctors often recommend people eat chicken liver. This product has many positive properties, the main of which is low calorie content. Chicken liver also contains vitamin B9, which is essential for maintaining the immune system.
Chicken liver is not without some drawbacks. The harm of this product is the presence of a large percentage of “bad” cholesterol. Therefore, there is chicken liver, if cholesterol is elevated, it should not. It is undesirable to use this product for people with peptic or renal abnormality. Giving chicken liver to children under the age of three should not be given.
Pork liver has a high content of many vitamins and minerals. Thanks to the vitamin A present in it, protein synthesis is normalized. Pork liver also improves metabolism.
Vitamin B12 contained in pork liver helps to restore the functioning of the nervous system.
The use of pork liver is not shown to everyone. It can not be eaten with high cholesterol, since there is a serious risk of the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Abuse of pork liver is not recommended for older persons. It will be enough for them 100 grams of product per week.
This product is very rich in purines, during the breakdown of which uric acid is “born”. If it is not excreted in sufficient quantities, gout develops.
You can improve liver function with fasting days. Getting rid of toxins, it will function much more efficiently.
Do manipulations designed to make the liver work better, doctors recommend in the fall.
Before this, a person should eat exclusively plant foods for several days. Preference should be given to vegetable salads. If necessary, the use of fermented milk products and boiled fish is allowed. The following products are recommended:
- sea kale;
- zucchini or eggplant.
All of these foods are rich in fiber, which helps eliminate waste and toxins.
High-quality and properly brewed green tea can significantly improve liver function. To normalize the functioning of the body, it is recommended to drink at least five glasses throughout the day. Very useful quality mineral water. It can be replaced with non-acidic juices or herbal decoctions. Rosehip broth can bring the greatest benefit to the liver.
A great cleanser is honey. To improve the functioning of the liver, it is recommended to take 1 teaspoon. spoon 30 minutes before meals. You need to eat bee honey regularly, twice a day. This product contains a mixture of fructose with glucose, so sugar can be substituted for it.
How to normalize cholesterol?
First you need to do analyzes and consult with a specialist. A lot of cholesterol in the blood is a high risk of developing a number of diseases. In some cases, you can cope with the problem by simple correction of the diet. But, as mentioned above, most of this substance in the body is synthesized by the liver.
Therefore, sometimes you can not do without drugs that inhibit the production of cholesterol. You can take them for a long time, sometimes throughout life, but you need to do this under the supervision of a doctor. The specialist determines how often it is necessary to do control tests, and according to their results can adjust the treatment.
About 80% of cholesterol is synthesized by the body independently and for the most part in the liver, the remaining 20% of the person receives with food. Next, what exactly happens in the body.
The synthesis of cholesterol in the body occurs intracellularly in the liver. Its structural unit is acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-coA) ─ an important chemical compound formed in the Krebs cycle, which is involved in many metabolic reactions of a living organism.
In the future, an enzyme called hydroxymethylglutaryl-coA reductase (HMG-coA reductase) plays a key role in the synthesis of cholesterol; it is also responsible for the regulation of its formation.
About 1 g of cholesterol is thus synthesized per day.
The intensity of the synthetic processes is affected by nutrition ─ when the level of cholesterol obtained with nutrition reaches 2-3 g, its endogenous synthesis in the liver is significantly inhibited, but production does not stop completely.
In turn, newly formed molecules also inhibit cholesterol synthesis by the negative feedback mechanism. Namely, there is an inhibition of the formation of HMG-coA reductase, as well as stimulation of the appearance of such enzymes that break down HMG-coA reductase.
It is known that when insulin or thyroid hormones are introduced into the blood, the activity of HMG-coA reductase increases, and with an increase in glucocorticosteroid levels ─ decreases. Thus, a violation of lipid metabolism can be triggered by:
- Incorrect work of certain enzymes involved in the synthesis and regulation of cholesterol metabolism, including as a consequence of hereditary pathology.
- Inadequate treatment for diabetes (excess insulin).
- Thyroid diseases that occur with an increase in the level of thyroid hormones in the blood.
- The abundance of sweets and carbohydrates in the diet.
- Lack of vitamin E, chromium.
- Adrenal tumors (impaired glucocorticosteroid synthesis).
The role of the liver
Normal liver function is necessary for the proper exchange of cholesterol: its sufficient formation and excretion.
High density lipoproteins transfer excess cholesterol to the liver, from where it enters the intestines and leaves the body
This body is responsible for the synthesis of proteins that make up lipoproteins ─ special complexes that ensure the transport of fats through blood vessels. Violations of this liver function due to various factors (infectious diseases, toxic effects, etc.) lead to negative changes in lipid metabolism and an increase in blood cholesterol.
The human body can remove no more than 1,5 g of cholesterol per day, exceeding the limit leads to impaired fat metabolism. If for some reason the liver can’t cope with its functions ─ against the background of high cholesterol, blood vessels begin to suffer ─ atherosclerosis develops.
