The leading manifestation of hypertension is persistently high blood pressure, i.e., blood pressure that does not return to normal after a situational rise as a result of psychoemotional or physical exertion, but decreases only after taking antihypertensive drugs. According to WHO recommendations, normal blood pressure is not exceeding 140/90 mm Hg. Art. The excess of systolic rate over 140-160 mm RT. Art. and diastolic – over 90-95 mm RT. Art., recorded at rest during two measurements during two medical examinations, is considered hypertension.
The prevalence of hypertension among women and men is approximately the same 10-20%, more often the disease develops after the age of 40, although hypertension is often found even in adolescents. Hypertension contributes to the more rapid development and severe course of atherosclerosis and the occurrence of life-threatening complications. Along with atherosclerosis, hypertension is one of the most common causes of premature mortality of the young working population.
Distinguish between primary (essential) arterial hypertension (or hypertension) and secondary (symptomatic) arterial hypertension. Symptomatic hypertension accounts for 5 to 10% of cases of hypertension. Secondary hypertension is a manifestation of the underlying disease: kidney disease (glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, tuberculosis, hydronephrosis, tumors, renal artery stenosis), thyroid gland (thyrotoxicosis), adrenal gland (pheochromocytoma, Itsenko-Cushing’s syndrome, primary atherosclerosis, and hyperosclerosis) .
Primary arterial hypertension develops as an independent chronic disease and accounts for up to 90% of cases of arterial hypertension. In hypertension, high blood pressure is the result of an imbalance in the body’s regulatory system.
- Mechanism of disease development
- Pressure measurement
- The mechanism of development of hypertension
- Pressure measurement
- The danger of high blood pressure: critical indicators, forecasts and complications
- Hypertensive crisis
- Classification of the disease
- Pressure measurement
- Target organ damage
- Treatment of juvenile hypertension
- Prognosis for hypertension
- Hypertension Prevention
- How to live with hypertension
Mechanism of disease development
Hypertension differs for reasons of pressure rise, organ damage, blood pressure and course. The disease can be benign, or progressing slowly, or rapidly progressing – malignant. More important is the classification by level and pressure stability. Distinguish:
- normal GB (up to 129/85 mmHg),
- borderline (up to 140/90 mm Hg),
- hypertension of 1 degree (up to 160/100 mm Hg),
- 2 degrees (up to 180/110 mm Hg),
- 3 degrees (over 180/110 mm Hg).
Benign hypertension has three stages. The first or light is characterized by pressure rises up to 180 by 104 mm Hg, but after a short rest it normalizes. Some people complain of headaches, sleep problems, fatigue and poor performance. However, in most cases, the mild stage proceeds without pronounced individual symptoms.
The second or middle stage is characterized by a pressure of up to 200 by 115 mm Hg. at rest. It is accompanied by severe and throbbing headaches, dizziness, pain in the heart. During the examination, heart damage is detected. Subendocardial ischemia is sometimes detected. Possible cerebral strokes, transient ischemia of the brain.
The third or severe stage is accompanied by stable and strong increases in pressure. At the beginning of the stage, increased pressure is unstable, and usually manifests itself after physical exertion, as well as changes in atmospheric pressure, emotional upheaval. Normalization is possible after myocardial infarction or stroke. After a heart attack, headless hypertension often occurs. That is, a condition when only systolic or pulse pressure decreases.
The causes of hypertension lie in the violation of the regulatory activity of the main departments of the central nervous system, which control the work of all internal organs. Frequent overstrain and overwork, both physical and mental in nature, prolonged, constant and intense unrest, stress can lead to development.
Work at night, often in a noisy environment can also trigger a disease.
The risk group includes lovers of salty foods. Salt causes spasms of the arteries and prevents the elimination of fluid. An important role is played by heredity. The likelihood of the onset of the disease increases if two or more relatives have hypertension.
Some diseases also provoke the development of hypertension. These include:
- Diseases of the adrenal glands and kidneys,
- Thyroid disease
- Sugar diabetes
Among women at highest risk, those who are at menopause. This is due to hormonal changes in the body, emotional exacerbations, nervous reactions. It is the menopause that accounts for about 60% of all diseases in women.
In men, an increased risk is determined by age and gender. Hypertension in 20 years and 30 years develops in approximately 9% of men. At the age of 40 years, the percentage increases to 35, and after 65 years – already 50%. Hypertension is more common in males under the age of 40 than in women. In the older age group, the ratio changes – this is explained by a large percentage of male mortality from complications.
The causes of hypertension lie in physical inactivity and bad habits. Components of tobacco smoke provoke spasms of blood vessels and damage the thin walls of arteries. Hypodynamia is accompanied by a slowed metabolism, and if the load increases, the untrained heart gets tired many times faster.
Symptomatic hypertension is detected most easily through examination and minimal laboratory techniques. Nephrogenic hypertension is most often associated with chronic kidney disease. Tachycardia, dilated pupils, and high blood sugar indicate the presence of central nervous hypertension.
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A dynamic pressure measurement is used to determine the extent and presence of the disease. Spend it as follows: the atmosphere should be comfortable and calm. Measurement begins no earlier than ten minutes after the start of the patient’s intake. An hour before the visit exclude smoking, eating any food and strong drinks (tea, coffee, alcohol), any physical activity, the use of eye or nasal drops. During the first treatment, Blood pressure readings are taken from two hands of the patient, with repeated measurement after 2 minutes.
With a difference in readings of more than 5 mm Hg continue measuring on the arm with great pressure.
Hypertension is classified according to a number of signs: the reasons for the increase in blood pressure, damage to target organs, the level of blood pressure, course, etc. By the etiological principle, they distinguish between essential (primary) and secondary (symptomatic) arterial hypertension. By the nature of the course, hypertension can have a benign (slowly progressing) or malignant (rapidly progressing) course.
