All types of urine tests and their description

Even ancient doctors could determine the state of health of a person by his urine. In those days, there were no usual laboratories, but even then, by the appearance of the liquid, one could assume the presence of pathology. Today, urine tests are mandatory regardless of the nature of the disease.

Urine examination as a diagnostic method for detecting diseases

Urine is one of the main waste products of the body. The main component of the presented liquid is water; it contains from 92 to 99% in urine. It also contains decay products, toxic substances and toxins, from which the body got rid of naturally.

The presence of such components makes it possible to analyze the state of urine and determine the presence of diseases in a person.

Most often, it is prescribed to take the presented fluid if you suspect kidney and urinary system diseases. But there are also situations when urine is given for preventive purposes.

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During the general urinalysis procedure, a study of the chemical characteristics of the liquid is carried out. Thanks to this, it is possible to carry out a complete diagnosis of diseases of the kidneys, liver, bladder and identify pathologies of the prostate, malignant or benign tumor, pyelonephritis and other problems even at the initial stages of the course (when there are no symptoms).

During the carrying of a child, it is recommended to take the analysis once every few weeks: there is a high load on the kidneys, and there is a possibility of pathologies developing.

As a result of urinary fluid, metabolic products are excreted from the body. Slag, excess vitamins and hormones, excess water, and ion particles are excreted in the urine. Normally, output balances the extent of other body constituents by collecting excess and processed foods.

From the standpoint of diagnosis, the study of urinary fluid is valued because of the following features:

  • Collection of data on the performance of a number of body systems.
  • Correlation of urine analysis with blood.
  • Delivery of urea is simple and does not require special procedures.
  • To determine the presence of pathological diseases without auxiliary examinations, you need to find out the result of the study.

For a complete diagnostic examination, a general analysis of urea is needed. It must be taken during a medical examination.

The diagnostic method of research will show the presence of the disease (diabetes mellitus, jaundice, inflammation of the bile ducts and gallstone disease, renal failure, types of neoplasms, inflammation of the urinary system).

How to donate urine?

The rules help to avoid erroneous indicators, which, as a result, can confuse the doctor and push him on the wrong path in treatment:

  • An analysis will be required in the morning on an empty stomach. It is better if the person did not go to the toilet all night.
  • Before collection, you need to wash yourself to exclude the penetration of foreign substances.
  • Only the last third of the urine is taken for examination.
  • The container needs to be clean and dry.
  • Before the analysis, do not eat foods that color the urinary fluid (beets, carrots, and others).
  • For reliable diagnosis, the urea must be brought in the container no later than 1,5 hours after filling.

Assessment of urine analysis

Evaluation takes place in the laboratory by studying in 5 directions:

  • Organoleptic.
  • physical and chemical.
  • Biochemical.
  • Microscopic.
  • Microbiological.

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Types of urine tests

There are 6 types of urine tests.

Clinical (general). The study is carried out for diseases and for prevention.

Assessment takes place:

  • By color.
  • Transparency.
  • Acidity.
  • I smell.
  • Density.
  • Specific gravity.
  • The content of cellular elements.
  • Proteins.
  • Glucose.
  • To bacteria.
  • Biochemical. Urine contains protein, glucose, amylases, creatinine, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, myeroalbumin, urea, and uric acid. It all counts.
  • Daily biochemical. The amount of excretion of glucose, proteins, urea and other substances is calculated per day.
  • Research methodology according to Nechiporenko. The number of leukocytes, erythrocytes and salts in 1 mg in morning urine is counted. It is possible to determine pathologies in the kidney and urinary tract.
  • Research according to Zimnitsky. The functioning of the kidney and how much urinary fluid is excreted per day, the correspondence of the dose of urea day and night, and its density are assessed. Indications for exercise: pyelonephritis, renal failure, diabetes mellitus, toxicosis.
  • Survey technique according to Amburge. The blood constituents are established in the portion of urea, which has accumulated over 3 hours. May represent the state of the urinary system.

Deciphering the result

Occurs after comparing the norm of the indicator with the result obtained during the study. There are tablets for decoding the result of urea. The norm plate is individual for both the adult and the child, because the tests have different ratings. For some analyzes, the norm for males and females is different.

For example, you should familiarize yourself with the normal indicators of a general urinalysis:

  • Color – straw yellow. If the presented liquid acquires a darker color, then this indicates the presence of dehydration, diseases of the gallbladder and liver, and may be a sign of malaria. If the urine is lighter in color, it indicates problems with the filtration capacity of the kidneys, and it can also be a sign of diabetes.
  • Transparency is transparent. Natural fluid can become cloudy in the presence of kidney disease, malignant and benign formations of the urinary tract, and metabolic disorders.
  • Smell – not pronounced.
  • Density – varies from 1012 to 1022 g/l. In the presence of increased indicators, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, and kidney disease can be assumed. Decreased rates are characteristic of diabetes insipidus and renal failure.
  • Acidity – from 4 to 7. Increased values ​​may indicate the presence of acidosis, inflammatory processes in the body, dehydration, diabetes mellitus. Decreased rates were noted in the presence of chronic renal failure, some types of cancer, an increase in the level of parathyroid hormones.
  • Glucose – from 0 to 0,8 mmol/L.
  • Protein – from 0 to 0,033 g/l.
  • Ketone bodies, bilirubin, hemoglobin – 0.
  • Urobilinogen – 5 to 10 mg/l.
  • Erythrocytes – in women from 0 to 3, in men are rare.
  • Leukocytes – in women from 0 to 6, in men – from 0 to 3.
  • Epithelial cells – from 0 to 10.
  • Salt, bacteria, fungi are absent.

The principle of collecting daily urine

Do not take a serving in the morning to collect certain urea. It is required to choose the time of the first urinary descent. Collect all portions of liquid in 24 container during 1 hours. It is better to collect the collection in a separate container with a volume of 2-2.5 liters with a sealed lid. Store closed containers at the bottom of the refrigerator, at a temperature of 4 to 8 degrees.

The material must not freeze. A separate preservative can be added to the liquid to ensure preservation. This substance is in the laboratory.

The final portion is collected only the next morning, at the same time as the first. On completion, the total daily urea is measured and reported to the laboratory worker.

At the end, the container is shaken, a small part (10 ml) is cast into a small container and handed over to the laboratory. On the container, you must indicate the name, age and gender of the person being checked, as well as the total volume of liquid per day.

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Observing all the rules for passing urine, you can promptly identify the presence of a number of diseases and begin their treatment.

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Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.