Signs and manifestations of hypertension in the elderly

Sharp surges in pressure, manifested with enviable regularity, are called hypertension. When the functioning of the cardiovascular system is impaired, a steady increase in blood pressure is most often manifested, which can form at any age. Considering the global spread of this pathology, which entails serious complications (disability, death), medical science is actively developing medications that effectively lower blood pressure.

Hypertension in the elderly is a condition complicated by the incompatibility of drugs, the manifestation of side effects, pharmacodynamic features, this is excretion, absorption, metabolism. An important role is played by the development of chronic diseases that affect the internal organs and systems of vital activity.

How does the disease develop in old age?

If we talk about sharp jumps in pressure, they act as an adaptive, protective reaction of the body, the purpose of which is to maintain normal blood circulation in all tissues and organs. With age, the heart has to make certain efforts to push blood masses through structurally altered arteries and veins.

Over time, the elasticity and tone of blood vessels decrease, and cholesterol plaques reduce their internal lumen. The kidneys produce less renin, which is involved in pressure regulation.

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At the same time, the aldosterone produced by the adrenal glands is activated and retains excess sodium in the body. It is sodium that has the ability to retain fluid, significantly increasing the amount of circulating fluid. The disappointing result is high blood pressure.

Important! The main goal of therapy for hypertension in elderly people is to prevent complications such as heart attacks and strokes. Improving the quality of life is of great importance.

Blood pressure indicators

When measuring blood pressure, the indicator of the upper (systolic) level is determined. With the contraction of the heart ventricles (systole), blood enters the vessels. The latter have a certain resistance to blood flow, which is the systolic pressure. Normally, this indicator varies within 100 – 140 mm Hg. Art. As for the lower diastolic pressure, it corresponds to the diastole indicators (the period of myocardial relaxation), the norm is 70 – 80 mm Hg. Art.

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It is customary to determine normal blood pressure indicators in people of venerable age:

Category Indicator in mm Hg. From 80 to 90 years old 140/90 From 70 to 80 years old 140/85 From 60 to 70 years old 130/80

Important! The diagnostic criterion indicating the presence of hypertension in people over 60 years old is the presence of an indicator of more than 155/95 mm Hg. Art. The jump to the 170 mark implies the provision of immediate ambulance.

It is necessary to know a number of factors contributing to the appearance of unstable pressure in old age:

  • The presence of atherosclerotic plaques covering the inside of the vessels.
  • A sharp decrease in the level of aldosterone produced by the adrenal glands.
  • Hypoxia of tissues.
  • Deterioration of vascular elasticity.
  • Overweight.
  • Change in blood flow.
  • Women have menopause.
  • Metabolic symptoms.
  • Lifestyle leading to physical inactivity.
  • Bad habits in the form of smoking, alcoholism.

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About the main symptoms and causes

Hypertension in old age usually manifests itself in several stages:

  • The easiest is stage 1. Severe symptoms are extremely rare. Blood pressure marks do not exceed 160/90 mm Hg. Art., appear periodically.
  • Moderate – 2nd stage. High blood pressure is maintained at 180/100 mm Hg. Art. for a long time.
  • Severe – 3rd stage, it is manifested by high pressure readings of 180/100 mm Hg. Art., which are poorly reduced and are kept at the indicated numbers.

The complexity of the course of hypertension in elderly patients is that it is difficult to detect due to the lack of clear signs in the first two stages. Complaints become regular when pathological transformations affect target organs that are sensitive to a sharp change in blood pressure. First of all, these are kidneys, heart, brain.

Cardiac muscle disorders:

  • With little physical exertion or at rest, the manifestation of shortness of breath.
  • Cardiopalmus.
  • Numbness of the limbs, accompanied by swelling, presumably of the hands and feet.
  • Painful heart syndrome.

Central nervous system disorders:

  • Severity in parts of the head, occipital pain, ear noise.
  • Discrepancy of the “pictures” in the eyes, dizziness.
  • A sharp decrease in memory, general weakness.
  • Tremors in the limbs.
  • In a horizontal position (night or daytime sleep) pressure rises, as a result of which the general condition worsens.
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Kidney disorders:

  • Accumulation of excess fluid.
  • Diuretic disorders.
  • Nausea, swelling of the face, the skin becomes loose and swollen.
  • Pain in the lumbar region.

