Donated blood is a very popular product. Transfusion of blood or its components is required for most patients with injuries, burns, during recovery from surgery, especially organ transplants and cesarean sections.
In addition, there are a number of diseases that require transfusion of blood, plasma, or certain blood cells.
The situation is complicated by a number of factors:
- Russia is sorely lacking donors. With the WHO norm of 40 donors per thousand of the population, in Russia this figure is only 14 people.
- At the first donation, the blood is quarantined for several months. Only if HIV and other dangerous infections are not detected in it during repeated analysis, donated blood can be transfused to patients. For this reason, the surge in donation after large-scale accidents does not fundamentally change the situation.
- Blood of the required group is not always available. For example, the fourth negative is very problematic to find: only 13% of people with group IV live in the world, of which people with negative rhesus make up a couple of percent at most.
- What is donated blood used for?
- Who are donors?
- Who can become a donor and at what age can you donate blood?
- How old is blood donation?
- Who is not allowed to be a donor?
- Height and weight
- Temporary contraindications
- Temporary contraindications to blood donation for regular donors
- What diseases should you never be a donor for?
- Restrictions for men
- Contraindications in women
- Can I donate blood after tooth extraction?
What is donated blood used for?
In its pure form, it is rarely poured over. Basically, patients require individual components and preparations based on human blood. Therefore, after the fence, it is divided into components.
|Component||When and how is it used?|
|Whole blood||It is in demand with large blood loss as a result of trauma or surgery|
|Plasma||It is necessary for patients with burns, weakened and people with reduced immunity. Plasma contains many nutrients and antibodies, so it can actually become a substitute for the immune system for those who have taken immunosuppressive drugs for a long time, or who have weakened immunity after serious treatment.|
|Erythrocytes||Red blood cells. Necessary for patients with anemia, cancer of the blood and bone marrow. Red blood cells can be donated as a separate component. Typically, robust male donors are selected for red blood cell donation.|
|Platelets||Cells responsible for blood clotting. They are transfused to patients with hemophilia and those who have undergone chemotherapy.|
|Granulocytes||A type of white blood cell – white blood cells. Transfused for patients with severe infections and infectious complications. Granulocytes do not last long: they can only be transfused within a few hours after donation.|
Who are donors?
These are people who voluntarily donate their blood or blood components for transfusion to other people.
There is also the concept of autologous donation – the components are taken from the person himself before the course of treatment or planned surgery.
After the intervention, the body is weakened, foreign cells are a great stress for it. Therefore, doctors insist on the transfusion of the patient’s own donor material in cases where it is possible.
Donors are one-time and permanent. The first donate blood once – help is needed for a relative, acquaintance or as assistance to victims of a large-scale accident. Continuous donation involves several donations per year.
On average, the human body contains from 4,5 to 5,5 liters of blood. Its volume increases and decreases with fluctuations in body weight. For one procedure, you can take no more than 12%. Typically a serving is 450 ml.
- Regular free examinations – they are mandatory for donors,
- Social privileges and benefits,
- The opportunity to receive emergency medical care,
- Benefit for health. The blood is regularly renewed, while the body burns calories, blood vessels are maintained in good shape,
- An opportunity to help other people and save someone’s life.
But there are also limitations in the life of the donor: they need to lead a healthy lifestyle, give up bad habits, eat properly and fully, play sports, carefully monitor their health, and not take medications unnecessarily.
Who can become a donor and at what age can you donate blood?
Usually people over 18 years old are allowed to donate. In Russia, there is an age limit plus the requirement that a person be a citizen of the country. In other countries, it is allowed to donate blood and components from the age of 16-17.
- Over 18 years of age,
- Having a passport of a citizen of Russia,
- Minimum weight – 50 kg,
- Absence of blood diseases, past dangerous infections, oncology,
- No need for constant medication intake,
- A woman needs to be examined by a gynecologist to exclude pregnancy and the presence of infections. In the future, the donor woman needs to undergo regular preventive examinations,
- General level of health.
At the first time, a comprehensive analysis is carried out. The control fence is made after 6 months. If both times the indicators are normal, the person is suitable for donation.
Women can donate blood no more than 4 times a year, men – no more than 5.
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How old is blood donation?
The maximum donor age is 60 years. In a very old age, absolute health is a rarity. Hypertension, which is diagnosed in most Russian pensioners, is one of the contraindications for donating blood.