If a breakdown occurs at one of the stages of the synthesis or regulation of cholesterol formation, then one of the most common consequences is the development of atherosclerosis.
With this systemic disease, cholesterol is deposited in the walls of the arteries, which eventually leads to their narrowing or complete blockage (with the corresponding clinical picture, for example, stroke, heart attack or intermittent claudication).
Another manifestation of deep disturbances in the regulation of cholesterol synthesis and utilization is cholelithiasis (cholelithiasis).
At the same time, it is deposited on the walls of the gallbladder, can also be impregnated with bilirubin, proteins, salts. Thus, stones are obtained that consist solely of cholesterol or its mixture with other substances.
Thus, liver health has a direct effect on the lipid spectrum of the blood. It is important to know what can be done to provide ideal conditions for the most effective liver function.
It is possible and necessary to influence the functioning of the liver, and thereby cholesterol. But to make the influences extremely positive is more difficult.
If a person does not consume foods with high cholesterol, then he has the amount coming from outside and synthesized in the liver is approximately equal to the amount excreted from the body
For optimal liver function:
- Try to adhere to a healthy diet, if possible, eliminate fatty, salty, smoked foods and dishes. Replace fatty meat in your diet with more wholesome fish and seafood.
- To increase the consumption of fruits and vegetables ─ they are rich in fiber, neutralize and remove harmful substances from the body.
- Increase the amount of vegetable oils in the diet containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (flaxseed).
- Get rid of bad habits (smoking, alcohol abuse).
- Avoid infectious diseases, including those that directly harm the liver (hepatitis), remember about the possible ways of their transmission: do not visit tattoo parlors, nail salons, in which there is no necessary processing of tools.
- In time to diagnose and treat diseases of the endocrine system (diabetes mellitus, thyrotoxicosis and others) and other somatic pathology.
- Avoid obesity, if overweight, bring it back to normal.
- Fight physical inactivity, lead an active lifestyle.
- Avoid stagnation of bile in the gallbladder using a diet or periodically taking a course of choleretic drugs.
With an increased level of cholesterol in the blood, especially after the age of 35 for men and 45 for women, you need to see a doctor. The doctor will conduct an examination and schedule an examination:
- It will collect an anamnesis (it will exclude a family history of damage to one or another link in fat metabolism, and risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis and its complications will be assessed).
- He will conduct laboratory tests (clinical and biochemical analysis of blood, blood lipid spectrum) and instrumental diagnostics (ultrasound of the abdominal cavity), thereby obtaining data on the state of fat metabolism and liver function.
- If necessary, prescribe medications that interfere with fat metabolism at one level or another and normalize it.
The main thing is not to hesitate to consult a specialist, the sooner the pathology is determined, the easier it will be to cope with it.
Cholesterol is an organic compound of animal origin. The bulk of cholesterol is produced in the human body – this is about 80% of the total volume, the rest is supplied with food (milk, meat, eggs). Liver production of cholesterol is 50%, approximately 30% of lipids are synthesized in the intestines and skin integument.
Eggs contain a lot of cholesterol. Germans between the ages of 18 and 79 have too much cholesterol in their blood – cholesterol levels are elevated. High cholesterol contributes to a heart attack or stroke. Cholesterol is a natural product that is found in all animal cells that are synthesized in the liver and small intestinal cells.
Cholesterol is involved in the vital reactions of the body:
- forms sex hormones
- helps in brain receptors
- forms vitamin D
- synthesizes bile necessary for normal digestion
- protects cell membranes from damage
- transports Q10 (an enzyme that protects cells from external damaging factors)
Without cholesterol, oxidative processes, brain development and metabolism are impossible.
A fat-like substance, also known as cholesterol, is indispensable for the body. Cholesterol is an important building block of the plasma membrane. This increases their stability and at the same time contributes to the integration and delivery of signaling substances into the cell membrane.
As a precursor to bile acids and steroid hormones, cholesterol supports the body. To form hormones, the body turns cholesterol into pregnenolone. This, in turn, serves as the starting compound for. Sex hormones of progesterone, testosterone and estradiol adrenal hormones aldosterone and cortisol. The body tries to keep cholesterol levels constant: if we ingest a lot of cholesterol through a diet, the liver slows down cholesterol production. If our diet contains low cholesterol, the liver produces more of it.
There are two types of lipoproteins in the blood:
- High Density – HDL. They are considered good cholesterol.
- Low Density – LDL. These lipoproteins, in which there is little protein and a lot of cholesterol, are called bad cholesterol.
Low density drugs harm human health by being deposited on the walls of blood vessels and form atherosclerotic plaques that lead to dangerous diseases and conditions.
Cholesterol performs several important functions in the body:
- Participates in the synthesis of corticosteroids and steroid sex hormones.
- It is the basis for the formation of vitamin D and bile acids.
- It takes part in regulating the permeability of cell membranes and protects red blood cells (red blood cells) from hemolytic toxins.
