What is intracranial hypertension in an adult

The basis for the occurrence of intracranial hypertension is a number of reasons, conditionally divided into four categories:

  1. The occurrence of neoplasms (cyst, hematoma, abscess, aneurysm).
  2. Manifestation of edema (against a background of bruise, encephalitis, meningitis, hypoxia, bruise, stroke).
  3. Increase in blood volume (pathology of outflow or blood flow with hyperthermia, hypercapnia, encephalopathy and others).
  4. Violation of the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.

Indirect (implicit) causes of the disease are serious violations that occur in the body from the cardiovascular, circulatory and respiratory systems.

The reasons for the development of intracranial hypertension in children are severe congenital malformations, serious problems during pregnancy and childbirth, prematurity and infection.

One of the main causes of the development of coronary disease is cerebral hypertension. The disease is characterized by increased pressure inside the skull, which has a different etiology of occurrence. Hypertension affects the well-being of the patient and has a negative simultaneous effect on the work of all parts of the brain.

Internal brain ICH is an increased intracranial pressure caused by various reasons.

Due to pathological disorders, cerebrospinal fluid begins to exert increasing pressure on the soft brain tissue, which leads to the development of symptomatic manifestations.

Therapy of the disease is aimed at factors contributing to the development of ICH. Intracranial hypertension occurs regardless of the age and gender of the patient.

Intracranial arterial hypertension of the brain occurs for the following reasons:

  • Congenital malformations – an unfavorable course of pregnancy, fetal hypoxia, premature birth, infection with neuroinfection – all this provokes pathological changes in newborns that cause ICH.
  • Heart failure – violations provoke only diseases in which stagnation is observed.
  • Problems and pathologies associated with outflow and blood circulation, especially with localization in the jugular veins, or cerebrospinal fluid. The cause of the disorders is thrombosis, the development of atherosclerotic plaques, a hemorrhagic stroke, and also dropsy of the brain.
  • Pericardial effusion.
  • Tumor neoplasms.
  • Benign hypertension of the brain occurs as a temporary violation with adverse factors, such as pregnancy, hypovitaminosis, obesity, hormonal imbalance, etc.
  • Trauma – hypertensive syndrome after a closed head injury is a fairly common occurrence. Pressure rises due to adhesions, the development of swelling and other causes. In approximately 50% of cases, ICH due to the traumatic factor is a consequence of concussion.

Whatever the cause of the disease, it is necessary to prescribe effective therapy as soon as possible. Further development of hypertension leads to impaired brain activity and the development of coronary disease, and in the absence of adequate measures, death.

Signs of cerebrospinal fluid hypertension are pronounced, accompany the disease even at an early stage of development. Violations are manifested in the following symptoms:

  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Psycho-emotional disorders.
  • External manifestations – the patient has bruises under the eyes, “cyanosis”. If you stretch the skin during the examination, dilated vessels become visible.
  • Headaches and heaviness in the head – manifestations worsen when lying down or during sleep. At this time, the person increases the flow of cerebrospinal fluid to the brain and the outflow worsens.
  • Chronic fatigue – a common brain damage in hypertension makes the body use its natural protective functions – associated with decreased mobility. In fact, fatigue is a normal protective reflex
  • Neurological manifestations – sharp jumps in blood pressure, fainting conditions, convulsions, increased sweating and tachycardia appear even with mild hypertension at the initial stage of deviations.
  • Weather dependence is another syndrome characteristic of the disease. The patient feels a deterioration in well-being with each decrease in atmospheric pressure.
  • Sexual dysfunction – complications of hypertension lead to menstrual irregularities, decreased sex drive and erectile dysfunction.
  • Hallucinations.

Loss of consciousness is an alarming symptom, indicating that ICH is complicated by concomitant pathologies. Often, neurological manifestations indicate a rapidly developing neoplasm, including an oncological one.

Any disturbances in the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid or blood supply are reflected in the human brain activity. Moderate hypertension leads to minor malfunctions in the normal functionality of the brain, but prolonged progression of the disease manifests itself in soft tissue atrophy.

At this stage, there is a decrease in mental and intellectual abilities, as well as malfunctions in the regulation of internal organs. If you do not consult a doctor in time, liquor ICH will provoke increasing pressure on the brain, followed by wedging it into the opening of the skull, with an inevitable death. .

The consequences of displacement of brain tissue depends on the direction of wedging:

  • In the opening of the skull – there are rapid irreversible changes, paralysis of the patient and subsequent death. During the displacement, the vital centers of the brain, which are responsible for breathing and other functions, are squeezed. Intracranial hypertension due to brain concussion or severe penetrating trauma can lead to such disorders. In this case, the disease progresses rapidly and goes into a severe stage.
  • Wedge of the hook of the temporal lobe – there is an expansion of the pupil and a complete lack of reaction to light. Over time, there is an expansion of the second pupil, respiratory failure and coma.
  • Wedging into a tenderloin tenderloin – dynamic disturbances are observed: a state of stunning, difficulty in performing even simple movements, severe drowsiness, accompanied by prolonged and incessant yawning. The pupils narrow, the rhythm of breathing goes astray.

The effect of hypertensive crises on the patient’s visual function has been proven.

With an unfavorable development of the disease, rapid loss of vision occurs. Atrophy of the optic nerve at an advanced stage is irreversible.

Benign hypertension passes on its own and does not require specific treatment. PVG on the contrary is a dangerous pathological process leading to the death of the patient.

Congenital ICH of cerebral vessels in newborns is a consequence of underdevelopment or abnormalities in the normal course of pregnancy. A high likelihood of developing hypertension exists in children who underwent hypoxia and oxygen starvation of the brain during birth or intrauterine development.

