Squamous metaplasia of the bladder symptoms, treatment and prognosis

There are different pathologies of the bladder. Squamous cell metaplasia is one of the most inadequately studied and hard ones. This is a precancerous condition.

Squamous metaplasia of the bladder – what is it

Leukoplakia (or squamous cell metaplasia) of the bladder was explained 120 years earlier. In translation from Greek, illness suggests a white plaque. It is discovered not just in the organs of the urinary system, however likewise on the mucous membranes of the cervix, mouth, eardrum, and vulva. The illness is more normal for ladies of childbearing age. The pathology has actually not yet been completely comprehended.

Squamous metaplasia of the urea is a swelling of the organ of the persistent course, which is accompanied by the development of an excess quantity of the epithelial layer. The inner cavity of the bladder is usually covered with epithelium, which is resistant to the aggressive impacts of urine. In a healthy individual, the epithelium is frequently restored. Thanks to this, the right performance of the organ is protected. Under particular situations, the urea epithelium is harmed. In the future, private locations start to be covered with a stratum corneum.

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Since the pathology is inadequately comprehended, the specific cause of its look has actually not been developed. Doctors partner the start of the illness with an infraction of the advancement of the bladder, which happens even at the phase of development of the fetus in the womb. Scientists made such a conclusion on the basis that the illness is typically detected in clients with an unusual structure and advancement of the urinary system.

Leukoplakia establishes versus the background:

  • Leading a promiscuous sex life.
  • Endocrine illness.
  • Inflammatory procedure in the urinary organs.
  • Chronic course of cystitis.
  • Urolithiasis.
  • Injury to the organ, the existence of foreign bodies in it.
  • Inflammation in organs far from the urea. So, angina, caries can provoke leukoplakia.
  • Prolonged tension.
  • Infections in the body.


The medical image of squamous metaplasia of the bladder depends upon the kind of the illness. Leukoplakia is erosive, warty and flat. In the very first case, there are several locations of ulcerative sores, in the second – serious keratinization. The flat kind does not manifest itself for a long period of time. Warty and erosive are defined by noticable indications.

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The symptoms of metaplasia resemble those of urethritis, cystitis. The client is observed:

  • Frequent incorrect desire to utilize the toilet.
  • Aching and pulling discomforts in the pubic location, radiating to the back.
  • Burning and cutting when urinating.
  • The existence of blood pollutants and flocculent sediment in urine.
  • Constant sensation of complete bladder.
  • Discomfort, discomfort throughout sexual intercourse.


To identify and pick a treatment routine, the physician carries out a study and evaluation of the client, recommends a number of evaluations. For circumstances:

  • Urine analysis according to Nechiporenko.
  • Immunogram.
  • Biochemistry of urine.
  • Ultrasound.
  • Biopsy.
  • General analysis of urine.
  • Cystoscopy.
  • Bacterial urine culture.
  • STI test.

    Cystoscopy is thought about the primary diagnostic approach for spotting leukoplakia. It is carried out by presenting an endoscope into the bladder cavity. The approach enables you to see whitish plaques versus the background of swollen and hyperemic mucosa. When urine permeates under such a plaque, the swelling boosts.

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    The 2nd obligatory diagnostic approach is a biopsy. The approach consists in the reality that a part of the plaque is taken and sent out for histological evaluation. If the metaplasia is keratinizing, evaluation exposes sloughing epithelium covered with a keratin layer. The likelihood of squamous metaplasia in this case is 42%. The duration of improvement of epithelial cells into malignant cells lasts about 28 years. The bigger the sore, the greater the danger of squamous cell cancer.

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    Based on the diagnostic information, the physician picks the treatment. Depending on the nature of the pathology, conservative treatment or surgical treatment is carried out. The conservative one is that the cause and symptoms of the illness are gotten rid of with medication.

    Usually medical professionals recommend prescription antibiotics for approximately 3 months. During the duration of treatment, urine culture is done. The plan is remedied if essential. Doctors utilize antimicrobial representatives with very little adverse effects. For circumstances:

    • Lefloxacin.
    • Norfloxacin.
    • Ciprofloxacin.

    Anti-inflammatory drugs are likewise utilized. For example, the hormonal agent Prednisolone has a noticable anti-edematous and anti-inflammatory home. The client is recommended immunomodulators Interferon or Lavomax.

    Instillations work. Irrigation is performed with services that are analogs of natural mucopolysaccharides. They secure the bladder mucosa from bacteria and uric acid. Such funds are administered through a catheter. The period of the course depends upon the seriousness of the swelling. Chondroitin sulfate, Heparin and Hyaluronic acid are utilized.

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    Physiotherapy includes magnetotherapy, electrophoresis, laser treatment, microwave treatment. If drug treatment does not offer the preferred result, a surgical approach is utilized: transurethral resection of the bladder, laser coagulation and ablation are carried out. After surgical treatment, the client is dealt with on an outpatient basis.


    The prognosis of leukoplakia depends upon the timeliness and accuracy of treatment. Without treatment, metaplasia can become cancer. Even if the treatment succeeds, the client is recommended to go through routine evaluations. Since there is a danger of regression.

    Also, leukoplakia can be made complex:

  • Loss of the capability of the muscles of the organ to keep urine.
  • Kidney failure, which is frequently the cause of death.

    Therefore, it is very important to prompt recognize the illness and go through treatment. Elimination of illness elements, control of the condition, correct treatment are the crucial to health.

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    Tatyana Jakowenko

    Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

    For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

    He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.