- It gives rigidity to the cell membrane and stabilizes its fluidity.
- Protects the internal structures of cells from free radicals present in oxygen.
Normal Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT)
Blood cholesterol is determined using a venous blood test (biochemistry). Normally, its level should be in the range from 3,6 to 5,1 mmol per liter.
To reduce, they resort to a set of measures:
- Timely treatment of diseases that affect the level of low-density LP.
- Proper nutrition. The diet should include more of the following products: citrus fruits, green tea, carrots, beans, oily fish, garlic, nuts, seeds, bran, oatmeal, olive oil.
- Physical education and sports, walks in the fresh air.
- Quitting bad habits, especially smoking, as well as alcohol abuse.
- Weight Loss.
With high cholesterol, your doctor may prescribe statins – drugs that lower its level. They can be taken only as directed under the supervision of a health care provider.
Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase is involved in amino acid metabolism. GGT is found in many tissues of the body, but its greatest activity is observed in the kidneys. However, an increase in GGT in many cases (about 90%) indicates liver diseases. Taking a number of drugs (for example, oral contraceptives, rifampicin, estrogens) can also increase GGT levels.
A 2–5-fold increase in GGT levels is characteristic of infectious hepatitis and fatty liver degeneration. GGT instantly responds to the occurrence of diseases caused by alcohol abuse (for example, cirrhosis). High levels of GGT may indicate neoplastic liver disease.
It is advisable to take blood to determine the level of GGT on an empty stomach, the analysis is done within one day. If abnormalities in GGT are detected, the doctor must decide what examinations should be done next.
Hepatic tests during pregnancy
The load on the liver when bearing a child increases significantly. Therefore, at least 1 time it is necessary to do a blood test, which allows you to identify the presence of pathologies in the work of this body. It is important to know that a number of changes in liver samples are quite normal. If deviations in the analyzes are the result of pregnancy, most often after childbirth everything comes back to normal.
What are the tests during pregnancy:
- Increased alanine aminotransferase signals damage to the membranes of the liver cells. In the 1st and 2nd trimesters of pregnancy should fully recover.
- Aspartate aminotransferase is present in the myocardium, kidneys, muscles, pancreas, liver, and red blood cells. Violation of indicators indicates various damage to the liver. During pregnancy, a false increase in the content of this enzyme is likely, which disappears after the birth of the baby.
- Gamma-glutamyltransferase decreases in the 1st and 2nd trimester of pregnancy, and in the 3rd can be slightly increased. A significant deviation of the indicators from the norm indicates the presence of acute and chronic liver diseases.
- The values of alkaline phosphatase during pregnancy vary significantly depending on the trimester. If the indicators are not normal, this may mean the presence of a disease such as hepatic cholestasis.
- Bilirubin during pregnancy is significantly reduced. If the liver produces it too much, you need to see a doctor immediately, and decide with him what to do next. The increased synthesis of bilirubin in this case indicates infection with viral hepatitis or exacerbation of chronic liver diseases.
After cholesterol has formed in the human liver, its transportation to the cells of the body begins. To do this, fat molecules combine with lipoproteins, and together with the blood it spreads through the organs.
High cholesterol foods
In people with diabetes or cardiovascular disease, the following values are recommended. Cholesterol is only included in animal products. Chicken egg offal, such as beef liver, or larvae processed in butterfat from liver. Often people with high cholesterol do without cheese because it has a high cholesterol content. However, those who often consume certain cheeses are less likely to suffer from heart disease. Researchers make saturated fatty acid – butyric acid.
Exogenous cholesterol, which enters the intestines with food, is absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract receptors, enters the lymphatic system, and then enters the bloodstream.
In the venous system, cholesterol is hydrolyzed, as a result of which the released fatty acids enter fatty and muscle tissues. Here, cholesterol begins to form cell membranes and protect nerve fibers from damage by toxins or poisons. Excess cholesterol is again absorbed by the liver cells, processed and excreted through the intestines.
Foods That Lower Cholesterol
It eliminates bad cholesterol and is also known to prevent. It is found mainly in the following varieties. Parmesan cheese Gouda Edam.
. In addition to oils containing butyric acid, other products are also available to lower cholesterol.
Broccoli almond tomatoes salmon apples garlic blueberries.
. You should not take more than 300 milligrams of cholesterol per day. As a rule, people with high cholesterol are advised not to eat more than 2-3 eggs per week. However, you can determine with a probability of 96 percent if you have high cholesterol.
The endogenous type of cholesterol is transported differently. The produced low-density lipoproteins, circulating in the blood, are transported back to the liver using high-density lipids.
– decrease in cholesterol intake,
– reduction of cholesterol synthesis in the cells of organs and tissues,
– increased excretion of cholesterol and metabolic products from the body,
– reduction of lipid peroxidation,
– The use of estrogen replacement therapy in women during menopause.