The greatest practical value is the level and stability of blood pressure. Depending on the level, they distinguish:
According to the level of diastolic arterial pressure, hypertensive disease variants are distinguished:
Benign, slowly progressing hypertension, depending on the damage to the target organs and the development of associated (concomitant) conditions, goes through three stages:
Stage I (mild to moderate hypertension) – Blood pressure is unstable, fluctuates during the day from 140/90 to 160-179 / 95-114 mm Hg. Art., hypertensive crises are rare, are mild. There are no signs of organic damage to the central nervous system and internal organs.
Stage II (severe hypertension) – Blood pressure in the range of 180-209 / 115-124 mm RT. Art., typical hypertensive crises. Objectively (during physical, laboratory research, echocardiography, electrocardiography, radiography), narrowing of the retinal arteries, microalbuminuria, increased creatinine in blood plasma, left ventricular hypertrophy, transient cerebral ischemia are recorded.
Stage III (very severe hypertension) – Blood pressure from 200-300 / 125-129 mm RT. Art. and above, severe hypertensive crises often develop. The damaging effect of hypertension causes the phenomena of hypertonic encephalopathy, left ventricular failure, the development of cerebral vascular thrombosis, hemorrhages and optic nerve edema, exfoliating vascular aneurysms, nephroangiosclerosis, renal failure, etc.
Adolescence and adolescence is characterized by the completion of the development of many important systems and organs. During this period, the nervous system is considered the most unstable. Various stresses, constant scandals at school lead to the fact that internal regulation is disturbed. Because of this, the vascular tone changes, the blood begins to press on the arteries and veins, causing an increase in pressure.
With arterial hypertension in people younger than 20 years, only internal organs suffer. In muscle tissue, pressure remains normal. Sometimes in children, the appearance of hypertension coincides with the onset of active growth of the body. In such a situation, specific therapy is not required. The body is just trying to get into a state of equilibrium.
- A nerve impulse leaves the sympathetic center and enters the central neural network.
- From the central synapse, the pulse passes to the effector.
- Under the influence of an impulse, norepinephrine is released, and then comes into contact with the structure of a specific organic system.
- The impulse is transformed into a contraction of the muscles of the arterioles.
Based on the described scheme, we can conclude that the central nervous system controls pressure. If the child has psychological problems or the functioning of any organ is impaired, nerve impulses will constantly be directed to the vessels, causing them to contract unnaturally.
As the child’s body grows, pressure indicators will change. This is considered normal. But if during the examination the doctor revealed the following indicators, then he can diagnose hypertension:
- 112 mmHg Art. and more for children under 2 years old;
- 116 mmHg Art. and more for children from 3 to 5 years;
- 122 mmHg Art. and more for patients from 6 to 9 years old;
- 126 mmHg Art. and up for patients under 12 years old;
- from 13 years old, a diagnosis is made if the indicators are more than 135 mm Hg. st .;
- 142 mmHg Art. and more for adolescents from 16 years old and adults.
In approximately 60% of cases, the increase in pressure is due to congenital pathologies of the internal organs and acquired diseases. To normalize the indicators, it will be necessary to normalize the work of the body, because eliminate existing ailments. In other cases, hypertension is diagnosed in adolescents, manifested under the influence of external factors.
The mechanism of development of hypertension
Arterial hypertension causes life-threatening complications. The probability of their development is determined by certain conditions:
- level of pressure indicators;
- age-related changes;
- the degree of damage to internal organs;
- the presence of other diseases (in addition to hypertension);
- factors causing additional risks (overweight, smoking, high sugar, etc.)
The higher the blood pressure, the older the age, the more organs are damaged, the more dangerous the consequences for hypertension. If, moreover, a person suffers from a chronic disease (or several), and is also subject to the influence of pathological factors, then the risk of life-threatening complications increases several times.
High blood pressure significantly spoils a person’s life: poor health, impaired mental ability, neurological disorders, impotence, decreased libido, and finally, a constant fear of sudden death. That is why it is necessary to monitor the level of pressure and follow all the recommendations of the doctor to reduce it.
The basis of the pathogenesis of hypertension is an increase in the volume of cardiac output and resistance of the peripheral vascular bed. In response to the stress factor, disturbances in the regulation of peripheral vascular tone occur by the higher centers of the brain (hypothalamus and medulla oblongata). There is a spasm of arterioles on the periphery, including renal, which causes the formation of dyskinetic and discirculatory syndromes. The secretion of neurohormones of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system increases. Aldosterone, participating in mineral metabolism, causes a retention of water and sodium in the vascular bed, which further increases the volume of blood circulating in blood vessels and increases blood pressure.
With arterial hypertension, blood viscosity increases, which causes a decrease in the speed of blood flow and metabolic processes in tissues. The inert walls of the vessels thicken, their lumen narrows, which captures a high level of total peripheral vascular resistance and makes arterial hypertension irreversible. Further, as a result of increased permeability and plasma saturation of the vascular walls, ellastofibrosis and arteriolosclerosis develops, which ultimately leads to secondary changes in the tissues of the organs: myocardial sclerosis, hypertensive encephalopathy, primary nephroangiosclerosis.
The degree of damage to various organs with hypertension can be different, therefore, several clinical and anatomical variants of hypertension are distinguished with a primary lesion of the vessels of the kidneys, heart, and brain.
The leading role in the development of hypertension is played by a violation of the regulatory activity of the higher parts of the central nervous system, which control the work of internal organs, including the cardiovascular system. Therefore, the development of hypertension can be caused by frequently recurring nervous strain, prolonged and severe unrest, frequent nervous shocks. Excessive stress associated with intellectual activity, night work, the influence of vibration and noise contributes to the occurrence of hypertension.
