Bradycardia is a violation of the normal (sinus) rhythm of the heart, in which the number of impulses that stimulate the contraction of the ventricles decreases. This is manifested by a rhythmic, but more rare heartbeat. Since this condition can be both physiological and pathological and occurs at different ages, many young people are interested in whether they are being taken into the army with bradycardia.
It is not easy to give an unambiguous answer to such a question, since bradycardia can have several reasons associated with various changes in the body and heart activity. Most often, a slow rhythm is not considered a separate disease, but is considered a symptom of the disease.
In this case, some of the diseases may not directly affect the heart muscle or the vascular bed, but affect the heart rate indirectly. Depending on the type of bradycardia, the person may be eligible for urgent service, or they may be given a respite.
Bradycardia is indicated if the patient’s pulse rate is less than 55 beats per minute.
The mechanism of occurrence of bradycardia
Heartbeat is the process of synchronous contraction of all its muscle cells in response to an electrochemical impulse spreading through the myocardium. In addition to the muscle cells proper, which are called cardiomyocytes, there are also a small number of cells in the heart that form a special conducting system and its main nodes.
These cells are almost unable to contract, but, unlike cardiomyocytes, they can generate the very electrochemical impulses that propagate along the pathways of the heart and initiate its contraction.
The sinus node is located in the right atrium – it is able to generate such impulses with the highest frequency, and therefore it is called the “pacemaker”. However, if its activity is disturbed, then bradycardia develops.
Important! A slight decrease in heart rate is possible even in healthy people in response to certain environmental factors, for example, cold, as well as during sleep or when severely tired.
This is a transient condition that usually resolves after rest or when the ambient temperature returns to normal. But if a rare pulse bothers the patient for a long time, then this most likely means that he has certain changes in his body that may be a consequence of the disease, including cardiac pathology.
Quite a few pathologies that at first glance are not associated with the heart can slow down the heart rate. These include craniocerebral trauma, meningitis, tumors, vegetative-vascular dystonia, neurocirculatory dystonia, and carotid artery compression syndrome.
This may be a normal heart rhythm pattern, but in some cases it is considered a sign of certain pathologies.
If a person has no complaints and pronounced symptoms, and instrumental research methods do not reveal significant changes in hemodynamics and the functioning of internal organs, in such cases there is no direct threat to life and health from bradycardia.
This type of sinus bradycardia often occurs in athletes or well-trained people.
This happens because their heart muscle is also trained and contracts with increased strength even at rest. Therefore, in order to ensure the passage of the required amount of blood per unit of time, it needs fewer strokes. Of course, one cannot be sure in advance whether the rare pulse is the result of the patient’s good physical condition, or whether it is a symptom of an illness.
Therefore, during the call, such young people should be assigned a consultation with a cardiologist and additional examination.
If with bradycardia of the heart, doctors do not find any concomitant pathologies, such a person will be hired.
It is interesting! Some athletes have a resting heart rate of only 30-35 beats, while for ordinary people this is considered alarmingly low.
Poor fitness bradycardia
As the name suggests, a similar condition develops, on the contrary, in people leading a sedentary, sedentary lifestyle. Moreover, in such people, bradycardia is quite often of organic origin – it develops as a result of changes in the activity of the nervous system or the heart muscle itself.
Most often, patients with this type of bradycardia have an alimentary syndrome, vascular atherosclerosis. This leads to a decrease in the blood supply to the heart muscle, as a result of which its cells receive less oxygen and nutrients, and the products of their metabolism, on the contrary, are not excreted and accumulate.
Therefore, the efficiency of the heart muscle and its own conduction system decreases, which in such conditions loses the ability to generate heart contractions with the required frequency.
In contrast to bradycardia, in sports people, in this case, on the contrary, the minute volume of blood flow decreases, and the peripheral organs also begin to feel a lack of oxygen, dysfunction of the sinus node develops, which can lead to the development of other, more dangerous arrhythmias.
All of this is manifested by a certain set of symptoms:
- Fast fatiguability.
- Failure to perform previously habitual levels of physical activity.
- Constant dizziness, which, at first glance, occurs for no reason.
- In some patients, fainting may occur with a sharp drop in pulse rate.
- Discomfort in the chest is possible.
- Some patients complain directly of a rare pulse.
- People with bradycardia have high blood pressure.
An important point! Heart rate can be greatly reduced in some acute gastrointestinal diseases.
Most often this is observed in renal colic, pancreatitis, cholecystitis, hepatosis. This is due to the fact that during inflammatory processes in these organs, the activity of the vagus nerve, the main nerve of the parasympathetic nervous system, increases. It also innervates the heart, therefore, when irritated, it reflexively lowers the frequency and strength of heart contractions.
For the same reason, bradycardia also occurs in people with neurocirculatory dystonia – they have increased activity of the parasympathetic nervous system, and the effect of the sympathetic section on the heart, on the contrary, decreases.
Very often, after an additional examination and identification of the causes of a rare pulse, such a patient will not be taken into the army.
Classification of bradycardia
Depending on the frequency with which the patient’s heart beats, and the presence of corresponding symptoms, several degrees of severity of this condition are distinguished:
- Lightweight form. Pulse rate 51-59 beats per minute, no symptoms.
- Moderate bradycardia. Pulse 41-50 beats per minute, isolated symptoms are observed.
- Severe form. The pulse is less than 40 beats per minute, there is a pronounced symptomatology, due to which the quality of life of patients decreases.
The main reason for the development of symptoms and deterioration of the patient’s condition is prolonged lack of oxygen in peripheral tissues and organs (hypoxia).
Interesting! This condition is called a “vicious circle” – the consequence aggravates the cause of the development of the disease.
In this case, due to a lack of blood supply, the heart begins to contract less frequently, which leads to an even greater lack of blood supply. Military service for people in this state can be dangerous, so they should not be recognized as fit. Doctors should inform them of the presence of the disease and suggest treatment. It is not worth giving up.
Thus, bradycardia can be both a normal state of the body and a symptom of pathology. Therefore, people with bradycardia should not worry at all about how to mow from the army. It is better for them to be examined at the hospital and find out the reason for their rare pulse. After that, doctors and the draft board will decide whether their patient will be taken to the army with bradycardia.
Of course, if a person is diagnosed with a disease that significantly impairs his quality of life and may have an unfavorable prognosis, he should be treated and he will not be recruited into the army. If we are talking only about sinus bradycardia as a result of good training, then the conscript will be considered fit for military service.
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