The following symptoms will alert the attending physician:

  1. Drowsiness and constant irritability.
  2. Head volume increase.
  3. Vomiting
  4. Pronounced fontanel tension.
  5. Divergence of cranial sutures.
  6. Convulsions.
  7. Atrophy of the optic nerves.
  8. Increased muscle tone.

To make an accurate diagnosis, an additional instrumental study will be required. Ultrasound of the brain in a newborn, due to the impossibility of MRI, is the only possible method of examination. Drug therapy is aimed at overcoming the symptoms of the disease, eliminating excess fluid in the brain.

If necessary, surgical treatment and installation of drainage are performed to discharge excess cerebrospinal fluid into the adjacent cavity.

When prescribing a course of therapy, the attending physician takes into account the patient’s age and what caused the pathological changes. Successfully used therapeutic respiratory gymnastics, massage and hyperventilation of the lungs. The effectiveness of therapy is influenced by an accurate determination of the causes of a poor cerebrospinal fluid outflow.

Suspicion of the presence of intracranial hypertension occurs when a specialist detects several of the above symptoms.

But since similar manifestations are observed with low blood pressure, ICH and other diseases of the central nervous system, the patient is prescribed an additional examination using instrumental diagnostic methods:

  • Dopplerography of blood vessels is a method designed to accurately determine brain blood flow disorders. Using the diagnostic ultrasound scan, the level of fluid circulation in the vessels and the degree of their filling are established. With tumor neoplasms and atherosclerosis, the vessels are compressed. According to the results of dopplerography, the localization of pathological changes can be established.
  • MRI of cerebral vessels with intracranial hypertension is the most informative method of research. It helps to identify the cause of complications, as well as to establish the degree of pressure on the soft tissues of the brain. MRI signs indicate the presence of tumor neoplasms with compaction from a few millimeters. Tomography makes it possible to determine the nature of the tumor.
  • EEG – is prescribed to identify complications of prolonged hypertension. An electroencephalogram determines brain electrical activity. Hypertension leads to tissue atrophy and worsening of nerve conduction, which fixes the EEG apparatus.
  • Computed tomography – CT signs show the presence of scars, adhesions and other abnormalities in the structure caused by post-traumatic disease. Computed tomography is done with the introduction of a contrast agent.

ICH is a deadly disease, therefore, therapy is carried out after hospitalization of the patient, under the supervision of professionals. Therapy is aimed at eliminating catalysts that provoke an increase in intracranial pressure.

Comprehensive treatment includes the following areas:

  • Medicines – traditionally use diuretics – diuretics. With insufficient therapy, corticosteroids are used. Taking steroids reduces the permeability of the protective blood-brain barrier. At the same time, vasodilators and barbiturates are prescribed.
  • Painkillers – to relieve pain, it is enough to lower intracranial pressure. If necessary, drug blockade is used.
  • Surgical intervention – is prescribed only after drug therapy methods have not yielded positive results. As an operative measure, a regular puncture is performed, and drainage is installed to drain excess cerebrospinal fluid.

Intracranial hypertension syndrome in children and adults: signs, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Headache can be a symptom of many serious illnesses. Intracranial hypertension is an increase in intracranial pressure due to head injuries, hemorrhages, inflammation of brain tissue and the development of tumors.

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To avoid complications, it is required to seek help in a Yusupov hospital in a timely manner, where they will diagnose and treat the pathology.

The quality of the services provided at the hospital is at a European level. All diagnostic and treatment procedures are performed on the latest medical equipment. The rooms are equipped with maximum comfort for patients.

Do not postpone going to the doctor and for any manifestations of increased intracranial pressure, seek help from highly qualified doctors at the Yusupov hospital.

Often, a headache can be caused by a cold, lack of sleep, and overwork. It appears due to increased intracranial pressure. If headaches acquire a constant pronounced character – this is a signal for contacting the Yusupov hospital.

Benign intracranial hypertension is an increase in pressure inside the cranium that is not associated with the occurrence of any pathological process in the body. Headaches appear due to certain medications or due to obesity.

In a healthy person, the volume of the brain consists of certain proportions of the volumes of its fluids and tissues – cerebrospinal fluid, blood and interstitial fluid. When the volume of one of these components increases, the blood pressure in the cranium increases.

In case of violation of the outflow from the skull of the cerebrospinal fluid, the volume of cerebrospinal fluid increases and the pressure rises. An increase in the total volume of brain fluids leads to hemorrhages with the formation of hematomas.

The difference in fluid pressure can lead to a displacement of brain structures relative to each other. Such a pathology leads to a partial or complete disruption of the normal functioning of the nervous system.

With cerebral edema, an increase in the volume of brain structures occurs and intracranial hypertension is diagnosed.

Vnutricherepnaya gipertenziya - What is intracranial hypertension in an adult

The syndrome of intracranial hypertension manifests itself in different ways, depending on the location of the pathology, which causes increased intracranial pressure, as well as on the stage of the disease and the rate of its development.

Moderate intracranial hypertension manifests itself in the form of:

  • headaches;
  • dizziness;
  • bouts of nausea and vomiting;
  • blurred consciousness;
  • cramps.

Signs of intracranial hypertension as pathology develops are often expressed by visual impairment. With severely increased intracranial pressure, loss of consciousness, hearing impairment, speech, smell, etc. can be observed.

Depending on the nature of the displacement of the brain lobes, arterial hypertension, respiratory failure and normal heart function can be observed.

In women of reproductive age, intracranial hypertension syndrome can develop with menstrual irregularities, during pregnancy, with obesity, or as a result of taking certain medications.