A risk factor in the development of hypertension is increased salt intake, causing arterial spasm and fluid retention. It is proved that consumption per day gt; 5 g of salt significantly increases the risk of developing hypertension, especially if there is a hereditary predisposition.
Heredity, aggravated by hypertension, plays a significant role in its development in the immediate family (parents, sisters, brothers). The likelihood of developing hypertension significantly increases in the presence of hypertension in 2 or more close relatives.
Promote the development of hypertension and mutually support each other arterial hypertension in combination with diseases of the adrenal glands, thyroid gland, kidneys, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, obesity, chronic infections (tonsillitis).
In women, the risk of developing hypertension increases in the menopause due to hormonal imbalance and exacerbation of emotional and nervous reactions. 60% of women get hypertension precisely during menopause.
Age factor and gender determine the increased risk of developing hypertension in men. At the age of 20-30 years, hypertension develops in 9,4% of men, after 40 years – in 35%, and after 60-65 years – already in 50%. In the age group up to 40 years, hypertension is more common in men, in the older field the ratio changes in favor of women. This is due to a higher rate of male premature mortality in middle age from complications of hypertension, as well as menopausal changes in the female body. Currently, hypertension is increasingly being detected in people at a young and mature age.
Extremely conducive to the development of hypertension are alcoholism and smoking, an irrational diet, overweight, lack of exercise, an unfavorable environment.
It is believed that in 5-10% of all cases, arterial hypertension can be a side symptom of another disease or medications taken (secondary hypertension). In the remaining 90% of cases, the reasons are not fully understood. Hypertension is caused by neuropsychiatric stress, stress, constant emotional stress, hormonal imbalance, or a genetic predisposition (primary hypertension). The following factors can also influence:
- endocrine system pathologies;
- kidney disease;
- cholesterol metabolic disorders;
- vascular changes associated with age;
- smoking, alcohol.
To understand why hypertension is dangerous, you need to know that before going to the chronic stage, it goes through three degrees of development. Each of them has its own pressure indicators.
(degrees of hypertension)
The second degree is characterized by periodic fever, chills, more frequent headaches, but these symptoms may not be. This is dangerously high blood pressure. No wonder hypertension is called the “silent killer.” Therefore, it is necessary to treat the pathology even in the absence of symptoms and pain. Hypertension of the first degree may be asymptomatic, headache manifests itself periodically, it is “written off” to fatigue or change of weather.
With high numbers of systolic pressure in the third stage, the vessels are forced to resist strenuously with an increase in cardiac impulse to push blood into the vessels. Diastolic pressure is increased to maintain the strength of the blood flow between the tremors of the heart muscle, subject to good elasticity of the vascular wall. Some adverse conditions and habits contribute to the gradual development of hypertension due to a steady increase in pressure.
With a predisposition to hypertension (hereditary), the permeability of cell membranes increases. The balance of the pressor (intravascular) and depressor mechanisms will be disturbed if other risk factors join:
- smoking and alcohol;
- stress, frustration, depression;
- obesity, high insulin levels;
- gender and age.
If fat is deposited on the walls of blood vessels, they become denser, become thick, blood clots form in them. That is why the vascular lumen decreases, microcirculation in organs and tissues that are important for human life is disrupted.
With the daily use of alcohol-containing drinks, the pressure can increase significantly, and hypertension can pass from the first degree to the third. When smoking, components of tobacco smoke cause spasms of blood vessels. Nicotine, resins and carcinogens mechanically damage the walls of blood vessels, and atherosclerotic plaques form at the site of damage.
A daily stay in a stressful state contributes to vascular wear and the transition of high blood pressure to the chronic stage. Many adrenaline buffs get not only “pleasure” from car racing, jumping from bridges on the ropes and other extreme sports, but also stress hormone, which dramatically increases pressure.
With an unfavorable state of the vessels, any stress can lead to a hypertensive crisis, since adrenaline adversely affects the heart. It often begins to contract and throw out large portions of blood, correspondingly increasing pressure above normal.
With a sedentary lifestyle, hypertension occurs much earlier by 30-50% than in active people. An untrained heart does not have enough strength to cope with increased stress during a slow metabolism. With adequate physical activity, it is easier for him to cope with a stressful situation. With physical inactivity, the nervous system and body function are weakened.
In obese people, blood pressure rises due to the abundance in the diet of animal fats, salty foods and “cushioned” life. In the presence of each excess kilogram of weight, the indicators on the tonometer increase by 2 mm RT. Art., develops atherosclerosis.
A vicious circle is created: cholesterol worsens the elasticity of blood vessels, atherosclerotic plaques narrow their lumen, and heart function is difficult. Arterial hypertension also provokes the development of arterial sclerosis. With an excess of salt (edible sodium), the arteries are spasmodic, fluid in the body is retained, which develops this dangerous disease.
The male population of 35-50 years of age is more prone to the development of arterial hypertension. Women suffer from pressure more during menopause. In older people, the numbers on the tonometer are always higher.
In the initial stages of the disease, patients complain of tinnitus, “flies” or a veil before the eyes, weakness, dizziness, headaches caused by convulsive contraction of the vessels of the brain (usually in the morning) in the neck, temple or crown. In the area of the heart, stitching, aching, constricting pains disturb. With the development of the disease, others are added to these symptoms:
- nose bleed;
- sleep disorders;
- memory impairment;
- deterioration of vision;
- weakness, fatigue.
The clinic of hypertension in the initial stages can be mild. A person for a long time may not even be aware of high blood pressure and processes developing in the vessels. The early and first signs of hypertension are irritability for no apparent reason and increased fatigue.
Symptoms of hypertension in the early stages: neurotic disorders, weakness, sleep disturbances, tinnitus and ringing and dizziness, rapid heartbeat.