You can reduce the intake of cholesterol in the body with the help of a diet, the exclusion from the diet of foods containing fats and cholesterol. This will be discussed below.
In order to carry out drug treatment, you must first obtain data from a biochemical blood test. This allows you to clarify the content of cholesterol and various lipid fractions in it. In Russia, 60% of people have a cholesterol concentration higher than normal, and in 20% these figures are simply excessively high.
Determination of blood cholesterol is a mandatory step in the diagnosis of diseases of the cardiovascular system, atherosclerosis and liver diseases. We repeat once again the normal cholesterol levels in the blood.
The norm of total cholesterol in the blood is 3,0-6,0 mmol / l.
The norms of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) for men – 2,25-4,82 mmol / l, for women – 1,92-4,51 mmol / l.
Norms of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol for men – 0,7-1,73 mmol / L, for women – 0,86-2,28 mmol / L.
To date, four groups of drugs are used in the world for the treatment of atherosclerosis.
Nicotinic acid preparations. Niacin effectively lowers cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood, increases the level of high density lipoproteins. This is achieved by blocking spontaneous lipolysis – the release of free fatty acids and glycerol from subcutaneous fat into the blood. In addition, nicotinic acid inhibits the synthesis of cholesterol in the liver.
Its also important advantage is the vasodilator effect, which is of great importance in the treatment of atherosclerosis of any localization. Under the influence of nicotinic acid, there is not only a decrease in the rate of the atherosclerotic process, but also the reverse development of soft cholesterol plaques, as well as a decrease in the excess cholesterol content in cell membranes.
The advantage of nicotinic acid preparations is low price. However, to achieve the effect, large doses are required: 2-6 g per day, which can cause a person to feel hot, headaches, and pain in the stomach. It is not recommended to take nicotinic acid on an empty stomach and drink hot tea or coffee. In addition, such treatment is contraindicated in patients with liver diseases, as nicotinic acid can cause liver dysfunction and fatty hepatosis.
Fibrates. This group includes drugs such as hevilan, atromide, miskleron. They reduce the synthesis of fats in the body. They can also disrupt the liver and increase the formation of stones in the gallbladder.
Sequestrants of bile acids. They bind bile acids in the intestines and excrete them. And since bile acids are a product of the exchange of cholesterol and fats, they thereby reduce the amount of cholesterol and fats in the blood. These drugs include cholesterol and cholestyramine. When using sequestrants of bile acids, constipation, flatulence and other disorders of the gastrointestinal tract can occur.
The strongest decrease in cholesterol and blood fats is obtained with the use of drugs from the group of statins. They inhibit the formation of cholesterol and cholesterol of low density lipoproteins (“bad” cholesterol) in the liver. In addition, the drugs of this group also found properties that were called “pleiotropic”.
They reduce the activity of the inflammatory process in the atherosclerotic plaque, reduce the active growth of these plaques, improve the function of the inner lining of the arteries, and platelet adhesion decreases. As a result of this, the existing plaque becomes stable, its tire increases, and its fat content decreases, as a result, the plaque “sits” as it were, may even slightly decrease in size, but most importantly, its further active growth is inhibited.
It is also necessary to remember that treatment can be most effective only if the doctor’s recommendations are followed according to the principles of a healthy diet and a healthy lifestyle.
Folk remedies act as an additional treatment, which help to establish a metabolism and cleanse blood vessels.
One of the new additional therapies is guided hypoxia.
Hypoxia – a lack of oxygen in the tissues has a pronounced ability to lower cholesterol. It causes an increase in cholesterol metabolism while inhibiting its synthesis. Hypoxia leads to a decrease in the content of total cholesterol in blood plasma, to an increase in the content of α-lipoproteins and phospholipids.
Many methods have been developed for exerting a hypoxic effect on the body in order to prevent and treat atherosclerosis.
1. Hypoxic breathing training. Exercise system, which includes breath holding and special techniques that limit external breathing for a time in order to cause hypoxia – hypercapnia.
2. Hardware breathing. Breathing through special devices that deplete the air with oxygen and saturate it with carbon dioxide.
3. Breathing through individual hypoxicators. There are portable individual devices, breathing through which depletes the air with oxygen and saturates with carbon dioxide.
4. Breathing in a confined space. Inhalation and exhalation is carried out in a closed bag. This leads to a gradual adenia in the inhaled air of the oxygen content and an increase in carbon dioxide.
5. Breathing through an extra “dead space.”
6. The room in pressure chambers, pressurized cabins, etc.
Primary prevention consists of exposure to risk factors.
Since the main reason for the increase in blood cholesterol in general and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (“bad” cholesterol) in particular is the excessive consumption of animal products, prevention also consists of changing the diet. Cholesterol is found in animal products:
Unsaturated fats are found in plant foods (sunflower, corn, olive, soybean oil). A lot of unsaturated fats in fish.