In children, idiopathic intracranial hypertension (benign) is often diagnosed after taking the tetracycline antibiotic, large doses of vitamin A or corticosteroids. There is no connection between increased intracranial pressure and the development of any disease.

Intracranial hypertension in newborns can occur for several reasons:

  1. as a result of injuries at the time of delivery;
  2. due to an infectious disease of the mother during pregnancy;
  3. due to congenital hydrocephalus (dropsy) of the brain, that is, an increase in ventricular volume.

In young children, intracranial hypertension has symptoms in the form of impaired development, rolling of the eyeballs, forehead bulge, lack of reaction in the child to a harsh light.

In older children, intracranial hypertension is manifested by headaches, drowsiness, visual impairment, strabismus.

Types of diagnosis of pathology are:

  • measuring intracranial pressure by introducing a needle into the fluid cavities of the skull or spinal canal with a pressure gauge attached to it.
  • tracking the degree of blood supply and expansion of the veins of the eyeball. If the patient has red eyes, that is, the eye veins are abundantly filled with blood and are clearly visible, we can talk about increased intracranial pressure;
  • ultrasound examination of cerebral vessels;
  • magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography: explores the expansion of fluid cavities of the brain, as well as the degree of rarefaction of the edges of the ventricle;
  • conducting an encephalogram.

Increased intracranial pressure can lead to a decrease in the intellectual abilities of the patient, impaired normal functioning of the internal organs. Therefore, this pathology requires the immediate start of treatment aimed at reducing intracranial pressure.

Treatment can be carried out only with the correct diagnosis of the causes of pathology. For example, if intracranial hypertension has arisen due to the development of a tumor or hematoma of the brain, then surgical intervention is required. Removal of a hematoma or neoplasm leads to normalization of intracranial pressure.

When increased intracranial pressure is a consequence of inflammatory processes in the body (meningitis, encephalitis, etc.), then the only effective method of therapy is massive antibiotic therapy. In this case, antibacterial drugs can be injected into the subarachnoid space in combination with the extraction of part of the cerebrospinal fluid.

Therapy is aimed at reducing the allocation of CSF volume with a simultaneous increase in its absorption. For this purpose, patients are prescribed diuretics.

Quite often, treatment does not require any medication. A complex of gymnastic exercises is developed for the patient, the implementation of which leads to a decrease in intracranial pressure.

Also, adjustments are made to the diet and individually develop a drinking regime. Light manual therapy, acupuncture and physiotherapy have a beneficial effect.

The effectiveness of non-drug treatment is observed already in the first week from the start of therapy.

In postoperative, congenital cerebrospinal fluid block or other severe cases, surgical treatment is indicated.

Thus, an excess volume of cerebrospinal fluid is constantly removed from the skull, leading to a decrease in pressure.

When intracranial pressure rises at a very high speed and there is a threat to the patient’s life, urgent measures are required to save the patient. In this case, the patient is injected with a hyperosmolar solution intravenously, artificial ventilation of the lungs is carried out, the patient is injected into the drug coma and an excess of cerebrospinal fluid is removed by puncture.

The most aggressive treatment that is resorted to in the most difficult cases is decompressive craniotomy. At the time of surgery, a skull defect is created on one or both sides, so that the brain does not rest against the bones of the skull.

Intracranial hypertension can be completely eliminated provided that the causes that caused it (tumor, poor blood outflow, etc.) are eliminated.

Intracranial hypertension is a pathological condition caused by diseases of the brain and not only. Pathology requires mandatory treatment in order to avoid the development of numerous and irreversible consequences. Do not postpone going to the doctor for any manifestations of increased intracranial pressure.

Doctors at the Yusupov hospital have vast experience in the treatment of intracranial hypertension. The quality of the services provided at the hospital is at a European level. All diagnostic and treatment procedures are performed on the latest medical equipment. The rooms are equipped with maximum comfort for patients. You can make an appointment with the doctor by phone.

  • ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases)
  • Yusupov Hospital
  • Alpert, J. Treatment of myocardial infarction/J. Alpert. – Moscow: Engineering, 1994. – 255 p.
  • Guide to outpatient cardiology. – M.: GEOTAR-Media, 2007 .– 400 p.
  • Topolyansky, A.V. Cardiology. Reference practitioner/A.V. Topolyansky. – M.: MEDpress-inform, 2009 .– 379 p.
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* Information on the site is for informational purposes only. All materials and prices posted on the site are not a public offer, determined by the provisions of Art. 437 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. For accurate information, contact the clinic staff or visit our clinic.

Intracranial hypertension is an increased pressure that occurs in the cranial cavity. Often, the pathology is caused by head injuries and a rapid increase in the contents in the volumes inside the patient’s skull.

vnutricherepnaya gipertenziya - What is intracranial hypertension in an adult

In this case, they speak of acute intracranial hypertension.

The chronic form of ICH develops gradually. The patient can not immediately suspect a disease in himself.

This form of the disease is attributed to ideopathic diseases, since the cause cannot be determined.

Systematization of ailment

Depending on the causes, a liquid pathology is classified according to the following criteria:

  1. Sharp. It appears suddenly due to a stroke, brain injury or a rapidly growing neoplasm. Most often fatal.
  2. Moderate. It occurs against the background of the development of vegetovascular dystonia or hypersensitivity to weather conditions. Moderate intracranial hypertension makes itself felt periodically, often due to a sharp change in weather.
  3. Venous It is the result of blood flow disorders due to compression of the veins. It often develops against the background of osteochondrosis, thrombosis, or the formation of a tumor.
  4. Idiopathic or benign. There are no obvious reasons for the origin. Since this form of hypertension is very insidious, we will talk about it a little lower.