Who is not allowed to be a donor?
The list of contraindications is quite large. People with serious blood diseases, oncology, infections cannot donate blood for donation at all. In addition, there are situations when a person has a temporary withdrawal from donation (for a period of one month to three years) – due to past diseases and other interventions.
In some cases, contraindications may be conditional. For example, if we are talking about the urgent saving of the life of a close relative with whom there is full compatibility – but the potential donor has a temporary recusal. In the absence of an alternative, the doctor can weigh the pros and cons and make an exception if the potential risk is not high.
Height and weight
Low or very tall stature is not a contraindication – unless it is caused by a disease in which a person regularly takes hormonal drugs.
Weight less than 50 kg is a contraindication. Such people are more difficult to tolerate blood loss, even minor. Being overweight also imposes restrictions: usually it is associated with an inappropriate lifestyle or hormonal imbalance, which affects the condition and composition of blood cells.
They act in the event that in the life of a potential donor there were situations that could cause negative changes in the composition of the blood.
After a certain period of time and additional examination, they are removed, and the person can donate blood.
Time constraints include:
- Postponed non-dangerous infections without complications,
- Planned and unscheduled operations,
- Tattoos, piercings, acupuncture,
- Poisoning and intoxication,
- Exacerbation of chronic diseases that are not a contraindication in remission,
- Women in Russia are not allowed to donate blood during menstruation. In many countries this restriction does not apply,
- Deterioration of blood counts – until the state of health stabilizes.
Temporary contraindications to blood donation for regular donors
|SARS, influenza||1 month after complete recovery|
|Tattoo & Piercing||1 year, admission after control analysis|
|Tooth extraction (without complications and associated infection)||10 days|
|Childbirth||1 year after childbirth, 3 months after stopping lactation|
|Immunizations||10 days to a year|
|Visiting countries with an unfavorable infectious situation||From 1 to 3 years with periodic monitoring of blood counts|
|Decreased hemoglobin levels||6 months|
On the day of donation, the donor may be suspended if:
- He came to the procedure in a state of alcoholic or drug intoxication,
- He has a fever and symptoms of a fever,
- The day before he was taking medicine,
- Eat fatty or spicy foods
- Didn’t have breakfast before the procedure.
What diseases should you never be a donor for?
Restrictions apply to:
- Active diseases, acute and chronic.
- Transferred in the past, but the blood contains components that can lead to infection of the recipient.
A complete contraindication to donation is the presence of:
- HIV and AIDS,
- Tuberculosis in any form
- Infectious skin diseases, incl. you can not donate blood for psoriasis,
- Diseases of the heart and blood vessels
- Blood clotting disorders, diseases of the hematopoietic organs,
- Oncological processes (including those transferred),
- Alcoholism, drug addiction,
- Mental illness
- Peptic ulcer,
- Liver diseases, including cirrhosis,
- Kidney disease
- Postponed operations to remove vital organs,
- The need for constant intake of hormonal drugs,
- Purulent inflammatory processes
- Parasitic diseases
- Sexually transmitted infections.
The appearance of these diseases in a permanent donor is the reason for the lifelong cessation of donating blood, regardless of the donor experience.
Restrictions for men
It is not allowed to donate blood to men who:
- Lead an unhealthy lifestyle
- Smoke or drink alcohol regularly,
- Have suffered venereal diseases
- Have had homosexual contacts. This is due to the risk of infection of the patient’s already weakened body with immunodeficiency viruses and hepatitis C, which are common among homosexual men.
Insufficient or overweight, steroid use also limits a man’s ability to donate.
Contraindications in women
Women can be donors on a par with men, but they have much more physiological contraindications. First of all, the restrictions apply to those whose weight is less than 50 kg, blood pressure is below 90/60.
Postponed operations to remove the uterus or ovaries due to inflammation, neoplasms, are a complete contraindication.
Do not donate blood to women with a history of endometriosis. Anemia can be a temporary limitation: if the hemoglobin level is normalized, blood can be donated.
|Menstruation||5 days from the start of the cycle|
|Pregnancy||For the entire period|
|Lactation||3 months after discontinuation|
Can I donate blood after tooth extraction?
If tooth extraction is not accompanied by prolonged suppuration, blood can be donated 10 days after surgery. This procedure is a surgical procedure that involves blood loss and infection.