Why does a person need blood and what components does it consist of

1 41 - 19For the body to function optimally, all components and organs must be in a certain proportion.

Blood is a type of tissue with a characteristic composition.

Constantly moving, the blood carries out a lot of the most important functions for the body, and also transfers gases and elements through the circulatory system.

What are the components?

Briefly speaking about the composition of blood, plasma and the cells included in it are the defining substances. Plasma is a light liquid that makes up about 50% of the blood volume. Fibrinogen-free plasma is called serum.

There are three types of shaped elements in the blood:

  • Erythrocytes are red cells. The erythrocytes received their color due to the hemoglobin they contain. The amount of hemoglobin in peripheral blood is approximately 130 – 160 g/L (male) and 120 – 140 g/L (female),
  • Leukocytes – white cells,
  • Platelets are platelets.

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Arterial blood is characterized by a bright scarlet color. Penetrating from the lungs to the heart, arterial blood spreads through the organs, enriching them with oxygen, and then returns to the heart through the veins. With a lack of oxygen, the blood darkens.

The circulatory system of an adult contains 4-5 liters of blood, 55% of which is plasma, and 45% is formed by corpuscles, with erythrocytes being the majority (approximately 90%).

2 40 - 23The viscosity of blood is proportional to the proteins and erythrocytes contained in it, and their quality affects the blood pressure indicators.

Blood cells move either in groups or singly. Erythrocytes have the ability to move singly or in “flocks”, forming a flow in the central part of the vessel. Leukocytes usually move singly, adhering to the walls.

Blood functions

This fluid connective tissue, composed of different elements, performs the most important missions:

  • Protective function. Leukocytes take the palm, protecting the human body from infection, concentrating in the damaged part of the body. Their purpose is fusion with microorganisms (phagocytosis). Leukocytes also contribute to the elimination of altered and dead tissues from the body. Lymphocytes produce antibodies against dangerous agents.
  • Transport function. The supply of blood affects virtually all of the body’s functioning processes.

Blood makes it easier to move:

  • Oxygen from lungs to tissues
  • Carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs
  • Organic matter from the intestines to the cells,
  • End products excreted by the kidneys
  • Hormones
  • Other active substances.

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Transport of oxygen to tissues

  • Temperature balance regulation. People need blood to maintain their body temperature within 36 ° 4 ° C.

What does the blood consist of?

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The blood contains light yellow plasma. Its color can be attributed to the low content of bile pigment and other particles.

What is the composition of the plasma? About 90% of plasma consists of water, and the remaining 10% belongs to dissolved organic elements and minerals.

The following solutes are included in the plasma:

  • Organic – composed of glucose (0%) and proteins (approximately 1%),
  • Fats, amino acids, lactic and uric acids, etc. make up about 2% of plasma,
  • Minerals up to 1%.

It should be remembered: the composition of the blood varies depending on the food consumed and therefore is a variable value.

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The blood volume is:

  • 3 37 - 296% 8% of the mass in adults (up to 4 – 5 liters per 6 kg of weight),
  • Children and athletes have a blood volume that exceeds the volume of an adult by 1 – 5 times,
  • In newborns – up to 15%,
  • In infants in the first year of life, about 11%.

If a person is in a calm state, then the blood flow becomes much lower, since the blood partially remains in the venules and veins of the liver, spleen, and lungs.

The blood volume remains relatively stable in the body. The rapid loss of 25 – 50% of blood can provoke the death of the body – that is why in such cases, doctors resort to urgent transfusion.

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The proteins entering the plasma take an intensive part in water exchange. Antibodies form a certain percentage of proteins that neutralize foreign elements.

Fibrinogen (a soluble protein) affects blood clotting and is transformed into fibrin, which is unable to dissolve. Plasma contains hormones that produce endocrine glands and other bioactive elements that are very necessary for the body.


The most abundant cells, accounting for 44% – 48% of the blood volume. Erythrocytes got their name from the Greek word “red”.

Such a color was provided to them by hemoglobin of the most complex structure, which has the ability to interact with oxygen. Hemoglobin contains a protein and a non-protein part.

The protein part contains iron, due to which hemoglobin attaches molecular oxygen.

In structure, erythrocytes resemble disks, 7 µm in diameter, twice concave in the middle. Due to this structure, effective processes are provided, and due to the concavity, the plane of the erythrocyte increases – all this is necessary for gas exchange. In mature cells of erythrocytes, there are no nuclei. Transporting oxygen from the lungs to the tissues is the main mission of red blood cells.

Red blood cells are produced by the bone marrow.

Fully maturing in 5 days, the erythrocyte functions fruitfully for about 4 months. Erythrocytes are broken down in the spleen and liver, and hemoglobin is broken down into globin and heme.

So far, science is not able to accurately answer the question: what transformations then undergoes globin, but the iron ions released from heme again produce erythrocytes. Transformed into bilirubin (bile pigment), heme enters the digestive tract with bile. An insufficient number of red blood cells provokes anemia.


5 25 - 33Colorless cells that protect the body from infection and painful cell degeneration. White bodies are granular (granulocytes) and non-granular (agranulocytes).

Granulocytes include:

  • Neutrophils,
  • Basophils,
  • Eosinophils.

Differing in response to various dyes.

To agranulocytes:

  • Monocytes,
  • Lymphocytes.

Granular leukocytes have a granule in the cytoplasm and a nucleus with several sections. Agranulocytes are non-granular, include a rounded nucleus.

Granulocytes are produced by the bone marrow. The maturation of granulocytes is evidenced by their granular structure and the presence of segments.

Granulocytes enter the bloodstream, moving along the walls with amoeboid movements. They can leave blood vessels and concentrate in the foci of infection.


They play the role of phagocytosis. These are more voluminous cells that form in the bone marrow, lymph nodes and spleen.


6 15 - 35Smaller cells, subdivided into 3 types (B-, 0- and T). Each type of cell performs a specific function:

  • Antibodies are produced
  • Interferons,
  • Macrophages are activated
  • Cancer cells are eliminated.

Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.