Now let’s find out the main symptoms of the manifestation of the disease.

In newborns and preschool children, the development of intracranial hypertension is accompanied by a serious brain pathology, therefore this disease must be detected as soon as possible and consult a doctor as soon as possible.

In children, the course of the disease passes in two stages:

  1. Slow progression of the disease in the first six months of life (while fontanelles are not closed yet).
  2. The rapid development of the disease after a year (at a time when the fontanels have already closed).

The first type of intracranial hypertension is accompanied by such symptoms:

  • frequent, prolonged crying for no reason;
  • fontanel swelling, non-listening to ripple;
  • divergence of cranial sutures;
  • enlargement of the skull;
  • disproportionate formation of the bones of the skull (the frontal part can strongly protrude forward);
  • unnatural protrusion of veins;
  • frequent vomiting;
  • short anxious sleep;
  • developmental lag.

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If the baby has two or more signs from this list, you should immediately contact a pediatrician.

The second type of brain pathology is accompanied by intensively expressed indicators. First of all, it is:

  • convulsions;
  • continuous vomiting
  • panic anxiety;
  • loss of consciousness.

If this is observed in the well-being of the child, you should definitely call an ambulance!

This disease can develop in later childhood. In this case, it is necessary to pay attention to such signs:

  • headache in the morning;
  • Pain in the eyes;
  • emetic urges;
  • obesity.

Reasons for High Values

Causes of cerebral hypertension include:

  • head injuries – bruise, concussion;
  • failures in the cerebral circulation – thrombosis, stroke;
  • neoplasms in the cranial cavity;
  • inflammation of the brain structures – abscess, encephalitis, meningitis;
  • congenital malformations in the structure of the brain;
  • intoxication with ethanol, gas, lead;
  • metabolic disorders with hyponatremia, cirrhosis;
  • organ diseases leading to a delayed outflow of venous blood – cardiac, pulmonary pathologies.

ICH in children develops due to congenital anomalies, prolonged oxygen deficiency, prematurity, unhealthy pregnancy or childbirth.

Note! Normal values ​​of ICH are 1,5-6 mmHg for infants, 3-7 mm for adolescents.

In infants, the disease is often formed due to intrauterine infections.

Manifestations of liquid pathology

Intracranial hypertension of this type is caused by a violation of the venous blood outflow from the cranial cavity.

The occurrence of this pathology can lead to venous sinus thrombosis, as well as an increase in pressure in the chest cavity (emphysema, tumor formations of the mediastinum).

In ICD 10, benign intracranial hypertension is separately identified. This type of hypertension is caused by increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure, which is accompanied by the absence of changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (cerebral fluid) and the absence of volumetric formations in the cranial cavity.

The patient has swelling of the optic nerve, as well as swelling of the stagnant disc. Quite often, the functions of vision are disturbed.

This syndrome, as a rule, is not accompanied by severe neurological disorders.

From an anatomical point of view, cerebrospinal fluid is located in the cerebrospinal space. With an increase in its number, pressure increases around the brain, provided that absorption and outflow decrease.

Symptoms of intracranial pressure in adults may indicate the onset of ICH.

Read about what you can take for a headache here.

Although the causes of idiopathic hypertension are not currently known, there are suggestions. Pathology develops without any external causes, but can occur due to a number of risk factors:

  • Overweight.
  • Chronic stress.
  • Violation of blood clotting.
  • The stress of the physical plane, which lasted a long time.
  • Taking vasoconstrictor drugs and hormones.
  • Diseases of the endocrine system.
  • Transfer of asphyxia at birth.

Common intracranial hypertension occurs due to injuries or the presence of diseases of the nervous system (developmental abnormalities, tumors, viral infections, hydrocephalus).

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Detonic for pressure normalization

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Symptoms

An increase in pressure is just one of the signs of the disease, with the exception of idiopathic hypertension. Symptoms of pathology manifest themselves differently in children and adults.

The main signs of the occurrence of intracranial hypertension in adults:

  • Headache.
  • Nausea and vomiting associated with eating. Most often occur before lunch.
  • Failures in the movement of the eyeballs and visual impairment in general.
  • Impaired consciousness. The process can range from mild stupor to coma.

Signs of moderate hypertension may include:

  • bifurcation in the eyes;
  • slow heartbeat;
  • oppression of consciousness.

Moderate intracranial hypertension manifests itself brighter with a decrease in atmospheric pressure. Indirect signs:

  • Sleep disturbance.
  • Behavioral changes.
  • Mental disorders in development.
  • Chin tremor
  • Marbling of the skin.
  • Bleeding from the nose.
  • Ventricular dilatation, defined on a neurosonogram.

The first symptoms can be expressed even in newborns. Breasts can feel constant anxiety, which is pronounced day and night. The condition is accompanied by nausea, in some cases vomiting.

A child may experience a rapid increase in head volume, accompanied by tension or swelling of the fontanel and bulging eyes. In some cases, the Cushing phenomenon, which is a combination of arterial hypertension and bradycardia, may be present.

Sometimes in a child you can observe indirect signs of moderate ICH, they consist of drowsiness or, conversely, insomnia.

If pressure determination inside the skull is required, then it becomes necessary to introduce a special needle equipped with a pressure gauge into its fluid cavities.

