The main signs of hypertension

Hypertension or high blood pressure is a disease that many people have, but not everyone is aware of. With hypertension, unpleasant sensations and dangerous complications arise – stroke, heart attack. Signs of hypertension appear initially occasionally, and then often.

In order to prevent the disease and diagnose it at the first manifestations, it is necessary to know the symptoms of the disease. What does hypertension look like in men and women?

Hypertension and hypertension

Arterial hypertension is also called hypertension. It is hypertension that means an increase in blood pressure. Hypertension is just an increase in vascular tone, which is not always accompanied by increased blood pressure.

Normal blood pressure values ​​are 120/80 or 130/85 mm Hg. Art. For some people, the norm will be lower pressure – 90/60. Two digits are the value of pressure at the time of contraction of the heart muscle (the first digit, which is larger) and at the time of its relaxation (smaller figure).

Hypertension occurs when the upper indicator exceeds 140 mm (and the lower – 90 mm Hg).

Hypertension can be determined by a simple measurement of blood pressure. However, if earlier in the family there was no hypertension before, then there is no device for measuring pressure in the house. It is possible to guess the development of a vascular disorder by a number of signs – changes in well-being, sensations.

Common signs of hypertension

At the beginning of the disease, neurotic symptoms predominate (associated with insufficient supply of blood and oxygen to the brain):

  1. Headache that appears for no apparent reason at any time of the day. It feels like a painful hoop on the head – on the back of the head, crown of the head, in the temples. It is aggravated by tilting the head, coughing or coughing. A headache is formed due to spasm or narrowing of the vessels of the brain. Brain cells lack oxygen, “starve”.
  2. Noise in ears.
  3. “Ripple” in the head.
  4. “Flies”, fog, veil before the eyes.
  5. Redness of the face (hot flashes).
  6. Swelling of the eyelids and face in the morning.
  7. Swelling of the hands and fingers.
  8. Deterioration of vision.
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In the later stages of the disease, heart symptoms – rhythm disturbances and cardiological pain – join.

The heart muscle is overworked due to constant increased pressure, malfunctions:

  • Tachycardia (rapid or slow heartbeat);
  • Pain behind the sternum (in the region of the heart).

What else can manifest itself:

  • Nosebleeds;
  • Redness of the face with any physical or emotional stress;
  • Memory impairment;
  • Bad sleep (insomnia, difficulty falling asleep);
  • Pain in the eyes and a feeling of intense pressure (as if bursting from the ins >

The result of increased pressure is weakness and irritability, decreased performance, poor memory, internal anxiety and stress. Outwardly, a person’s gait may change, coordination may be disturbed.

The danger of hypertension

The insidiousness of hypertension is that a person often does not know about high blood pressure until the first crisis. A crisis state is a sharp increase in blood pressure and a strong deterioration in well-being. Signs of a starting crisis:

  • Strong headache;
  • Palpitations
  • A sharp deterioration in vision (darkened in the eyes);
  • Nausea, and even vomiting;
  • Decreased sensation in the legs and arms;
  • Facial redness;
  • Shortness of breath – even at rest;
  • Heart pain – constricting, aching, occasionally and briefly – stitching.

Possible loss of consciousness and rupture of blood vessels (stroke or heart attack). Therefore, in a state of crisis it is necessary to call an ambulance or to deliver a person to the hospital as soon as possible.

Signs of hypertension in women and female risk factors

According to statistics, people over 50 years old have five times more women with hypertension than men. Most women get their diagnosis after menopause.

One type of brain tumor is called astrocytoma.

Read about the causes and treatment of high heart pressure here.

From the time of puberty to the onset of menopause, the statistics of female indicators Blood pressure is lower than male. While the body retains the ability to bear children and is cleansed monthly during menstruation, its condition is maintained at an average level. Therefore, the pressure in women before menopause even increases, but slightly, and does not lead to serious consequences.

Menopause itself can also be accompanied by hypertensive manifestations. After its completion, it becomes clear whether the woman remains at high blood pressure permanently or normal blood pressure returns.

Also, a woman’s body is affected by more risk factors, which eventually form vascular deposits and cause increased pressure. It:

  1. Hormonal changes during pregnancy and lactation.
  2. Hypertension during pregnancy (high blood pressure accompanies 30% of pregnancies).
  3. Obesity (often formed after pregnancy and lactation). Obesity increases the risk of hypertension by 4 times.
  4. Hormonal contraceptives.
  5. Menopause. The total number of women with hypertension after menopause is tripled.
  6. Increased emotionality – this quality is peculiar to women. Under stress, they experience more and provoke an increase in blood pressure.
  7. The effect of smoking and alcohol on the female body is more pronounced than on the male. So, the harm from 1 cigarette for a woman is similar to the harm from 15 cigarettes for a man. In the female body, even 1 cigarette can cause a sharp narrowing of blood vessels and a hypertensive crisis.

Many of these factors have appeared recently, and have become relevant for modern people. Female smoking and hormonal contraceptives were absent in our ancestors. Therefore, over the past 50 years, hypertension has noticeably become younger, has become a common disease among women of different ages.

Signs of hypertension in men and male risk factors

In men, the age-related risk of increasing blood pressure begins at age 65. Throughout life, their organisms are less exposed to hormonal attacks (from the inside and from the outside – men do not use hormonal contraceptives).

Hormonal changes and foreign hormones disrupt many processes in the body, affect the state of blood vessels, the accumulation of low molecular weight cholesterol, increase or decrease in blood pressure. Therefore, for men, there are common risk factors for high blood pressure:

  • Stress is the very first risk factor for vascular disease and hypertension;
  • Chronic poisoning (reasons: living in industrial regions, large cities where there is a large amount of automobile emissions, smoking and alcohol, uncontrolled intake of synthetic drugs, genetically modified foods, agricultural poisons – herbicides in food);
  • Obesity and low physical activity.
  • Hereditary predisposition – does not make the disease mandatory, but only increases its likelihood, tendency to atherosclerosis and increased pressure;
  • Diabetes.

The difference in hypertension in women and men

We list the main differences between male and female hypertension:

  1. Age to 45-50 years: more hypertensive men than women. Age over 50-55 years: hypertensive women become more.
  2. Frequency of crises: due to the high emotionality is higher in women.
  3. Symptoms of hypertension are more pronounced in women, which is associated with periodic hormonal disorders throughout life.
  4. Symptoms of hypertension in men are less pronounced, therefore, among them – higher statistics of complications (strokes and heart attacks), due to a worsening of well-being unnoticed at the time.

Hypertension is a disease of the civilized age. Poor nutrition and obesity, low mobility and sedentary work, as well as constant stress, lead to an increase in blood pressure and an increase in the number of complications – strokes, heart attacks.

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Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.