10 rules for dieting for weight loss during hypertension

Half of hypertensive patients, according to medical experts, are not even aware of their high blood pressure. The patient has arterial pressure above 150, but he does not feel it. Until a heart attack begins .

At the first stage of the disease, hypertensive patients do not often consult a doctor, and arterial hypertension is the main cause of serious complications that lead to stroke, hypertensive crisis, myocardial infarction, renal failure, and heart pathologies. Hypertension is usually accompanied by a disorder of cholesterol metabolism in combination with atherosclerosis.

These indicators (both cholesterol and blood pressure drops) can be corrected by a rational diet. Only this will not be a one-time experimental diet, but in fact – a new lifestyle.

Principles of good nutrition

The choice of dietary products for hypertension should take into account its severity, concomitant diseases. The energy value of the diet is ideally adequate to human energy consumption with certain adjustments for atherosclerosis and a high body mass index.

These conditions suggest that a therapeutic diet for weight loss for hypertensive patients should be selected together with a nutritionist or your physician, endocrinologist. But the basic principles of its compilation are universal, they can be followed from today.

Here are 10 basic rules of a healthy diet for patients with hypertension:

  1. Salt restriction. This rule is dictated by serious processes occurring in the adrenal glands. They accumulate fluid and provoke an increase in blood pressure. Reducing salty foods in the diet will reduce the processes of excitability in the central nervous system (CNS). The norm of salt for patients with hypertension is 4-6 g / day (about 1 tsp, including salt in ready-made foods). Food with a high salt content (herring, canned food, pickles) should be abstained.
  2. There is no need to reduce the amount of fluid if there are no problems with the circulatory system. For a day you need to drink at least 2 liters of clean water.
  3. The amount of fat should be reduced to 75 g / day. Butter, lard, and other fats of animal origin can sometimes be replaced with vegetable analogues – oil from sunflower, olives, corn, soy. They contain many polyunsaturated fatty acids that strengthen the immune system.
  4. The proportion of protein in the total mass of food products is not necessary to reduce: the daily rate is determined from the calculation of 1,5 g / 1 kg of weight. A deficiency of this valuable building material for cells lowers the body’s stamina under stress.
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The most important condition for a rational diet with high blood pressure is fractional nutrition. You need to eat 4-6 times / day., Dinner – 3 hours before bedtime.

Types of therapeutic diets

The basics of the nutrition of hypertensive patients can be obtained from diet No. 10, relevant, first of all, with poor blood flow.

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Diet number 10 for hypertensive patients to reduce weight: daily menu

  1. Cheese (120 g), semolina (150 g), tea (1 cup);
  2. Apples (100 g), low fat kefir (1 cup);
  3. Soup with barley (250 g), meat, carrots (55/150 g), compote (1 cup);
  4. Rosehip drink (1 cup), 1 slice of whole grain bread;
  5. Fish, potatoes, processed in a double boiler (85/150 g), pilaf with dried fruits (100 g), tea (1 cup);
  6. Kefir (1 glass) – before bedtime.

The daily norm of bread is 250 g, sugar – 50 g. If the weight is above the norm, except for the diet, fasting days (with salads, rice, watermelons, apples) will be useful.

DASH Diet

The abbreviation DASH stands for simple: a nutritional approach to the treatment of hypertension. The principles of nutrition of this type were developed by Harvard scientists. Today it is the most popular diet in Europe. The authors argue that the products offered in the diet lower blood pressure and the likelihood of developing a stroke, remove kidney stones, and prevent the formation of malignant neoplasms. An idea of ​​DASH can be obtained from the sample menu:

  1. Fresh orange (1 cup), cereal (from corn, oats, barley) – (2 cups), margarine (1 tsp), low-fat milk (1 cup);
  2. 2 slices of bread, low-fat ham (70 g), a slice of cheese, salad (2 leaves), tomato (half), mustard (1 tsp), apple;
  3. Chicken with rice, buckwheat or pearl barley porridge, peas (½ cup), a small roll of whole grains, low-fat milk (1 cup);
  4. Dried apricots, nuts (50 g each), 1 grapefruit – for snacks.
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The diet is recommended to be introduced gradually, without stopping taking prescribed medications that lower blood pressure. A feature of the American diet is a small proportion of meat in the diet.

