Hepatitis D is an infectious disease caused by the HGV virus. The virus acts to disrupt liver function.
Hepatitis D comes in several forms. Asymptomatic – clinical manifestations of the pathology are not expressed, jaundice is absent. The diagnosis is made after a special examination.
Typical – symptoms begin to appear after a short incubation period. The patient’s condition worsens gradually, the test results change for the worse. Jaundice is present or absent.
Lightning-fast – pronounced symptoms appear quickly, the patient’s condition deteriorates sharply. Often the disease develops in combination with hepatitis B or C. The prognosis for this course of the disease is poor.
Infection statistics and distribution
In medicine, viral hepatitis A, B, C are more common. Little-known hepatitis E is a severe form of hepatitis A, virus D develops together with hepatitis B. The causative agent of hepatitis G is very similar to virus C, so doctors often call them congeners.
Until now, the hepatitis G virus is not fully understood. The first case of infection was recorded in the 60s of the last century. Interestingly, the cases of infection were noted unevenly. Doctors associate this with the climatic, everyday and other living conditions in the regions.
So, in North America, Mexico is the leader in the number of infected people, in South America – Chile, Brazil, Peru. Among European countries – Ukraine, Moldova, Central Russia. In Asia – Kazakhstan, Iraq, Iran, China, the Asian part of Russia. On the African continent, foci of infection are seen in the central and southern parts.
The average age of patients ranges from 30 to 40 years, the male sex is more prone to infection. Hepatitis G is often associated with other types. This development of the disease often leads to cirrhosis and other liver diseases.
Causes of infection
G hepatitis has one mode of transmission – parenteral. The infection is transmitted through the blood of an infected person.
The infection can be caused by:
- Surgical operations (abdominal, laparoscopy, puncture).
- Transfusion of blood and its components.
- Single needle use in drug addicts.
- Neglecting sterilization of medical instruments.
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There is a category of citizens where the risk of infection is much higher. The risk group includes:
- Physicians in contact with blood.
- Patients on hemodialysis.
- Blood donor recipients.
- Drug addicts.
- Persons who have undergone major surgery or organ transplantation.
- HIV infected.
- Persons with a severe immune system disorder.
- Patients with diabetes mellitus.
Often hepatitis G is latent, with no symptoms at all. An infected person is a potential virus carrier, and easily infects other people.
In the typical form, the symptoms of the disease are somewhat similar to hepatitis C. First, there is an incubation period (usually no more than 10 days). At this time, a person may be disturbed by symptoms that resemble a cold or flu: chills, fatigue, drowsiness, increased sweating and thirst.
Typical signs of hepatitis G:
- Fever, fever.
- Absent-mindedness, apathy, loss of attention.
- Decreased appetite.
- Nausea, discomfort in the right hypochondrium.
- Muscle and joint aches.
- Indigestion – heartburn, belching, bloating.
- Discoloration of feces.
- Darkening of urine.
- In a severe course of the disease, disorders of the biliary system are possible.
Diagnostics and interpretation of analyzes
Viral hepatitis G is determined by laboratory and serological research methods. First, a general analysis is performed for hepatitis, which allows to identify pathologies in the liver:
- blood test,
- Analysis of urine,
- liver function tests.
The analysis transcript shows the following changes:
- liver function tests increase,
- bilirubin increases,
- the presence of protein in the urine (normally the indicator is negative).
After that, a serological examination is carried out, on the basis of which an accurate diagnosis is made and treatment is prescribed:
- linked immunosorbent assay,
- polymerase chain reaction,
- the purpose of the examination is to determine a marker of the virus in the blood. This helps not only to confirm the diagnosis, but also to determine the form and period of the disease.
The doctor prescribes treatment for hepatitis G based on the results of the diagnosis. The main objectives of therapy:
- stop inflammatory processes in the liver,
- remove the virus from the human body,
- prevent the transition of the disease to cirrhosis.
Drug therapy consists of treatment with Interferon. It contains components that prevent infection of healthy liver cells. The dosage is selected individually. The course of treatment lasts from several months to a year.
Interferon treatment does not give a 100% guarantee of recovery, but it is a good prevention of cirrhosis and liver cancer. Sometimes the doctor prescribes additional drugs to be more effective.
During treatment, you need to take tests once a month to assess the effect of therapy, and its adjustments if necessary. After recovery, it is necessary to visit an infectious disease specialist for several more months and take tests to timely prevent the secondary manifestation of the virus.
In addition to medication, alternative therapy is used, aimed at alleviating the condition and reducing inflammatory processes in the liver.
Recipes of traditional medicine:
- Pour two tablespoons of chicory into 0,5 liters of boiling water, add honey, a spoonful of fruit vinegar. Drink the broth warm without restrictions.
- Sauerkraut juice – drink 0,5 cups daily for a month.
- Brew corn stigmas, drink as tea for 6 months.
- Drink a mixture of a spoonful of honey and apple juice twice a day.
- Pour two teaspoons of sage with 0,5 liters of boiling water, insist. Take a tablespoon every 2 hours.
Traditional medicine has its pitfalls – side effects, intolerance to specific components. Therefore, it is necessary to coordinate treatment with a doctor. More often, for hepatitis G, home treatment is in addition to traditional medicine. In addition, the patient needs complete physical rest. Regardless of where the treatment takes place – in a hospital or at home.
Diet and prevention
The best way to avoid contamination is prevention. Basic precautions are very similar to hepatitis B and C. In everyday life, it is enough to adhere to the rules:
- Use a condom during sexual intercourse, if there is no confidence in the partner,
- Use only your own personal hygiene items, this is especially important for family members in which the patient lives with acute or chronic hepatitis G,
- It is imperative for physicians working directly with blood to use rubber gloves,
- Get vaccinated against hepatitis B whenever possible.
Diet is important in treatment and recovery. Table 5 is recommended for patients. The purpose of the diet is to facilitate the work of the liver, to provide the body with nutrients.
Spicy, fatty, fried foods and alcohol are strictly prohibited. Refrain from pickles, preservation, sausages and confectionery. Boil, bake or steam food. Give preference to cereals, vegetables, legumes, fruits. Drink at least 1,5 liters of water, herbal and berry teas will be useful.
Hepatitis G: symptoms, diagnostic possibilities, treatment.