A good substitute for foods containing saturated fats is foods rich in complex carbohydrates (starch, dietary fiber). There are many complex carbohydrates (starch) in pasta, various types of bread, cereals, dried beans and peas. Those who are afraid to consume more carbohydrates, for fear of weight gain, should remember that when “burning” 1 g of carbohydrates in the body, only 4 calories are released, while from 1 g of fat eaten, 9 calories.
Carbohydrate intake alone cannot affect cholesterol metabolism. However, with prolonged use of easily digestible carbohydrates, especially in combination with fats (butter creams, cakes), obesity develops (90% of subcutaneous fat are of “carbohydrate” origin). And already excess fat mass also contributes to the accumulation of cholesterol in the body.
Bread, cereals (cereals from them), pasta and various pasta, potatoes, rice contain a significant amount of protein. Legumes are an excellent source of vegetable protein. It is very useful to eat cereals in the morning, while cooking them in water or low-fat milk (1% is best).
It is necessary to introduce as many fruits and vegetables into the diet as possible. They are not only a source of fiber and a substitute for food containing a lot of fat and cholesterol, but also a source of vitamins C, E, A, beta-carotene, many other vitamins and minerals.
Very useful nuts. They have many calories, but it is proved that if a person receives 20% of the calorie content of the diet from nuts, “bad” cholesterol decreases after 4 weeks by more than 10%.
The inclusion of salmon and avocado in food lowers total cholesterol by 3-8%, and the level of “bad” cholesterol – by 5-13%.
When eating meat, you should choose lean slices and, in addition, you need to cut and discard all the fat available on the meat. It is preferable to use poultry meat (but not ducks and geese), moreover, the skin should be removed from the bird and the visible fat should also be cut. After cooking broths, soups from meat or poultry, when stewing meat, fat floating on the surface is removed and discarded.
However, one should not forget that lean meat (beef) is a source of not only protein, but also iron, so you should not strive to drastically limit the consumption of lean meat. It is necessary as often as possible to include fish dishes in your menu instead of meat. There should be at least two per week, but it is better to do completely “fish” days.
Nowadays, the problem of high cholesterol in the human body is becoming a global problem. The level of cardiovascular diseases rises, and the cause of their development in many cases is an increase in cholesterol. On the other hand, modern nutrition, with its abundance of semi-finished products, high-calorie and fatty foods, as well as a sedentary lifestyle, contribute to the fact that cholesterol is retained in the body, forms plaques, clogs blood vessels, and leads to oxygen starvation of various organs.
Cholesterol can be regulated not only with drugs, and moreover, it is better that a person relies not on drugs, but on other ways to improve his health. A major role in this is played by proper nutrition. Many foods can increase cholesterol in the body, but many can regulate and even lower it.
The production of cholesterol by the liver is a complex and energy-intensive process. Along with the molecules of “bad” cholesterol, the body synthesizes high density lipoproteins that protect blood vessels from pollution. In violation of this balance, atherosclerosis develops and progresses.
In addition, a lack of cholesterol is as dangerous to the body as its increased amount. In these cases, vitamin deficiency occurs, the hormonal background is disturbed, and fats are not absorbed.
What You Should Know About Cholesterol
The result was published under the heading “Cholesterol: Shock and Alternative: Baklayan’s Method.” Cholesterol, as a product of animal products taken with a daily diet, has been the scapegoat for all conceivable cardiovascular diseases in recent decades. In fact, part of the cholesterol in the blood is produced in the liver. Total endogenous cholesterol synthesis is 2–3 g per day, of which about 1 g is in the liver. This is necessary for the formation of bile acids and various hormones.
Knowing how to normalize cholesterol
, you can protect yourself from atherosclerosis and many diseases associated with it.
The higher your blood cholesterol, the higher your risk.
sudden cardiac death. Even schoolchildren know this today. If add
here is also the risk of stroke, then the picture will be more complete. No one to die
I want, especially at a young age. And heart attacks and strokes are getting younger and
getting younger. Now you will not surprise anyone with the fact that at the age of 30 someone happened
heart attack or brain stroke.
Although it’s time to sound the alarm. And it is not
empty words. Only in Russia, strokes occur in 450 thousand people. During
the first year, as a result of a stroke, half of these people die,
42% remain disabled for life and only 8% recover and
back to work. And only from heart attacks, 1300 people die in
Therefore, it is an important substance. The other part is supplied through the diet, mainly with the help of animal fats. However, numerous publications have not shown that cholesterol is simply increasing because you consume too many foods for animals. The synthesis of cholesterol depends on certain regulatory influences.
But this is not entirely true. Cholesterol is not a killer with big
the roads. This is a substance that the body itself produces. But if his level
becomes very high, then it causes the development of atherosclerosis, which
leads to vasoconstriction and is the main cause of heart attacks and
strokes. To be correct, it is not cholesterol itself that is responsible for all of these
disease, and its high level in the blood.
Less cholesterol with food stimulates the body to increase cholesterol production. More cholesterol with food means that the body has less.