People note a decrease in performance, loss of concentration. Shortness of breath appears. Headache with hypertension appears more often in the morning in the temporal and occipital region. By the end of the day and in the supine position it may increase. They are associated with a violation of the tone of venules and arterioles. Symptoms of hypertension include pain in the heart.
Signs of hypertension at a later date are veil and flickering of “flies” in front of the eyes, as well as other photopsies. They are explained by spasms of the retinal arterioles. Malignant hypertension can be accompanied by retinal hemorrhages that lead to blindness. In rare cases, the symptoms of hypertension are manifested by vomiting, swelling of the hands and numbness of the fingers, chills, in the morning – heaviness in the eyelids and puffiness of the face, excessive sweating.
The danger of high blood pressure: critical indicators, forecasts and complications
This question is asked by many whose tonometer shows large numbers when measuring pressure.
Hypertension is a cardiovascular disease characterized by high blood pressure: from 140 to 90 millimeters of mercury. It is from these figures that doctors note the presence of the disease.
If ignored, the problem could result in very serious complications. Until death.
The pressure can rise strongly and not very. According to the indicators of hypertension, 3 degrees are distinguished, which differ in consequences and rate of rise:
- Soft. Indicators 140 to 90 or 160 to 100. Not dangerous, does not cause problematic changes in the heart and other organs.
- Moderate. Indicators 160 to 100 or 180 to 110. It forms internal pathology for several years. Effects:
- hypertrophy of the left ventricle of the heart;
- narrowing of the arteries of the retina;
- severe vasoconstriction
- Heavy. Indicators 180 to 110, the most dangerous degree. The vessels lose elasticity, burst, hemorrhages occur. Rupture of blood vessels threatens a heart attack or stroke. The indicators above are considered deadly.
The organs, which work at an accelerated mode with increasing pressure, are called “targets,” such as the heart, blood vessels, brain, and kidneys. A sharp jump in pressure can cause blood clotting, an increase in cholesterol and adrenaline, hormonal disruptions. Sometimes the cause is pain in the spine, which often manifests itself in athletes.
What is dangerous high blood pressure for the heart:
- Left ventricular hypertrophy, the reason is strong contractions when pushing blood and creating pressure. The heart wall thickens, which requires increased blood supply to the heart, with hypertension this is impossible.
- Violation of the heart rate.
- Necrosis of the heart tissue.
- Myocardial infarction.
- Heart failure. The heart is overextended, but has little rest, the patient feels chronic fatigue.
- Visual impairment. Arteries that feed the optic nerves experience cramping; the retina is poorly supplied with blood.
- Vitreous hemorrhage, when vision is completely lost, or in the retina, after which a person sees only a black spot.
- Angina pectoris. The work of the heart is disturbed, this can provoke overwork or stress. Heart pains, nausea, vomiting appear.
- Hypertensive crisis. Due to a sharp jump in pressure, dizziness, nausea occur, arrhythmia occurs. Often fixed in patients with high meteorological dependence, this also affects women during menopause.
The danger of high blood pressure for blood vessels:
- Vascular transformation. They provide normal blood flow, strain at elevated pressure, become covered with plaques of cholesterol. Due to overvoltage, they never relax, which leads to the replacement of the walls of the muscles with connective tissue. Such a process in the organs of vision leads to blindness, in the limbs – to atherosclerosis of blood vessels.
- Brain disorders. Changes in the functioning of cerebral vessels provoke a failure of blood circulation, headaches, and impaired coordination of movements.
- Stroke. Brain hemorrhage. A sharp headache, impaired speech, partial paralysis of the body are characteristic.
- Aortic aneurysm. It’s about the main artery, if high pressure weakens it, the walls can split and even burst. It manifests itself in pains in the chest, abdomen, back, which often ends in death.
The danger of high kidney pressure:
- Violation of excretory function. Slag accumulates in the blood, hypertension provokes vascular sclerosis, and that, in turn, pathological changes in the kidneys.
- Microalbuminuria Protein begins to leak through the kidney filter, and blood tests show this.
Hypertension negatively affects the blood vessels of the brain, which leads to mental disorders, memory impairment, and chronic headaches.
- heart disease;
- kidney inflammation;
- malfunction of the thyroid gland;
- fatty food abuse;
- an excess of salt in the diet;
- alcohol, smoking;
- taking contraceptives or antibiotics.
A pressure spike – 20 or more units – is manifested in certain symptoms. The patient experiences:
- dizziness, pain;
- redness of the eye proteins;
- rumble in the ears;
- feeling hot
In this way, the body signals that the heart is working in an accelerated mode, and quick help is needed. If there is cholesterol in the vessels, they are not able to stretch and let the blood flow, burst. Which over time becomes the cause of more complex diseases.
The first digit in the measurement of pressure denotes its value at the time of contraction of the heart muscle, when blood is pushed through the vessels. Such pressure is called upper or systolic. The second digit indicates lower pressure or – diastolic, which supports the walls of blood vessels between heart contractions. The difference between the indicators is 40-50 units.
Usually, when the pressure jump changes both numbers, but there are cases when the upper or lower remain the same. This is due to the characteristics of the indicators.
The upper pressure is determined by the heart muscle, the frequency and strength of its contraction during the release of blood. Doctors say: systolic pressure reflects the state of the myocardium, so they call it cardiac. Therefore, if low pressure is normal, and high pressure is greater than normal, this is considered a manifestation of heart disease.
There is also a pulse pressure – the difference between the upper and lower. If this gap is large, this indicates a violation of blood circulation, a large load on the vessels and heart.
A big difference in performance leads to rapid aging of the heart, brain and kidneys!
