Myocarditis disease and its main symptoms


Etiological aspects of myocarditis

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Inflammatory damage to the heart muscle, resulting in disturbance of the performance of the main pump of the cardiovascular system in the body, is called myocarditis.

The disease is taped in guys regularly than in females.

The most typical reasons for myocarditis are transmittable: germs, infections, fungis, protozoa. In this case, cardiomyocytes are harmed both by the microbes themselves and by their toxic substances. In specific, with myocarditis brought on by a diphtheria bacillus, the cells of the heart muscle are impacted to a higher degree by the contaminant of corynebacteria.

The disease can be the outcome of direct exposure to elements of an individual’s own body immune system, improperly revealing their protective function. This phenomenon accompanies vasculitis, collagenosis.

Antibodies start to flow in the blood, revealing their activity versus the myosin protein of their own cardiomycytes. In this case, myocarditis is a secondary symptom of the underlying systemic disease.

The disease often establishes on the background of an allergy to particular drugs, serums and vaccines. The symptoms of myocarditis are taped roughly one day after the intro of the irritant into the body.

Acute myocardium can likewise accompany intoxication (the impact of lithium, drug, catecholamines, anthracyclines) and direct exposure to radioactive radiation. In some cases, the etiology of the disease stays unidentified. Then they discuss the advancement of idiopathic myocarditis.

It is presumed that whatever myocarditis has a cause, destabilization of the immune action plays a beginning point in the advancement of pathology. Also, the myocardium is more susceptible to inflammatory modifications if it has actually currently been harmed in the past.

Clinical indications of transmittable swelling of the heart muscle

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Almost any infection is accompanied by damage to the heart muscle. But the modifications, as a guideline, are irrelevant, do not manifest themselves symptomatically and rapidly vanish after the relief of the underlying disease.

Inflammation of the myocardium in half of the cases is taped after the moved viral sores of the breathing system.

Usually, the very first symptoms of myocarditis are taped 14 days after ARVI.

But often the concept of ​​an inflammatory sore of the heart muscle pertains to the medical professional’s mind when, at the height of a contagious disease continuing with fever and basic intoxication, indications of myocardial damage establish, varying from irrelevant modifications in the electrocardiogram, inadvertently found throughout a regular assessment, to extreme cardiac arrest.

The symptom of the disease depends upon a number of aspects:

  1. from the seriousness of the pathological procedure
  2. from the frequency of swelling;
  3. from the localization of the sore.

Even a little location of ​​myocardial damage that swallows up the structures of the conduction system can trigger abrupt death due to the advancement of unrestrained arrhythmias.

If myocarditis of the heart has a moderate course, then the symptoms are not particular: fever, weak point, tiredness, sweating.

With a typical degree of circulation, they are linked: tachycardia (heart palpitations), shortness of breath, cardialgia – discomfort in the heart, not based on exercise, extrasystole.

In the case of a serious course, the symptoms of myocarditis are brought on by dilatation (pathological growth) of the heart chambers. This phenomenon is accompanied by the advancement of cardiovascular deficiency with impaired blood flow, which is revealed by shortness of breath and edema initially of the lower, then the upper extremities, a boost in the size of the liver, build-up of fluid in the stomach cavity – ascites.

Violations of the conduction of a nerve impulse and modifications in the typical rhythm of the heart can be taped: extrasystole, atrial fibrillation, tachycardia.

Sudden heart death due to extreme arrhythmias is the outcome of the most extreme symptom of myocarditis.

Chronic myocarditis is a repercussion of the severe kind of the disease. In this case, an active kind can be observed, accompanied by an offense of the left ventricle, and consistent, with maintained heart function at the preliminary phases.

In some cases, myocarditis gets symptoms of a cardiovascular disease. Retrosternal discomfort takes place, and in the outcomes of electrocardiographic research studies and biochemical blood tests, particular indications of myocardial infarction are discovered.

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Features of non-infectious myocarditis

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The course of the disease can be separated in case of harmful damage to the heart muscle, or as an outcome of incorrect performance of the body immune system (autoimmune and allergic modifications in the myocardium).

Sometimes, when the reasons for myocarditis are disruptions in the performance of the immune defense system, indications of autoimmune damage to other organs are exposed: joints, skeletal muscles, pleura.

This manifests itself in the kind of arthritis, joint discomfort, pleurisy, myalgia, modifications in the structure of subcutaneous tissue.

Symptoms of myocarditis of uncertain etiology

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Idiopathic myocarditis has extreme symptoms and challenging, long-lasting treatment. It is constantly accompanied by cardiac arrest.

The tissue in the center of the inflammatory sores of the myocardium is damaged and changed by scar tissue, resulting in extreme cardiosclerosis. The size of the heart quickly increases due to dilatation of its chambers.

Blood embolisms frequently form in the dilated cavities. When they get in the blood stream, they can obstruct the lumen of capillary and result in the death of cells and tissues of organs that get nutrition from this circulatory link.

The disease is frequently accompanied by disruptions in the typical rhythm and conduction of electrical impulses through the structures of the heart.

Physical findings in myocarditis

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Diagnosis starts with analyzing the client utilizing palpation, percussion and auscultation.

The client’s look might show indications of basic intoxication: weight-loss, dull skin color, sunken face.

If the disease is a repercussion of systemic damage to the connective tissue, then frequently symptoms of this pathology are discovered on the surface area of the skin (with SLE, scleroderma).

If cardiac arrest establishes, palpation of the edge of the liver is frequently discovered listed below the edge of the costal arch, and traces of compression stay on the limbs due to swelling.