. As a result, the level of cholesterol in the blood cannot really be reduced with the help of so-called low-cholesterol products. B. switched to a smaller amount of meat, this can only be a supportive measure and independent therapy!
Scientific statements about cholesterol
The realization that only without cholesterol, a diet cannot lower blood cholesterol is by no means mine. The recommended diet of the National Cholesterol Initiative includes. Although this diet is difficult to calculate for the average consumer, and even more so, it is recommended as very effective.
But with the fact that high cholesterol is dangerous, we
We will not argue. Moreover, this fact has already been proven by thousands of studies.
We want to find out why this level rises and who, more precisely, what, in the answer
Cholesterol (C 27 H 46 O)
(lipophilic) alcohol contained in the cell membranes of all animals
organisms. Insoluble in water, soluble in fats and organic solvents.
About 80% of cholesterol is produced
the body itself
(liver, intestines, kidneys, adrenal glands, genital
glands), the remaining 20% come from food.
The body is 80%
free and 20% bound cholesterol. Cholesterol provides stability.
cell membranes in a wide temperature range. It is necessary to develop
Vitamin D, adrenal glands produced by various steroid hormones, including
cortisol, cortisone, aldosterone, female sex hormones estrogen and
progesterone, the male sex hormone testosterone, and according to the latest data –
plays an important role in the activity of synapses of the brain and the immune system,
including cancer protection
However, this contradicts the scientific findings of studies on the long-term effects of these diets. “Despite great care and years of commitment to the recommended diet, on average only a 2% reduction in cholesterol was achievable!” So, let’s be clear: with a lower cholesterol content on the outside, our body responds to self-regulation with increased production. This also applies to the so-called low cholesterol products, which the industry constantly puts before us new ones.
An increase in external consumption does not necessarily lead to an increase in cholesterol, as the body’s own production ceases. Although this is indicated differently in some publications, it’s easy to imagine that you don’t need cholesterol lowering agents if a simple food change has the same effect. Then, pharmaceutical companies will not make billions with lower cholesterol, but perhaps producers of tomatoes, garlic or artichokes. In my opinion, sometimes conflicting scientific findings are usually based on too short a test duration.
I draw your attention not to the fact that 80% of cholesterol
synthesized within us! And if we consume a lot of cholesterol with food, then
negative feedback principle, the amount of cholesterol produced in
the body decreases. From here follows another conclusion, you can eat eggs!
Eggs contain more than cholesterol, which scares us
every day, but also lecithin. But without lecithin, cholesterol can cause troubles. we
stopped eating eggs. Cholesterol did not become less from this, since
and we have plenty of it without eggs, but with the lecithin we have deprived ourselves. Exactly
lecithin in conjunction with bile acids
responsible for ensuring that cholesterol remains dissolved and does not precipitate in
The human body takes about four weeks to adapt to changing circumstances. In practice, this means that only a change in diet will lead to a temporary reduction in about four weeks, but then returns to almost the same level as at the beginning of the conversion, due to the aforementioned negative bio-response.
It is the enzyme that determines the rate of synthesis. Modern cholesterol-lowering drugs can also be called “cholesterol synthesis enzyme inhibitors” because they inhibit the activity of this enzyme. As a result, the internal synthesis of cholesterol is reduced, which leads to a significant decrease in blood cholesterol.
But this is so, by the way. And we need to get to the truth. Why
does cholesterol rise? After all, if the eggs are not to blame, then urgently
find the true culprit.
But you don’t have to go far. This is the liver! Our liver. Exactly
it produces the bulk of cholesterol, it is in it from cholesterol
bile acids are formed. By the way, normal on the synthesis of bile acids the liver
should spend 80% of all our cholesterol. We need to remember this. It is in the liver
lipoproteins are formed.
These are the substances that deliver cholesterol to
organs and tissues. Cholesterol itself does not dissolve in water and therefore
blood can only be transported using these same lipoproteins. A
they are different. Large and loose – they are called low lipoproteins
densities, both small and dense – high density lipoproteins.
friable – “bad” lipoproteins. It is believed that their high level contributes to
the rapid development of atherosclerosis, but small and dense lipoproteins –
“good ones”. The more of them, the lower the risk of heart attack and stroke. But again
I repeat, both form in the liver. While the liver is working properly,
cholesterol levels will be normal, and for no atherosclerosis can not be
worry. Think it over!
Where does it all begin. From the liver. Think about the liver!
Where is she, and where is the heart and blood vessels? But if the liver begins to produce
insufficient amount of bile acids, then a lot of unused
cholesterol. Part of it will precipitate in the gallbladder and reward its
the master gallstones, and the other part go into the vascular bed and
deposited in the form of atherosclerotic plaques in the arteries of the heart and head
We have outlined two main areas: cholesterol and
bile acids and lipoproteins are good and bad.
Let’s start with lipoproteins. How are the “bad” different from the “good”
and can we influence exactly which lipoproteins will be produced by our
liver? Lipoproteins are made up of fat and protein. From this name: lipo – fat,
Protein is a protein. The fat is light but bulk, the protein is heavy and dense. In the bad
lipoproteins are high in fat and low in protein.