If there is a sudden increase in pressure, and persistent angiospasm is accompanied by light flashes before the eyes, flashing of flies, retinal hemorrhage, decreased vision, it can be argued that the disease is severe.

When internal organs are affected, blood circulation in the kidneys, brain, and coronary system fails. In such a situation, the development of heart or kidney failure, heart attack or stroke is possible.

Medicines to lower blood pressure

When choosing antihypertensive drugs, you should pay attention to their side effects. Practice shows that drug therapy is tolerated normally; in the elderly, the effectiveness of the use of drugs is observed. So, the risk of strokes is reduced by more than 30%, pathologies from the heart and vascular system appear 40% less often.

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To bring blood pressure back to normal and, if possible, prevent the occurrence of side effects, it is necessary to reduce the average dosage of the prescribed medication, which subsequently increases until a positive therapeutic effect is achieved. Dynamic blood pressure control is mandatory during treatment.

Taking diuretics

Typically, hypertension involves the use of diuretics by an elderly person. These medicines differ in chemical structure, but they are united by the property of removing excess fluid from the body.

  • Decrease in the amount of intravascular moisture.
  • Restoration of electrolyte and water exchange.
  • Decreased susceptibility of vascular walls to hormones.

Diuretics reduce cardiac load, stabilize blood pressure, thereby preventing the progression of complications.

Detonic – a unique medicine that helps fight hypertension at all stages of its development.

Detonic for pressure normalization

The complex effect of plant components of the drug Detonic on the walls of blood vessels and the autonomic nervous system contribute to a rapid decrease in blood pressure. In addition, this drug prevents the development of atherosclerosis, thanks to the unique components that are involved in the synthesis of lecithin, an amino acid that regulates cholesterol metabolism and prevents the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.

Detonic not addictive and withdrawal syndrome, since all components of the product are natural.

Detailed information about Detonic is located on the manufacturer’s page www.detonicnd.com.

Features of thiazides

If hypertension is diagnosed, first of all, the patient is prescribed drugs that are derivatives of benzothiadiazine. These include Metalozon, Dichlothiazid, Indapamid, Indal, Klopamid.

Diuretic drugs belonging to this group help get rid of strong surges in blood pressure, having a moderate effect on the blood flow system. They are normally absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract, exhibit increased bioavailability, and support the structure of the vascular walls. If there is hypertension, diuretics are prescribed at initial or even lower dosages, and are subject to long-term use.

Of the side effects, it is worth noting violations at the electrolyte level. In such a situation, the production of magnesium and potassium increases, resulting in a high concentration of urea in the blood. When sodium is not produced in sufficient quantities, the body becomes dehydrated.

Features of loop diuretics

Similar medications are used when the onset of high blood pressure begins. They act on the loop-shaped renal tubules. These include:
Furosemide.

  • Ethacrynic acid.
  • Bumetanide.
  • Pyrethanides.

The effect of these drugs is based on the normalization of pressure in the left cardiac ventricle, expansion of the venous bed, maintenance of glomerular filtration, activation of renal blood flow.

They are characterized by normal absorption through the digestive tract and are subject to metabolic processes in the liver. Loop diuretics are not recommended for long-term treatment of hypertension, as they have a short but pronounced effect on the body. If a hypertensive crisis occurs, or the prescribed diuretics have not shown a positive result, they will be the best option.

Side effects worth noting:

  • In patients taking cardiac glycosides, arrhythmias.
  • Hypoglycemia.
  • Sensory disorder in the form of paresthesia.
  • Increased blood sugar and urea levels.
  • Impaired gastrointestinal function.
  • Agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia.

Taking beta blockers

These drugs have been successfully used for many decades in the detection of hypertension. Modern and improved means of this group include Nebivolol, Labetalol, Peliprolol, Carvedilol. During therapy based on beta-blockers, the negative effect of the nervous system (autonomic) on the function of the heart is eliminated. At the same time, oxygen starvation decreases, and peripheral tone decreases in the vessels.