High readings of lower pressure are a signal of a poor state of blood vessels, they lose elasticity, are clogged with cholesterol plaques. These figures are also affected by:
- severe stress;
- an increase in blood volume, which is observed with the use of a large amount of salt;
- poor vascular elasticity;
- kidney disease, these organs begin to secrete renin, which increases muscle tone of blood vessels.
The most dangerous increased diastolic pressure is in the absence of pain in the initial stages.
If the patient is diagnosed with hypertension, the most important task for him is to control pressure. Treatment complexes have been developed that are selected individually, taking into account the type of disease and the age of hypertension.
It is prescribed if the patient has very high blood pressure or has a history of other diseases, poor heredity. At the initial stage, the course is selected for 3-4 months, then adjusted as necessary. From a series of standard recommendations:
- calcium antagonists;
- beta blockers.
- Leaves – 4 tbsp. spoons.
- Vodka – 0,5 liters.
Preparation: rinse leaves, finely chop, pour vodka. Insist 14 days, drain. Keep refrigerated. Drink 3 times a day for 30 drops.
- Peony – 1 bottle.
- Peppermint – 1 bottle, 25 milliliters.
- Valerian – 1 bottle.
- Eucalyptus – 2 bottles, only 50 milliliters.
- Motherwort – 4 vials, totaling 100 milliliters.
- Clove – 10 pieces.
Preparation: pour tinctures into a jar, add cloves. Close tightly and keep in a dark place for 2 weeks. Do not shake! Take 1 teaspoon, drink with water, three times a day, for 30 days. Take a break for 10 days, then repeat the course.
Hypertension of stages 1 and 2 is successfully treated with micromagnets, these are plates with a diameter of 5-7 millimeters and a thickness of 2 millimeters. They are set with the north pole to the skin and fixed with a band-aid.
- angle of the lower jaw, in front of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, in the place of pulsation of the right carotid artery;
- behind the ear, in a hollow at the base of the nape;
- on the crease of the wrist.
Japanese experts advise wearing micromagnets for 8 days, every 3 days they need to be changed. Yugoslav doctors recommend replacing every 5-7 days. Russian doctors say: it is advisable to wear micromagnets for half an hour a day, so as not to irritate the skin with an adhesive plaster.
There are also preventive methods that will help to avoid attacks of hypertension, if you maintain the heart and blood vessels in a normal condition.
- Avoid nervous shocks, always relieve stress with soothing drops.
- Control weight, do not gain extra pounds.
- To devote time to gymnastics, walking, race walking.
- Refuse alcohol and smoking.
- Exclude fat and flour from the diet, reduce salt intake.
- Add the maximum amount of fruits and vegetables to the menu.
- Take vitamin complexes to maintain the body. Read more about vitamins with high blood pressure – read here.
High blood pressure is dangerous by the manifestation of rather serious diseases, but the diagnosis of “hypertension” does not mean at all that they will certainly appear. Properly selected treatment, nutrition, as well as walking and physical education will help to keep the pressure normal for more than one year, the main thing is tight control and self-discipline. These restrictions often help save not only health but also life.
Complications of hypertension:
- Hypertensive crisis,
- Visual impairment
- Circulatory disorders in the brain,
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage,
- Dissecting aortic aneurysm,
- Damage to target organs (kidneys, heart, brain, veins and arteries, fundus vessels),
- Hypertensive cardiomyopathy (VL, left ventricular hypertension)
- Hypertonic angioedema.
With adolescent hypertension, certain changes occur in the patient’s body. They are characterized by a change in the density of the vascular walls and impaired circulation. This can lead to different consequences. The most common of these are swelling and cramps. Edema of the extremities is accompanied by almost all diseases of the cardiovascular system. Against the background of water retention in children, the complexion changes, urination becomes more rare.
Seizures usually occur in the presence of ICP or encephalopathy and appear in the form of crises. Brain vessels are narrowed, so the nervous system begins to give spontaneous impulses, which is accompanied by involuntary muscle contractions, loss of consciousness and memory lapses.
With a prolonged or malignant course of hypertension, chronic damage to the vessels of the target organs develops: the brain, kidneys, heart, eyes. Instability of blood circulation in these organs against the background of persistently high blood pressure can cause the development of angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke, cardiac asthma, pulmonary edema, exfoliating aortic aneurysms, retinal detachment, uremia. The development of acute emergency conditions against the background of hypertension requires a reduction in blood pressure in the first minutes and hours, because it can lead to the death of the patient.
The course of hypertension is often complicated by hypertensive crises – periodic short-term rises in blood pressure. The development of crises can be preceded by emotional or physical stress, stress, a change in meteorological conditions, etc. With a hypertensive crisis, a sudden rise in blood pressure is observed, which can last several hours or days and is accompanied by dizziness, sharp headaches, a feeling of heat, palpitations, vomiting, cardialgia vision disorder.
Patients during a hypertensive crisis are frightened, excited or inhibited, drowsy; in severe crisis, they may lose consciousness. Against the background of a hypertensive crisis and existing organic changes in blood vessels, myocardial infarction, acute cerebrovascular accident, acute left ventricular failure can often occur.
The options for the course of hypertension are diverse and depend on the level of increase in blood pressure and on the involvement of target organs. In the early stages, hypertension is characterized by neurotic disorders: dizziness, transient headaches (often in the back of the head) and heaviness in the head, tinnitus, throbbing in the head, sleep disturbance, fatigue, lethargy, feeling overwhelmed, palpitations, nausea.
In the future, shortness of breath during fast walking, running, loading, climbing stairs is added. Blood pressure is persistently higher than 140-160 / 90-95 mm RT. (or 19-21 / 12 hPa). Sweating, redness of the face, chills, trembling, numbness of the toes and arms are noted, dull prolonged pains in the region of the heart are typical. With fluid retention, swelling of the hands is observed (“symptom of the ring” – it is difficult to remove the ring from the finger), face, puffiness of the eyelids, stiffness.