Fat is easier to synthesize than protein. For
for protein synthesis we need protein foods, namely irreplaceable
amino acids that, in particular, we could get by eating egg white
(again, I took the eggs!), Or simply from lean meat or fish. I do not have
mind sausage and sausages, which are composed of fat and soy. That is, if we love
fatty foods, then we will have in excess of bad lipoproteins and in shortage
In the human body, blood circulates through the vessels. Blood flowing from the heart through large blood vessels to organs and tissues (brain, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, muscles, etc.) is delivered through smaller vessels. Blood flows from organs through the venules (smaller vessels) and veins (larger). Venous blood is sent to the lungs, where it is enriched with oxygen and again enters the heart, and already through the largest artery – the aorta goes to organs and tissues.
In blood vessels of different diameters, blood pressure is different. The greatest pressure in the aorta, and the smallest – in the capillaries, where there is an exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide and other metabolic products between the arterial blood and organs (or tissues). Depending on the pressure in a particular section of the circulatory system, the structure of the artery wall will be different.
Cholesterol is the fat needed to build cells, certain hormones, and bile acids. Cholesterol is especially needed for a growing baby’s body when cell division is intense. The synthesis of cholesterol is genetically determined, without it, the body cannot fully function, but its excess can have the opposite, negative effect.
Fats in general and cholesterol, in particular, are not soluble in blood, so for their transportation small balls of cholesterol are surrounded by a layer of protein, as a result of which cholesterol-protein complexes (lipoproteins) are formed. Our body has low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in equilibrium with each other.
Low density lipoproteins transport cholesterol to various parts of the human body, and along the way, cholesterol can be deposited in the wall of arterial vessels, which eventually leads to their compaction and narrowing (atherosclerosis). Therefore, low density lipoprotein cholesterol is called “bad.” High density lipoproteins transfer excess cholesterol to the liver, from where it enters the intestines and leaves the body. In this regard, high density lipoprotein cholesterol is called “good.”
Some time ago, it was believed that all cholesterol was harmful, even diets with a complete absence of cholesterol were developed. But then, by observing people on a cholesterol-free diet, it was found that everything was good in moderation. The complete absence of cholesterol is just as harmful to the body as its excess.
Basically, cholesterol is synthesized in the body from proteins, fats and carbohydrates, and only 0,3-0,5 g comes with food. All cells, except red blood cells, have the ability to synthesize cholesterol, but most of it is synthesized in the liver. The average person synthesizes 1 g of cholesterol per day.
If an excess of cholesterol accumulates in the blood, then it, entering the vessel wall, penetrates under the inner shell. Since it should not be normal here, macrophages rush to this place – blood cells that want to destroy cholesterol. When there is too much cholesterol, macrophages are not able to destroy all its reserves.
Cholesterol plaques are different. The most dangerous of them – malignant – with a large cholesterol core and a thin cap (cap) of connective tissue. Such a cap is easily torn, a plaque is opened like an abscess, its contents are painted in the lumen of the vessel. And at the site of the fissure a blood clot forms – a blood clot.
90% of cholesterol accumulates in the tissues of the body and only 10% – in the vascular wall. Brain tissue contains about 30% of all tissue cholesterol.
The main way of cholesterol oxidation with subsequent excretion from the body is the formation of bile acids. For these purposes, it takes from 60 to 80% of all cholesterol formed daily in the body. The second way of converting cholesterol is the formation of steroid hormones (sex hormones, hormones of the adrenal cortex, etc.).
About 1 mg of cholesterol is released per person per day. With desquamating skin epithelium, up to 100 mg of cholesterol per day is lost. Thus, if a person does not consume foods with high cholesterol, then he has the amount coming from outside and synthesized in the liver is approximately equal to the amount excreted from the body.
And then the vascular wall remains clean, and cell membranes do not accumulate excess cholesterol. Indeed, it is the aging of cell membranes due to the accumulation of cholesterol in them. With accumulation, the permeability of all cell membranes decreases, and their sensitivity to hormones and biologically active substances also decreases.
More Soviet scientists: academicians N.N. Anichkov, A.L. Myasnikov, N.S. Molchanov and others found that atherosclerotic vascular lesions in the early stages of the disease are reversible, that is, treatable. And this opportunity should be taken to improve your life!
It used to be that cholesterol metabolism problems were common in older people. Then the threshold of “dangerous age” began to decline. According to the State Research Center for Preventive Medicine, about 60% of the adult population of Russia have elevated concentrations of total cholesterol, and in 20% this level corresponds to a high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.
And if more than half of adults have high cholesterol, then this includes people of working age, and even young people! And maybe even young people are in a more dangerous situation, because all the especially harmful food is just designed for it: hamburgers, chips, soda, energy drinks, convenience foods with numerous chemical additives . All this, consumed daily, destroys the body, and as a result by the age of 30, a person has a bouquet of diseases manifested in him and no less than a number of those that are asymptomatic so far.