The limits of the heart percussion (percussion technique) are discovered within typical limitations or can be broadened.

Auscultation (listening) might not expose pathology, however when big zones of the myocardium are associated with the pathological procedure, weakening of the very first heart noise, systolic whispering at the pinnacle, due to the advancement of bicuspid valve deficiency, often 3 tones appear.

With congestive procedures in the lungs, wet rales can be heard.

If the swelling catches the heart bag, then as an outcome of the assessment it is possible to listen to the matching pericardial friction sound. This particular noise emerges from the friction of the impacted pericardial layers versus each other throughout the contractile activity of the heart.

This is because of the truth that throughout swelling on the surface area of the pericardium, fibrin deposits are formed, and typically the cavity of the heart t-shirt is filled with a fluid that decreases friction.

Auxiliary techniques for detecting the disease

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Additional tests and research studies are needed to verify the medical diagnosis. The carried out basic and biochemical blood tests for myocarditis record a high level of ESR.

Leukocytosis is discovered just in a quarter of cases. The material of the MB-fraction of creatine phosphokinase, C-reactive protein, aspartine amino transferase boosts.

An immunological analysis permits you to evaluate the level of antibodies to the cellular elements of transmittable representatives and to the protein of myocardial own cells. Also, this technique can figure out the existence and level of immune complexes.

Electrocardiography records a decline in voltage, the look of an unfavorable T wave, a boost in the ST sector.

Arrhythmias of a ventricular or supraventricular origin might be found. Often there are indications of impaired impulse conduction (blockade of the package of His package and even AV block of different degrees). Sometimes you can discover an electrocardiographic photo of myocardial infarction.

ECHO-KG matches diagnostics.

The study results expose:

  • a decline in the contractility of the heart muscle, manifested by hypokinesia and akinesia of private foci; dilatation of chambers, specifically of the left ventricle
  • reduced heart output
  • in 15 percent parietal thrombi.

In the occasion of mitral valve deficiency, symptoms of regurgitation (reverse circulation) of blood from the left ventricular chamber into the atrial chamber are pictured, with the growth of the cavity of the latter. However, definitely typical indications throughout this treatment do not omit the medical diagnosis of myocarditis.

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Chest x-ray records a bigger shadow of the heart if a big location of ​​the myocardium is impacted. With heart disease, matching modifications in the lungs show up.

Molecular biological research study is likewise utilized. The polymerase domino effect assists to determine the transmittable representative.

The most dependable medical diagnosis is a histological assessment of myocardial biopsy.

The technique spots cardiomyocyte degeneration and inflammatory seepage. This technique is intrusive, additionally, even with repetitive research studies, the biopsy is not constantly drawn from the afflicted location of ​​the heart muscle.

Therefore, they utilize it in a particular scenario, when the disease has an especially extreme course, and a clarifying medical diagnosis is required.

Myocarditis treatment program

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In the case of moderate and extreme disease, hospitalization is suggested. Limit exercise, rest is essential, bed rest is more effective. You require a well balanced diet plan, minimized in salt, improved with proteins and vitamins.

Treatment of myocarditis includes 4 links that impact the etiological aspect, pathogenesis of the disease, symptoms, metabolic procedures in cardiomyocytes.

Etiotropic treatment is targeted at removing its cause. It consists of prescription antibiotics for bacterial genesis of the disease and antiviral drugs if a viral infection ends up being the causative representative.

Rehabilitation of foci with persistent infections of non-cardiac localization ends up being an extremely essential point: carious teeth, tonsillitis, sinus problems, otitis media.

Myocarditis likewise consists of pathogenetic treatment, which is needed to obstruct the main systems of the advancement of the pathological procedure.

It describes:

  • anti-inflammatory treatment utilizing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The dose and period of the course is identified separately;
  • usage of immunosuppressants. In the case of a serious course of myocarditis with a propensity to development of the disease, glucocorticosteroids are recommended;
  • making use of antihistamines. These drugs disrupt the release of histamine from the mast cells of the body immune system. This decreases the symptom of the inflammatory action.

Treatment depends upon the seriousness of myocarditis symptoms. Appropriate treatment is recommended in case of arrhythmia, cardiac arrest; steps are required to avoid embolism.

To enhance metabolic procedures in the myocardium, ATP, carboxylase, riboxin, mildronate, vitamins, potassium, calcium and magnesium preparations are utilized.

Forecast

In some cases, clients do not even presume what heart myocarditis is, although they have a history of it, given that it is asymptomatic and vanishes without a trace. Myocarditis of moderate and moderate seriousness normally ends in total healing.

In extreme kinds, accompanied by cardiac arrest, in half of the clients there is a favorable pattern throughout treatment, in a quarter the procedure of heart activity supports, and in the rest there is an additional reduction in the functions of the cardiovascular system.

The diagnosis is undesirable for unique kinds of myocarditis: idiopathic, diphtheria, septic. The possibility of death has a high portion, for that reason, heart hair transplant is being thought about. After organ hair transplant, duplicated myocardial damage is possible.

Prevention

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To lower the possibility of establishing myocarditis will assist:

  • treatment of persistent inflammatory procedures in the body;
  • prompt vaccination;
  • sensible and suitable usage of prescription antibiotics and other drugs;
  • usage of protective devices when in contact with individuals impacted by transmittable illness.

Timely medical diagnosis and properly picked treatment strategies will assist to prevent extreme repercussions of the disease. You ought to not attempt to handle myocarditis by yourself, putting your life at danger.

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Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.

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