In patients with hypertension, there is a veil, flickering of flies and lightnings in front of the eyes, which is associated with spasm of blood vessels in the retina; there is a progressive decrease in vision, retinal hemorrhages can cause complete loss of vision.
First you need to understand what a hypertensive crisis is. This term refers to an acute and significant increase in blood pressure, which is accompanied by symptoms characteristic of the disease. In addition to hypertension, it can provoke:
- Chronic and acute glomerulonephritis,
- Toxicosis in late pregnancy,
- Renovascular hypertension
- Benign brain tumors,
- Heavy metal poisoning,
- Renal failure.
Crisis can be caused by hormonal imbalance and sudden changes in weather. One of the most common causes is trauma of a psycho-emotional nature. Symptoms: severe and severe headache, nausea with vomiting, dizziness, fainting, short-term blindness and other visual impairments, adynamia, sudden mood swings, tearfulness. Symptoms from the brain:
- Violation of the permeability of the vessel walls,
- The ingress of blood plasma into the brain substance, which leads to edema.
The danger of crisis in the possible development:
- Retinal detachment,
- Acute pulmonary edema,
- Cardiac asthma
- Myocardial infarction
- Angina pectoris
Complications of hypertension cause a serious threat to a person’s life, and require regular medical supervision.
With critical figures of pressure and failure of the mechanisms of autoregulation of blood circulation to the brain, increased intracranial pressure, accompanied by severe pain, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, a hypertensive crisis is manifested. The gradual regression of such a dangerous condition can last a day or more. Hypertensive crises are of three types, which depends on the mechanism of increasing pressure: with an increase in the release of blood from the cavity of the heart, with the resistance of peripheral vessels, or simultaneously for these two reasons.
With a sharp increase in systolic pressure, the development of the crisis occurs quickly, this manifests itself:
- sharp and sudden throbbing headache;
- flickering of “flies” and stains before the eyes;
- nausea and vomiting, excessive urination;
- general agitation, palpitations;
- feeling of heat and trembling in the body.
- Hypokinetic crisis
With already existing arterial hypertension, an increase in diastolic pressure occurs. With the gradual development of symptoms, the crisis is prolonged. It can end with an ischemic stroke.
With the rapid development of this type of crisis, a jump in systolic and diastolic indicators occurs. Acute left ventricular failure accompanies and complicates the condition. As a result, pulmonary edema develops.
Consequently, headache attacks at any time of the day, heaviness and bursting in the neck area indicate dangerous hypertension. A strong cough, tilting the head or straining only exacerbate the pain, swelling of the eyelids and face. With stress, a surge of emotions, or even at rest, heart pain can occur. The patient sees objects through the “veil of fog”, noise is felt in the ears.
Blood circulation is disturbed in the internal organs and brain, therefore, diseases arise. Some of them may end in death. With stratification of the aortic walls, clogged arteries, vascular diseases are diagnosed. The kidneys suffer from high plasma creatine concentrations (more than 2 mg / 100 ml) and deficiency. With circulatory disorders, a stroke develops in the brain. With hemorrhages and swelling of the optic disc, the fundus is damaged and blindness can occur.
A frequent and dangerous complication of hypertension. It manifests itself depending on the form. The mild form can proceed imperceptibly. Severe, often and prolonged dizziness with hypertension may indicate a pronounced form of the disease. Symptoms also include – fainting and frequent fainting, sudden pressure drops.
A severe form is accompanied by fainting and short-term cardiac arrest. Treatment of bradycardia with hypertension can occur with homeopathic and medication. Usually prescribed diuretics, alpha-blockers, nifedicipine. From homeopathy, calendula, St. John’s wort, strawberries, and shake are prescribed.
The following syndromes for hypertension are also related to complications:
- Myocardial lesions
- Kidney damage
- Vascular encephalopathy,
- Arterial hypertension syndrome.
Associated clinical conditions: ischemic stroke, heart failure, coronary revascularization, renal failure, damage to arteries, edema of the optic nerves.
Classification of the disease
The examination of patients with suspected hypertension is aimed at: confirming a steady increase in blood pressure, excluding secondary arterial hypertension, detecting the presence and degree of damage to target organs, assessing the stage of arterial hypertension and the degree of risk of complications. When collecting an anamnesis, special attention is paid to the patient’s exposure to risk factors for hypertension, complaints, increase in blood pressure, the presence of hypertensive crises and concomitant diseases.
Informative to determine the presence and extent of hypertension is a dynamic measurement of blood pressure. To obtain reliable indicators of the level of blood pressure, the following conditions must be observed:
- Measurement Blood pressure is carried out in a comfortable, relaxed atmosphere, after 5-10 minutes of patient adaptation. It is recommended to exclude smoking, exercise, food, tea and coffee, the use of nasal and eye drops (sympathomimetics) 1 hour before the measurement.
- The patient’s position – sitting, standing or lying down, the hand is on the same level with the heart. The cuff is placed on the shoulder, 2,5 cm above the fossa of the elbow.
- At the patient’s first visit, blood pressure is measured on both hands, with repeated measurements after a 1-2 minute interval. With asymmetry Blood pressure gt; 5 mm Hg, subsequent measurements should be made on the arm with higher rates. In other cases, blood pressure is usually measured on a “non-working” hand.
If the blood pressure indicators during repeated measurements differ, then the arithmetic mean is taken as true (excluding the minimum and maximum blood pressure indicators). With hypertension, self-monitoring of blood pressure at home is extremely important.