It also mentions facts about which they are only beginning to speak out loud: atherosclerotic plaques are found in vessels even in children! “In a number of studies,” the report says, “. it was shown that the pathological process leading to damage to the coronary and cerebral vessels begins already in childhood and continues to progress as it grows, while its relationship with known risk factors is revealed.
. Even in the youngest age group of 5-14 years old, in 87% of cases, fat spots were found in the aorta, and in 30% of cases such spots were also found in the coronary arteries. The area of these fat spots in the vessels increased with age, especially in the age group of 15-24 years. ” That is why proper nutrition and prevention of risk factors, which will be discussed later, should begin at a very young age. Fatty foods and physical inactivity make children sick children, from which sick adults grow.
It should be noted that the level of total cholesterol in an adult may even be within normal limits, but if the level of low density cholesterol is increased or the level of high density cholesterol is lowered, this is not good for predicting the development of diseases.
Elevated blood cholesterol and triglycerides are called hyperlipidemia. It can be inherited, especially if there were cases of myocardial infarction or stroke in the family among relatives up to 50 years old.
– coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction (cholesterol level above 6,22 mmol / l),
3. Tests important for determining cholesterol
These analyzes are biochemical and taken from a vein. To determine cholesterol and lipoproteins, blood is taken after a 12-14 hour fast, that is, in the morning, after sleep. Two weeks before the study, it is necessary to cancel drugs that lower the level of lipids in the blood, if the goal is not to determine the effect of therapy with these drugs in the analysis.
Before donating blood, you must not change your usual diet, that is, drink and eat the same thing as usual. Changes in nutrition can lead to distortion of the analysis results on which the doctor will base his recommendations.
Obligatory blood donation is mandatory. After a meal, especially oily, for 10-12 hours, lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) received from food still circulate in the blood. Only after 12 hours they are captured by peripheral organs and tissues and removed from the bloodstream. Dinner on the eve of the study should be no later than 8 pm.
Anabolic steroids, butadion, sulfanilamides, imesin, diphenin, adrenaline give rise to cholesterol. Aminoglycosides, heparin, chlortetracycline, salicylates, erythromycin cause a decrease in cholesterol. This must be remembered when passing the analysis and viewing its results.
– low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL or beta-lipoproteins),
– high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL or alpha lipoproteins).
Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL cholesterol) is the main transport form of total cholesterol. It is he who transfers total cholesterol to tissues and organs. Determination of LDL cholesterol is carried out to detect an increase in blood cholesterol. With the development of vascular diseases, it is LDL cholesterol that is the source of plaque formation in the walls of blood vessels. The risk of developing atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease is more closely associated with LDL cholesterol than with total cholesterol.
Studies show that lower LDL levels among patients with coronary heart disease and LDL levels gt; 100 mg / dl reduces the absolute risk of myocardial infarction by 40%.
High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) transfers fat, including total cholesterol, from one group of cells to another, where HDL cholesterol is stored or broken down. HDL cholesterol transfers total cholesterol from the vessels of the heart, heart muscle, brain arteries and other peripheral organs to the liver, where bile is formed from cholesterol. HDL cholesterol removes excess cholesterol from body cells.
Determination of blood cholesterol is an obligatory step in the diagnosis of diseases of the cardiovascular system (coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction), atherosclerosis, and liver diseases.
Norms of LDL cholesterol for men – 2,25-4,82 mmol / l, for women – 1,92-4,51 mmol / l.
HDL cholesterol norms for men – 0,7-1,73 mmol / l, for women – 0,86-2,28 mmol / l.
According to the national study “All About Cholesterol,” mentioned above, the upper limit of the norm of total cholesterol in the Russian population is 6,2 mmol / L. However, for the prevention of atherosclerosis and its complications, it is desirable that the level of total cholesterol in blood serum does not exceed 5,0 mmol / L, LDL cholesterol – 3,0 mmol / L, HDL cholesterol – 1,0-1,89 mmol / L.
They are derivatives of glycerol and higher fatty acids; it is the main source of energy for cells. Triglycerides enter our body with food, are synthesized in adipose tissue, liver and intestines. The level of triglycerides in the blood depends on the person’s age. Triglyceride analysis is used in the diagnosis of atherosclerosis and many other diseases.
Detonic – a unique medicine that helps fight hypertension at all stages of its development.
The complex effect of plant components of the drug Detonic on the walls of blood vessels and the autonomic nervous system contribute to a rapid decrease in blood pressure. In addition, this drug prevents the development of atherosclerosis, thanks to the unique components that are involved in the synthesis of lecithin, an amino acid that regulates cholesterol metabolism and prevents the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.
Detonic not addictive and withdrawal syndrome, since all components of the product are natural.
Detailed information about Detonic is located on the manufacturer’s page.