This procedure is quite complicated and unsafe, it is performed exclusively in adults. Other methods are used to establish the diagnosis:

  • Ultrasound examination of blood vessels to establish violations of the blood outflow from the skull.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or X-ray computed tomography (CT) of the brain. An indirect MR or CT sign will be the presence of an accumulation of cerebrospinal flu >e4cb75869b5aa4d38dc0313d734c9913 - What is intracranial hypertension in an adult

Diagnosis of the disease in infants occurs in other ways, which include:

  • A neurologist examines the condition of the fontanel in a newborn, during which there is also an assessment of the size of the head and muscle tone.
  • Neurosonography (ultrasound of the brain).
  • Ophthalmologist examination of the fundus of the baby.
  • Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

Let’s figure out how to treat intracranial hypertension.

Treatment of pathology should be aimed at eliminating the factor that led to increased pressure in the brain. During treatment, doctors use methods that contribute to the normalization of body weight.

The treatment of hypertension can be performed using drugs, using the surgical method, and also treatment without drugs and treatment with folk remedies can be performed.

During this treatment, the patient is prescribed medications. Patients suffering from intracranial hypertension are prescribed diuretic drugs (diuretics).

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For a long time, Acetazolamide (Diacarb) provides excellent indicators for this purpose. In some cases, dexamethasone and methylprednisolone are added to diuretics.

Breasts are prescribed massage, nootropic and only in some cases diuretics. Sometimes in children, the cure comes on its own.

To prevent relapse, patients should limit themselves in the use of water and salt. Must monitor body weight. Stop smoking and alcohol. Exercising will help improve blood circulation. As a medical prophylactic, the doctor may prescribe Mexidol.

Surgical treatment of pathology is carried out in the case when taking medications did not give the expected effect. To lower the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid, repeated lumbar punctures are performed.

Neurosurgeons use a sufficient number of bypass surgery techniques to normalize intracranial pressure.

It happens that unpleasant sensations in the head await pregnant women. For example, dizziness during pregnancy can become such a problem.

In the presence of symptoms of intracranial hypertension in children, treatment should be carried out immediately. Doctors can use any means and capabilities to prevent the development of hypertension-hydrocephalic syndrome. Pathology in newborns and young children can occur against the background of difficult childbirth and pregnancy, intrauterine infections, hypoxia, congenital pathologies.

Often in children under the age of 1 year it is quite difficult to detect symptoms that would correspond to intracranial hypertension. Usually, a disease of this type in babies manifests itself in the form of a bad sucking reflex. Also, in such children, the volume of the head is increased, they often have causeless vomiting, increased drowsiness, pericarpal veins. For older children, more specific symptoms are characteristic:

  • Periodic headaches of varying severity.
  • Insufficient (for the age of a particular child) motor activity.
  • Poor vision, fatigue, anxiety.

Intracranial hypertension for young children is dangerous because it can ultimately lead to developmental retardation, mixed hydrocephalus, blindness, and paralysis. In recent years, there have been many reports that young children are diagnosed with ICH after vaccination with DTP.

Deviation of ICH can be either congenital or acquired in nature. The syndrome does not select patients and, as a rule, occurs in people of completely different age groups and level of affluence. In children, benign intracranial hypertension can occur if:

  • There was prematurity;
  • Anomalies in the structure of the skull were recorded;
  • Diagnosed with hydrocephalus;
  • The skull was damaged during its passage through the maternal birth canal.

Occasionally, benign intracranial hypertension is formed as a result of a woman’s illness during the months of pregnancy.

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Prematurity of the child may manifest as intracranial hypertension at an older age.

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An urgent need to see a doctor if nausea occurs during a headache

In addition, patients with this pathology may experience:

  • Vision problems;
  • Inhibition of reaction and thought processes;
  • Bifurcation of the image in the eyes;
  • High blood pressure (hypertension);
  • Generalized seizures.

Another common symptom of intracranial hypertension is pain during eye movement. Most often, such a manifestation is noted with excessively high pressure.

Signs of intracranial hypertension as pathology develops are often expressed by visual impairment. With severely increased intracranial pressure, loss of consciousness, hearing impairment, speech, smell, etc. can be observed.

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Depending on the nature of the displacement of the brain lobes, arterial hypertension, respiratory failure and normal heart function can be observed. In women of reproductive age, intracranial hypertension syndrome can develop with menstrual irregularities, during pregnancy, with obesity, or as a result of taking certain medications. Pathology can develop against the background of infectious diseases, in particular, syphilis.

In children, idiopathic intracranial hypertension (benign) is often diagnosed after taking the tetracycline antibiotic, large doses of vitamin A or corticosteroids. There is no connection between increased intracranial pressure and the development of any disease.

In young children, intracranial hypertension has symptoms in the form of impaired development, rolling of the eyeballs, forehead bulge, lack of reaction in the child to a harsh light.

Benign hypertension

This type of ailment can be observed in both adults and babies. In accordance with the age of the patient, various symptoms and signs of the disease are manifested. So, benign intracranial hypertension in adults. What it is?

This type of disease is characterized by milder symptoms and is best amenable to therapeutic treatment. Most often, women suffer from them during a change in the menstrual cycle and overweight girls.

Idiopathic hypertension of the brain is accompanied by a severe headache, which is easily eliminated by painkillers or can go away on its own. The disease does not provoke fainting and depression of the state, however, a constant headache can cause unwanted consequences of a negative nature.

In some cases, the disease process may end spontaneously. If this does not happen, a course of medication is prescribed, based on two principles – reducing body weight and improving fluid outflow.

Benign intracranial hypertension in children is manifested in severe headaches, decreased attention and academic performance. In newborns, it is caused by difficult birth and birth injuries, in older children – by improper metabolism and overweight.