The main emphasis is on products enriched with vitamins and minerals. Nutrition – fractional. Salt intake should be gradually minimized. With hypertension, this diet is recommended as the main one.

Potassium diet

Potassium for hypertension is often prescribed additionally or recommend a special diet. Such a selection of products relieves swelling, lowers blood pressure, improves blood flow. Its features: low calorie content, reduced sodium, lack of extractive ingredients, saturation of organs with potassium in a ratio of 8: 1 – 14: 1 (relative to sodium). You can evaluate its capabilities on the example of a one-day menu:

  1. Potatoes (200 g), coffee, milk (1 cup), rice broth (1 cup);
  2. Fresh cabbage (100 g);
  3. Soup and mashed potatoes and cabbage (200 g each), jelly;
  4. Rosehip drink (100 g);
  5. Mashed potatoes (300 g), rosehip infusion (100 g).

Bread without salt – 250 g, sugar – 30 g. Heat treatment of food raw materials: boiling, cooking in a double boiler or in the oven. All dishes for hypertensives are prepared without salt, they are slightly salted already ready-made, before meals.

Magnesium Diet

Magnesium regulates the central nervous system, strengthens the heart muscle, neutralizes vascular hypertonicity, which is very important for high blood pressure, especially with a complication of atherosclerosis. Therefore, hypertensive patients are prescribed medications with magnesium that lower blood pressure and cholesterol, or a three-day diet made up of appropriate foods.

Its peculiarity is low calorie content, salt and liquid restrictions, enrichment with potassium and magnesium. Food – six times a day. The norm of bread is 125 g / day. An idea of ​​this kind of diet can be obtained from a sample one-day menu.

    Buckwheat porr >This type of medical nutrition is prescribed for arteriosclerosis of vessels, with symptomatic hypertension, overweight. Diet reduces CNS excitability, improves kidney function, normalizes weight and blood pressure.

In terms of energy value, a hyponatrium vegetarian diet can be considered optimal. Limitations apply to refined carbohydrates, salted foods, liquids, and extractive ingredients that aggressively affect the digestive tract and other vital centers.

The table is rich in vitamins and fiber, which breaks down fats. Vegetables and fruits make juices, soups, salads, compotes, mashed potatoes, vinaigrette. Meals – five meals a day, with snacks. A sample table on a vegetarian diet might look like this:

  1. Heated infusion of rose hips or dried currants (1 cup), apple and carrot salad with oil;
  2. Fruit juice (½ cup), vegetable puree;
  3. Vegetarian soup with crackers (250 ml), vegetable salad with sour cream;
  4. Nuts (100 g), a salad of grated vegetables (carrots, beets, zucchini, cucumbers – 150 g);
  5. Heated infusion of rose hips or dried currants (1 cup) can sweeten 20 g of sugar or honey;
  6. Vinaigrette with oil (200 g), dried fruit compote (1 cup);
  7. Before going to bed – juice (1 cup).
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How it works

Adjusting the diet, in addition to the advice of your doctor, use the general recommendations:

  • Control the rate of salt – up to 5 g / day;
  • Reduce the proportion of rap >The menu for hypertensive patients is easily digestible dishes, similar to a diet for losing weight, so it has a double effect: it adjusts weight and pressure. Low-calorie meals and a balanced table stimulate digestion.

A high percentage of vegetables in the diet improves intestinal motility, cleansing the body of toxins, poisons, toxins and other decay products that poison its microflora. A healthy environment improves metabolism.

Comprehensive measures

Fighting high blood pressure involves comprehensive measures:

  • Losing weight;
  • Control of bad habits;
  • Friendly atmosphere in the family;
  • Compliance with the regime of work and rest;
  • Proper nutrition.

Everyone who is at risk with high blood pressure should first of all reconsider their lifestyle, including eating habits, because the way of life affects the quality of blood supply. When compiling a diet, it is necessary to balance proteins, fats and carbohydrates well.

Vitamin supplements improve metabolic processes, and a salt-free diet will free the body from excess fluids. A well-thought-out menu, selected taking into account the listed rules will help normalize the pressure.

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Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.

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