Hypertension is the trigger mechanism, the trigger for hemorrhage in the cerebellum. Basically, the causes of this type of hemorrhage do not differ from the causes for other types of strokes that affect the brain. Most often these are the following phenomena and conditions:
- A sharp rise in blood pressure;
- Great excitement, stress;
- Physical overwork;
- Intense mental activity;
- Taking inappropriate medications
- Alcohol consumption;
- Excessive overheating (in the sun, in the bath, a very hot bath, and so on);
- Smoking can cause vascular damage, which, in turn, will trigger a chain of diseases, eventually leading the patient to stroke, paralysis or death.
Symptoms of cerebellar hemorrhage
Cerebral hemorrhage has more alarming signs of a developing disease than a regular stroke, and they can be more pronounced.
The patient may feel severe pain in the back of the head, which is accompanied by nausea, vomiting, dizziness, change in heart rate and fullness, severe general weakness, anxiety.
An acute condition with cerebral hemorrhage has the same symptoms as strokes in the cerebral hemispheres and other parts of it. It is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- Total or partial loss of consciousness.
- Irregular, irregular heartbeat.
- Cheyne-Stokes breathing (a periodic type of breathing, when the breaths first become deeper and more frequent, and then again become weak and superficial. After a pause, everything repeats in the same sequence).
- Tonic cramps (occurring for a short time).
- Clonic cramps (fast, with frequent changes in spasm and relaxation).
- Contractures (reduction in joint mobility, which causes limbs to twist).
- Friendly deviations of the patient’s head and eyes (eyeball movements, depending on the rotation of the head).
After the onset of these symptoms, two pathways for the development of further events are possible:
- The patient passes away, in most cases, without even regaining consciousness. Usually this happens very quickly, sometimes even rapidly. Unfortunately, a large number of elderly and very weak patients die in this way, often even before the doctor arrives.
- If the manifestations are not too intense, and the patient copes with them, then after the passage of the acute period, the so-called cerebellar syndrome appears. The patient survives, and the phenomena of the cerebellar syndrome should decrease over time, but they never completely disappear. Until the end of his life, the patient will, to one degree or another, experience residual manifestations of the cerebellar syndrome.
This condition is characterized by the following manifestations:
- “Drunk”, uncertain walk;
- Shaking of the fingers, which often occurs in motion;
- Horizontal nystagmus (involuntary rapid eye movements in the horizontal direction);
- Adiadochokinesis (inability to quickly perform alternating opposing movements);
- Missing the target when trying to take or put any object;
- Speech disorders;
- Muscle weakness and lethargy;
- The development of the Stuart-Holmes phenomenon (a symptom of the absence of a back shock) – impaired movement due to damage to the cerebellum;
- Handwriting disorders;
- The patient cannot correctly assess the weight of the item;
- Asinergy of flexion combinee, in which the patient, lying on his back, trying to stand up, simultaneously bends one or both legs in the knee (with bilateral damage).
The severity of the disease is aggravated by the fact that with severe hemorrhage, the cerebellum swells and grows in size, and begins to put pressure on neighboring parts of the brain, including a closely located trunk. This provokes cerebral edema, and rupture of the arteries disrupts its nutrition. These conditions can provoke some deviations in the behavior and psyche of patients, noted in a number of studies.
Cerebellar hemorrhage treatment
The development of a stroke in the cerebellum means the formation of a hematoma – a blood clot at the site of rupture of an artery. The hematoma presses on the areas of the brain that control various functions, which can cause numerous complications up to the transformation of the patient into a disabled person. If the hematoma is not removed on time, an infection can get into the blood clot and the situation will become uncontrollable.
The first thing that is done to treat hemorrhage is to stop the bleeding and surgical removal of the hematoma. After that, if the patient is successfully surviving surgery, the intensive care stage begins. It includes the following items:
- The introduction of drugs to stop bleeding;
- The use of drugs designed to reduce and normalize blood pressure;
- The use of neuroprotectors – drugs that improve brain function;
- The appointment of thrombolytics – drugs that prevent the formation of blood clots;
- The use of drugs that reduce and prevent the development of edema and inflammatory processes;
- The introduction of drugs that improve cerebral circulation;
- Support for the work of the organs of the cardiovascular system.
In the first days after a stroke, the patient needs complete rest, not only physical but also emotional. He is undergoing inpatient treatment, in which doctors regularly monitor the state of his brain using computed or magnetic resonance imaging.
After the critical period passes and it becomes clear that the patient has survived the acute stage, he is gradually allowed to move, and the loads should increase very smoothly, gradually. After a stroke and the formation of a hematoma, part of the brain dies, the nerve cells of the affected area cease to function.
Part of the cells located around the focus of necrosis also suffered, but retained its functionality, which needs to be fully restored. Therefore, the patient is prescribed a combination therapy consisting of drug treatment and feasible physical activity.
As you recover, your workouts should increase. If at the first stages after receiving relief all training consists in soft massage in the form of strokes and passive flexion and extension of the limbs, then as the doctor recovers and with his permission, physical activity should gradually increase.
Without medical gymnastics, breathing exercises and classes to restore speech, the patient may not be on the mend, and lost time will not be returned. A patient with cerebellar hemorrhage cannot be overworked, but inappropriate pity can do more harm than good. If you do not conduct therapeutic exercises and other types of therapy, movements and skills may not be restored, and a person will remain completely disabled for life.
Basically, cerebral hemorrhage, the consequences of which can be very serious even with the survival of the patient, is characterized by high mortality and dangerous complications. The situation is aggravated by the patient’s age – mostly old people have a large “set” of chronic diseases and a greatly weakened body that hardly resists such a serious lesion as a stroke.
For a faster and better recovery for a patient who has experienced a hemorrhage, it is important to create a calm, friendly, emotionally balanced atmosphere. His family and friends will have to show maximum tact, as the patient can be irritable, capricious and even tearful. Only a gentle attitude and love, combined with competent professional treatment, can return a person to a normal, full life.
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