If you suspect that your child has increased intracranial pressure, you should immediately consult a doctor.

What should I look for?

Classification

Cerebral hypertension occurs in acute or chronic form. The acute form is expressed in sharp changes in intracranial pressure, which can lead to death. In this case, emergency surgery is required – craniotomy. During the operation, the surgeon removes the affected areas, pressing on the substance of the brain.

The chronic course of pathology is accompanied by neurological disorders. Usually this form occurs due to the use of drugs, a prolonged illness, or after an injury.

Intracranial hypertension can be cerebrospinal, venous, benign.

Liquor

It develops as a result of the production of a large volume of spinal fluid, which leads to an increase in pressure. Liquor hypertension is accompanied by swelling of the optic nerves, in which the stagnant disc swells. Visual acuity decreases. Neurological disorders are absent.

Venous

Appears due to a slowdown in the outflow of venous blood from the brain. Venous hypertension is diagnosed with thrombosis, tumor neoplasms, emphysema.

Benign

Another name for the form is idiopathic. This species is not a disease, but refers to temporary disorders. It is formed as a result of exposure to negative factors: hypovitaminosis, obesity, menstrual irregularities, pregnancy, an excess of vitamin A, and cessation of medication.

A feature of the idiopathic form is the reversibility of symptoms, a mild course. Initially, the disease is expressed in the development of moderate headache, which is eliminated by taking an analgesic. The treatment of hypertensive patients with a benign form consists in adjusting the lifestyle and diet.

With the flow emit:

  • acute development – a rapid increase in the symptoms of intracranial pressure in a short period of time, provoked by a severe course of the etiology (cause) of the disease;
  • chronic – a gradual onset against the background of any disease (infectious and inflammatory diseases, bleeding/hemorrhage).

By severity, there are: benign and malignant intracranial hypertension.

Symptoms of the disease in adults

Some painful manifestations indicate impaired functioning of the nervous system. Similar symptoms relate to indirect signs of intracranial hypertension:

  • trouble falling asleep;
  • decreased attention and intellectual abilities;
  • tremor of hands, chin;
  • excessive sweating;
  • increased heart rate;
  • the presence of bruises under the eyes, an increase in the capillaries of the fundus;
  • blurred consciousness;
  • lack of sexual desire;
  • high weather sensitivity.

A single manifestation of any symptom does not indicate pathology. ICH can be suspected with a complex severity of symptoms.

The reasons that contribute to the onset of the disease are many. So, they can cause intracranial hypertension syndrome:

  • Head injuries of any severity;
  • Problems with metabolic functions of the body;
  • Poisoning by food or toxic substances;
  • Hydrocephalus, abscesses;
  • Encephalopathy, accompanied by a violation of the venous outflow;
  • Infectious lesions of the body and the meninges.

In children, the disorder is often diagnosed due to prolonged intrauterine hypoxia.

Important! If intrauterine pathological conditions become the cause of increased intracranial pressure, it is important to consult a pediatrician as often as possible in order to prevent complications. If this is not done, the disease becomes chronic, which often becomes the root cause of serious consequences.

An ordinary x-ray can display the thinning of the bones of the cranium and determine the severity of the pathological process. A neurological examination is far from always informative, so doctors recommend visiting an additional ophthalmologist, neurosurgeon, as well as an ENT specialist. In addition, if you suspect an ICH, computed and magnetic resonance imaging (MPT) are mandatory.

First of all, parents themselves must carefully monitor the well-being of the child, so as not to miss the development of a serious illness in his anamnesis. At the slightest alarming signs, the baby should be shown to the pediatrician.

A pediatrician can refer the child for a consultation with an optometrist and a neurologist. If necessary, such examinations will be carried out: neurosonography, brain x-ray, magnetic resonance imaging.

Magnetic resonance imaging will indicate expansion of the cavities or pathology of brain tissue, radiography will detect the so-called “finger impressions” on the bone part of the skull, an ultrasound scan will reveal changes in the venous vessels, examination of the eyeball will establish optic atrophy and vascular disorders. Lumbar puncture will help measure intracranial pressure with a pressure gauge that is attached to a needle inserted into the spinal canal.

Vnutricherepnoe davlenie - What is intracranial hypertension in an adult

If the disease has arisen due to an increase in blood volume, Troxevasin, a drug that promotes blood outflow, may be recommended.

Also, sometimes it may be necessary to use antibacterial and antiviral agents that block the development of meningitis, abscess, encephalitis.

In addition to pharmacological agents, there are other, non-drug methods prescribed for the mild stages of the disease, as the main or additional methods of treatment. These include: physiotherapy exercises, diet and proper nutrition, fluid intake schedule, the use of vitamins, etc.

A full set of necessary gymnastic exercises to the patient will be shown by the attending physician or nurse.

As for diet, the recommendations here are simple. Exclude: salt, smoked meats, flour, alcohol, soda, instant foods. Eat: vegetables and cereals, fruits and berries, low-fat meat and fish, dairy products and vegetable fats.

Diagnostic measures

The human brain is located in the cranial cavity, a special bone box, the dimensions of which, after reaching a certain age, can no longer change. In the intracranial cavity are the brain structures, cerebrospinal fluid (cerebrospinal fluid), and blood. All of them have certain sizes, all are assigned a certain volume.