Laboratory studies include clinical blood and urine tests, biochemical determination of potassium, glucose, creatinine, total blood cholesterol, triglycerides, urine tests according to Zimnitsky and Nechiporenko, and Rehberg’s test.
On electrocardiography in 12 leads with hypertension, hypertrophy of the left ventricle is determined. ECG data are verified by echocardiography. Ophthalmoscopy with fundus examination reveals the degree of hypertensive angioretinopathy. Ultrasound of the heart determines an increase in the left heart. To determine the damage to the target organs, abdominal ultrasound, EEG, urography, aortography, CT of the kidneys and adrenal glands are performed.
Target organ damage
Most often, left ventricular hypertrophy develops. This happens because the heart muscle has to push blood with great effort into the deformed vessels. Such work leads to a thickening of the muscle wall and a lack of blood circulation. Dangerous is muscle sprain and tired heart. Another pathology is a violation of the diastolic function of the lie.
Increasing fatigue of the heart muscle leads to a moment when it cannot take a relaxed position. The thickened wall cannot relax in the diastolic phase, in which oxygen saturation usually occurs. All this leads to a third pathology – chronic failure. It develops as a result of constant oxygen starvation. It is very difficult to treat the disease, and in combination with other pathologies, it leads to death.
Arterial vessels with hypertension are in a constant narrowed state due to contraction of the muscle layer. This leads to the fact that the vessels cease to relax, and muscle tissue is replaced by connective. This is called remodeling of the vascular bed. Loss of vision, peripheral atherosclerosis of the extremities and other diseases are associated with this complex and irreversible consequence.
Hemorrhage causes almost 25% of all strokes. And hypertension is the main cause of hemorrhages, which have a high percentage of deaths. Insufficient blood supply to the brain leads to ischemic stroke. This complication accounts for more than 70% of cases. It is caused by a narrowing of the cerebral arteries or a blockage of the canal by a thrombus.
Another pathology is hypertensive encephalopathy. This is an emergency condition, accompanied by severe headache, increased blood pressure, neurological symptoms. If hypertension is triggered, there is a chance of developing cognitive impairment and dementia. These are changes in the subcortical substance and brain atrophy, which are responsible for disturbances in mental processes.
One of the most common complications is microalbuminuria. The earliest sign of kidney damage and the development of kidney failure. The chronic form of renal failure is characterized by the loss of the ability of the kidneys to remove metabolic products from the blood.
Treatment of juvenile hypertension
In the treatment of hypertension, it is important not only to lower blood pressure, but also to correct and minimize the risk of complications as much as possible. It is impossible to completely cure hypertension, but it is quite realistic to stop its development and reduce the incidence of crises.
Hypertension requires the combined efforts of the patient and the doctor to achieve a common goal. At any stage of hypertension, it is necessary:
- Follow a diet with an increased intake of potassium and magnesium, limiting the intake of salt;
- Stop or severely limit alcohol and smoking;
- Get rid of excess weight;
- Increase physical activity: it is useful to engage in swimming, physical therapy, to make pedestrian walks;
- Systematically and for a long time take the prescribed drugs under the control of blood pressure and the dynamic supervision of a cardiologist.
In case of hypertension, antihypertensive drugs are prescribed that inhibit vasomotor activity and inhibit the synthesis of norepinephrine, diuretics, β-blockers, antiplatelet agents, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic, sedatives. The selection of drug therapy is carried out strictly individually, taking into account the entire spectrum of risk factors, blood pressure, the presence of concomitant diseases and damage to target organs.
The criteria for the effectiveness of the treatment of hypertension is the achievement of:
- short-term goals: maximum reduction of blood pressure to the level of good tolerance;
- medium-term goals: preventing the development or progression of changes on the part of target organs;
- long-term goals: prevention of cardiovascular and other complications and prolonging the life of the patient.
How to treat hypertension depends on the stage of the disease, complications, age and many other parameters. The medication is selected by the attending physician. The desire to fight the disease on your own can result in dire consequences. Modern treatment of hypertension begins with non-drug methods, which several times increase the effectiveness of drugs.
You need to start by establishing a daily regimen, eliminating any stress, do not forget about physical exercises and long walks. An important point is how to deal with hypertension, diet. The patient should refuse or significantly reduce the consumption of salt, drink less, completely eliminate alcoholic beverages and coffee. If you follow all the recommendations, you can avoid drug treatment of the disease.
Usually, drugs are used for treatment:
- Type receptor antagonists
- Calcium channel blockers.
The goal of drug treatment is to reduce the risk of complications. Doctors are trying to find a complex of drugs that would equally effectively reduce pressure, and allow to “protect” target organs. For initial treatment, ACE inhibitors and calcium channel blockers are most often prescribed for young and elderly patients.
In rare and complex cases, bloodletting is prescribed. Bloodletting with hypertension is an ancient but controversial treatment. Today they use leeches for him. The benefits of therapy are short-term improvement. Cons – there is no evidence of a positive effect on the disease.
Medication for pressure – only as directed by a doctor
Considering the question of how to get rid of hypertension, it is worth paying attention to homeopathic medicines. They are usually recommended when target organs are already affected. Homeopathy for hypertension has an important advantage: a mild effect. Medications have no contraindications or side effects. The disadvantage is that the treatment with homeopathic remedies is rather slow. When choosing this method, you must consider:
- Homeopathic medicines are prescribed simultaneously with medicines,
- The combination of medication and a healthy lifestyle,
- With an average degree of risk, this type is often the only possible one.
What to take at home to lower blood pressure in the initial stages of the disease:
Inpatient treatment is usually received with a complicated hypertensive crisis:
- Acute hypertensive encephalopathy,
- Cardiac asthma
- Pulmonary edema
- Acute coronary syndrome (unstable angina and myocardial infarction),
- An aortic aneurysm,
- Severe arterial bleeding,
Diagnosis of complications: sudden onset of an attack, elevated hell (elevated systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure), nausea and vomiting, blood flow from the nose, severe headaches, cramps, paresthesia of the fingertips, cheeks and lips, transient speech and hemiparesis, hyperhidrosis, cardiac dysfunction, impaired renal function.