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Elderly people are advised to take diuretics. But when there is a violation of the heart, in particular, it is myocardial infarction, ischemia, this group of medicines is connected to the complex therapy. Of the side effects, it is worth noting:

  • Hypoglycemia.
  • Bronchospasm.
  • Decreased heart rate.
  • Erectile dysfunction in men.
  • Dermatitis of allergic origin.

Taking ACE inhibitors

The action of these medicines is aimed at blocking an enzyme that promotes the production of active angiotensin in the body (a provocateur of hypertension). Among the most common ACE inhibitors, Fosinopril, Spirapril, Captopril, Enalapril should be noted. These drugs improve blood circulation, relieve strong loads from the heart muscle.

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As for the initial dosage, when blood pressure jumps, it is selected in strict individuality. Typically, treatment “starts” with minimum doses, which are gradually increased until the expected therapeutic effect is achieved.

The adjustment is carried out by the attending physician who regularly compares the blood pressure readings. As a monopreparation, the described medicines are used extremely rarely in elderly patients.

A positive result of treatment is achieved when using ACE in parallel with diuretics, beta-blockers. Inhibitors are characterized by a number of side effects, in particular, these are allergic manifestations, too low pressure. Only a competent determination of the dose of the medicine will help to avoid such situations.

Taking calcium antagonists

This group of drugs prevents calcium ions from entering the blood vessels and cardiac tissues. When the amount of calcium in these structures increases, hypersensitivity to hormones appears, the contractile function increases, and accordingly, blood pressure rises. Calcium antagonists have a less pronounced antihypertensive effect in comparison with the drugs described above. However, under their influence, strokes are prevented in most cases.

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Often used – Amlodipine, Tiropamil, Falipamil, Diltiazem. They are not recommended for the treatment of hypertension in case of cardiac dysfunction. Of the side effects, bradycardia, tachycardia, insufficient intraventricular conductivity were noted.

Folk remedies

If the pressure rises during the day, as a result of which the state of health deteriorates significantly, it is worth taking advantage of the advice of traditional medicine in parallel with medications. But before you start taking any decoctions, tinctures, you should definitely consult with your doctor. It is strictly forbidden to self-terminate treatment with medications that keep blood pressure indicators within the age norm.

If the pressure rises, it is allowed to undergo a course of treatment with natural grape juice. It should be consumed daily at 200-400 ml, contraindication is diabetes mellitus.

The bark of the mulberry tree in crushed form (1 tbsp. L.) Is brewed in 0,5 liters of water. When the broth is infused, use it in 100 ml before meals several times a day.

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A vitamin mixture of one lemon, dried apricots, honey and walnuts is useful (200 mg of such ingredients will be needed). Everything gets confused in a blender, taken 30-60 minutes before meals, 1 tbsp. l.

Beetroot is not only tasty, but also a healthy product. Its components effectively cope with hypertensive attacks. If you take freshly squeezed beet juice mixed with water (50 ml per 50 ml) every day, you can normalize the hemoglobin level, fatty tissues are also effectively broken down, and the blood is enriched with oxygen.

At home, it is useful to eat it with a small amount of honey, especially for the elderly, as the vascular structures are strengthened, and puffiness is prevented.

A tincture made from onion peels and alcohol, to which sunflower oil is added, has proven itself well.

Prevention

Essential hypertension manifests itself at any age and is subject to compulsory treatment. For these purposes, a huge number of medical devices have been developed and created.

However, one should not forget about preventive measures – these are nutritional correction, a healthy lifestyle, rejection of bad habits, moderate physical activity.

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It is important that a sufficient amount of trace elements and vitamin complexes enter the body. Salt in the diet should be present in a minimum dose.

Blood pressure can increase when walking, doing light exercise, at rest, and even while sleeping. The cause of hypertension in the elderly is various symptoms. They need to be detected early and treated appropriately.

Hypertension in the Elderly Pressure Medications for the Elderly What are the medicines for hypertension prescribed for elderly patients?

Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.

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