  1. Usually the pressure begins to rise due to certain problems with cerebrospinal fluid. The most frequent cases of such a pathological process are:
    • Excessive production of cerebrospinal fluid.
    • Violation of the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid (may occur for various reasons).
    • Deterioration in the absorption of cerebrospinal fluid by the circulatory system and certain brain structures.
  2. An increase in pressure in the intracranial cavity will almost always be observed in cases of circulatory disorders caused by insufficient flow of arterial blood and its stagnation in the venous channel. Such a pathological process leads to an increase in the total blood volume in the intracranial cavity, as a result of which pressure indicators increase.
  3. In a number of cases, an increase in the volume of tissues of the brain structures is observed due to the forming edema, the development of the tumor process (benign and malignant neoplasms). Due to edema, a displacement of various brain structures will occur, which leads to headaches, as well as the development of dangerous consequences.

The reasons that can lead to intracranial hypertension can be many. That is why in the process of making a diagnosis it is extremely important to first determine why the pressure in the cranial cavity began to increase. The treatment of the disease should begin with the elimination of the root cause of its development.

You can also highlight a huge number of factors that could potentially provoke (in infants, children, adults) the development of intracranial hypertension:

  • Traumatic brain injuries of varying severity (can lead to the formation of hematomas and edema in the internal brain structures). In some cases, ICH also occurs when newborn infants receive birth injuries.
  • Neoplasms, various tumor processes developing in the cranial cavity. Metastases of tumors located in other parts of the human body can also lead to hypertension.
  • Acute and chronic diseases that cause circulatory pathologies in the brain (thrombosis, stroke, etc.).
  • Inflammation caused by the development of various diseases (most often: meningitis, advanced forms of sinusitis, encephalitis).
  • Congenital abnormalities associated with the abnormal structure of the child’s brain (brain structures, vascular system, cranial bones, etc.).
  • Intoxication (excessive drinking, poisoning with carbon monoxide, lead and other toxins). A person can be poisoned (which leads to ICH) and their own metabolites, which often occurs with cirrhosis.
  • Pathologies of other internal organs, the consequences of which are associated with violations of the outflow of venous blood from the skull (tumors in the neck, respiratory system and lung diseases, heart disease).

These are not all the factors that can provoke the occurrence of intracranial hypertension.

As we saw, it is necessary to identify and begin treatment of intracranial hypertension as soon as possible. If this is not done on time, the consequences can be irreversible and deplorable: loss of vision, developmental delay, death.

In addition, it is important to use preventive methods to prevent the disease – lead a healthy lifestyle, eat right, avoid emotional and physical exhaustion, treat serious brain diseases or traumatic brain injuries in a timely manner.

In the process of treating a liquid pathology, it is important to carefully follow all the prescriptions and recommendations of the doctor. To do this, you may need consent to surgery, a change in your usual lifestyle, and the use of specific medications. But any efforts are worth it – your health will be safely preserved and protected from subsequent negative complications.

Initially, it is necessary to examine the patient, to study the condition of the eyeballs and blood vessels. With pronounced red eyes with enlarged capillaries, intracranial hypertension can be suspected. A person is sent for an ultrasound scan of the brain vessels. The study establishes the presence of violations in the outflow of blood.

It is possible to accurately detect the presence of the disease by measuring the pressure of the cerebral fluid cavities. For this, invasive manipulation is performed. The doctor inserts a special needle into the ventricles or other structures of the brain. Then the specialist attaches a pressure gauge to the needle. To measure pressure, special sensors are also used, which are implanted in the skull box. A similar procedure is carried out under the control of magnetic resonance imaging.

Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography assess the state of the cerebral ventricles, fluid cavities. As a concomitant diagnostic method, an encephalogram is performed.

It is much more difficult to detect the disease in children, especially in infants who are not able to maintain a static position and express their feelings. The standard procedures that detect a pathological condition in a child include the collection of necessary blood tests, puncture, examining the spinal fluid, neurosonography in newborns. Consultation of a psychologist, neurologist, cardiologist, endocrinologist is also required.

In order to prevent the development of hypertension syndrome, it is necessary to consume more than a liter of water per day. Also, diuretics and glucocorticoids should not be taken uncontrollably.

The prognosis of the disease depends on the cause of the ICH, the correctness and timeliness of therapy, and brain compensatory abilities. If the syndrome has a malignant etiology, then a fatal outcome is possible. The benign course of hypertension is easily amenable to therapy.

Methods of therapy

The human brain is not able to function properly with high blood pressure. This will lead to atrophic processes, a decrease in intellectual capabilities, and a violation of nervous regulation. Therefore, it is necessary to resort to treatment methods that will restore healthy pressure values.

Treatment of the syndrome includes the use of the following methods:

  • non-drug therapy – lifestyle changes, menu adjustments, physiotherapeutic procedures, visits to a neuropsychologist;
  • drug therapy – dehydration, taking sedative, neuroprotective, metabolic drugs;
  • operative intervention used in severe cerebral hypertension, which is not amenable to medical treatment.

Non-drug therapy can be used even after recovery. The patient should normalize nutrition and drinking regimen, perform feasible physical exercises, use physiotherapeutic methods.

The basis for the treatment of ICH is the need to reduce the synthesis of cerebrospinal fluid along with an increase in its absorption. For this, diuretics are prescribed that reduce the production of exudate (Diacarb). With prolonged use of diuretics and the absence of a therapeutic effect, the patient is prescribed glucocorticosteroids (Dexamethasone).

To eliminate the hypertensive syndrome, medications are required that improve blood flow through the veins (Troxevasinum). With the intensity of painful sensations, agents from a number of anti-inflammatory non-steroidal groups (Nimid) are used. With ICH that has arisen against a background of infectious diseases, the patient is given antibacterial drugs.

With a marked increase in ICH, Mannitol, which has a dehydrating activity, is administered intravenously. With pathology that has arisen against the background of neurosurgical intervention, drugs from a number of barbiturates are used (Thiopental).