Upon admission, the doctors of the clinic begin to carry out the main diagnostic actions:
- Every 15 minutes a measurement of the dynamics of blood pressure,
- General analysis of blood and urine,
- Biochemical analysis for the detection of potassium, sodium, urea, calcium, creatinine, fibrinogen, coagulogram,
Also, the patient must be prescribed a neurologist, a Reberg test and rheoencephalography, as well as determining the type of cerebral hemodynamics. While in the hospital, inpatient treatment depends on the presence of complications, the severity of the attack and other diseases. First aid is aimed at reducing the activity of the left heart ventricle and eliminating symptoms such as:
- Peripheral vasoconstriction,
- Brain ischemia
- Heart failure.
Of great importance in the treatment of a complicated attack is the introduction of hypotensive drugs, hospitalization in ICUs and regular check of blood pressure.
Non-drug treatment of hypertensive state includes increasing immunity, cleansing the body, massage, gymnastics, diet. It is important to adhere to the prescription of doctors, and not to violate the established regime.
The disease is treated with medicines only in the last stages. In the beginning, a good result for normalizing pressure is given by a change in lifestyle. If the patient is overweight, a diet is prescribed. Also recommended for pressure correction:
- normalize the mode;
- change nutrition;
- increase physical activity.
Green tea can help normalize blood pressure and eliminate toxins. Hypertensive patients should completely exclude coffee and strong black tea from the diet. It is advisable to eat more foods containing potassium, magnesium, B-group vitamins. Medications are prescribed if conventional therapy does not give any positive effect. The doctor should pick them up. Just because a teenager should not drink them.
Prognosis for hypertension
The long-term consequences of hypertension are determined by the stage and nature (benign or malignant) of the course of the disease. Severe course, rapid progression of hypertension, stage III hypertension with severe vascular damage significantly increases the frequency of vascular complications and worsens the prognosis.
With hypertension, the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure and premature death is extremely high. Hypertension is unfavorable in people who have become ill at a young age. Early, systematic therapy and control Blood pressure can slow the progression of hypertension.
For the primary prevention of hypertension, the exclusion of existing risk factors is necessary. Moderate physical activity, a low-salt and hypocholesterol diet, psychological relaxation, and rejection of bad habits are useful. It is important to early detection of hypertension by monitoring and self-monitoring of blood pressure, dispensary monitoring of patients, compliance with individual antihypertensive therapy and maintaining optimal blood pressure parameters.
How to live with hypertension
How much live with hypertension is an important question for those who are diagnosed. The consequences of the disease depend on the stage and nature of its course. Severe form, vascular damage, the third stage of the disease and disruption of the target organs worsen forecasts. Premature death occurs from heart attacks and strokes, acute heart failure. Unfavorable forecasts for those who became ill at an early age.
The life expectancy of hypertensive patients depends not only on the correctness of taking medication and regular visits to the doctor, but also on personal mood, and compliance with basic rules. These include:
- Psychological climate
- Physical exercise,
- Lack of bad habits.
Another important condition is to understand what kind of disease it is, how it develops and what consequences it has on the whole body. In order to understand the features of the course of the disease, it is not necessary to have a medical education. There are many good books and manuals written for ordinary people. One of them is “Propaedeutics of internal diseases” by A. Yakovleva. The book briefly and readily outlines the main provisions on hypertension, as well as the most popular treatment regimens for hypertension.
Having realized how to treat hypertension and choosing a treatment method, you need to move on to an equally important issue – a healthy lifestyle. It is impossible when working on night shifts, frequent quarrels, constant and long-distance business trips, strong emotional stress, negative emotions, fears, anger. All these conditions are accompanied by the production of adrenaline in large quantities, which leads to disruption of the circulatory and nervous system.
Excess weight and hypertension are incompatible. Even if there are no extra pounds, treatment begins with nutrition correction. In the initial stages, this is enough to control the pressure and prevent its increase. There are several ways to lose weight with hypertension. And the main one is calorie restriction.
This can be achieved by eliminating or reducing the daily diet of sweet and fatty foods, flour products. A diet for weight loss should not be confused with starvation: it is forbidden for hypertensive patients. For weight loss and normalization of pressure, it is also worth monitoring the amount of animal fat in food. It is worth excluding cholesterol-rich foods as much as possible, as well as switching to low-fat varieties of fish, fruits and vegetables, and natural vegetable oils. It is worth completely abandoning sausages, lard, fried meatballs and fatty meat, butter, fatty cheeses.
Contraindications for hypertension – any drinks and products that excite the nervous system. These include not only tea, coffee and alcohol, but also carbonated drinks, spicy spices, odorous spices.
It is important to include foods rich in potassium and magnesium in your diet. These elements have a good effect on the heart muscle, strengthen the walls of blood vessels and the nervous system. A lot of potassium is found in:
- Buckwheat, oat and millet
- Black currant,
- Parsley and lettuce
Complications of arterial hypertension and the disease itself do not mean that the patient should abandon any activity. Gymnastics, simple exercises, yoga or long walks, swimming – are indicated for hypertensive patients. The movement not only carries a charge of positive emotions, but also helps to fight excess weight.
Rehabilitation for hypertension of the third stage, as well as with complications such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, angina pectoris, should be carried out only under the supervision of doctors. Typically, to undergo rehabilitation, patients are sent to special resorts, for spa treatment. Which includes a full range of measures: proper nutrition, physical activity, medications.
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