If cerebral hypertension progresses and painful symptoms are not eliminated with medications, then the patient is shown surgery. Often resort to the use of lumbar puncture, through which 30 ml of spinal fluid is removed. In many cases, such manipulation greatly facilitates the patient’s condition. Multiple procedures are usually required.

To level pathological manifestations in severe cases, lumbar-peritoneal shunting is used, in which the conditions for the outflow of exudate are artificially created. For this, a special tube is inserted into the cerebrospinal fluid cavity, the other end of which is placed in the peritoneum. So excess fluid is evacuated from the brain.

The most aggressive treatment method is cranial trepanation, during which doctors intentionally injure the skull so that the brain substance does not rest against bone tissue. This therapeutic method is rarely used.

For the treatment of visual disorders, they resort to decompression of the myelin sheaths of the optic nerve.

The consequences of ICH

The brain loses functionality when it is in an unhealthy strangled state. This leads to atrophy of brain cells, which affects a decrease in intelligence and a violation of regulatory processes. In the absence of treatment, compression of the brain provokes the displacement or wedging of parts into the base of the skull. Such a condition leads to death.

When squeezing, the brain can shift to the occipital or cerebellar part, the process is accompanied by squeezing the stem sections. In this situation, the patient dies from respiratory arrest. When wedging in the temporal lobe, the pupil expands, breathing is difficult, a person falls into a coma.

If wedging occurs in the area of ​​the designation, then the patient stalls, becomes drowsy, inhibited. Slows breathing. An increase in intracranial pressure provokes a rapid decrease in vision, since pathology leads to atrophy of the optic nerves.

Surgical procedures

In most cases, a therapeutic treatment will be sufficient for a complete or satisfactory partial recovery. However, if the disease progresses or gives frequent relapses, surgery may be recommended to help remove excess cerebrospinal fluid. What is its essence?

A puncture needle is inserted into the spinal cord (at the level of the lower back), with the help of which a certain amount of cerebrospinal fluid is sucked out. In one procedure, no more than 30 ml of cerebrospinal fluid can be withdrawn, however, despite such minimal indicators, the patient will feel lightning-fast improvement. In some cases, repeated manipulation may be necessary, which can be carried out several times, with an interval of a couple of days.

Another type of surgical treatment is bypass surgery – the introduction of small tubes (in the form of a shunt or catheters) to correct the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.

Conclusion

Intracranial hypertension is a dangerous consequence of brain diseases. The degree of manifestation of the pathology is determined by the symptoms, treatment methods and prognosis. With timely medical attention, secondary complications of intracranial hypertension can be avoided.

The following sources were used to prepare the article: Tsarenko S.V. Correction of intracranial hypertension // Research Institute of Emergency Care. N.V. Sklifosovsky. – 2011.

Magzhanov R.V., Davletova A.I., Bakhtiyarova K.Z., Pervushina E.V., Tunik V.F. Benign intracranial hypertension: clinical observations // Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology – 2017.

Parkhomenko E.V., Sorokina E.A., Nartov S.E., Karpov D.Yu., Barinov A.N., The problem of diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension // Medical alphabet – 2017.

The use of folk remedies

Lavender tincture. For cooking, you need 1 tbsp. l lavender flowers that need to be put in a thermos and pour half a liter of boiling water. After 40-60 minutes, you need to trace the tincture, completely ready for use. Take the medicine for a month before meals, three times a day. It will also be useful to use lavender oil, and massage the temporal region of the head with it.

Mulberry broth. Initially, it will be necessary to grind the foliage and branches of the mulberry. Then boil 15 grams of the plant in a liter of water for 20 minutes, let stand (60 minutes at room temperature). Ready broth to use three times a day before meals, 0,5 cups, strictly 30 minutes before eating. The course of treatment is no more than 3 months.

Clover tincture. The flowers of meadow clover must be tamped in a dark jar (0,5 l.) And pour the contents with alcohol. Leave to insist in a dark place for 14 days, but you should regularly take out the healing tincture and shake it at least 1 time per day. After 2 weeks, you can start using it in 0,5 tsp. thrice a day. The treatment course is 30 days.

Despite the effectiveness of these drugs, medication should not be replaced with them, because specially developed pharmacological preparations will help the patient much faster, reducing the likelihood of complications. It is also recommended that you consult your doctor before using folk remedies so as not to overload the body with drugs.

Alternative recipes are recommended for the treatment of mild stage of intracranial pressure, as well as for preventive purposes. Before use, you should make sure that you do not have an allergic reaction to these plants.

If intracranial hypertension is detected in time, then its progression can be stopped and complications not occur. Examining the patient, the doctor will discover the cause of its appearance, which will help get rid of the pathological processes that cause increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure, therefore it is recommended to treat your health with responsibility so as to prevent blindness, coma or death.

The first stage of intracranial pathology can be cured by folk remedies. They can also be used with advanced types of hypertension as an addition to the main type of treatment.

Here are some recipes for folk medicine:

  1. Two lemons and two heads of garlic, pour 1,5 liters of water, insist for a day and take orally in a strained form, one tablespoon per day for two weeks.
  2. Valerian, hawthorn, motherwort, mint, eucalyptus (mix the leaves in equal proportions and pour one spoonful of the finished mixture with a half-liter bottle of vodka). Instruct for a week, strain and drink for a month three times a day, twenty drops.
  3. Tincture of clover flowers (pour 0,5 liters of vodka and insist a crescent). Take orally three times a day, one tablespoon, previously diluted in 100 g of water.
  4. A decoction of lavender leaves (pour one tablespoon of 0,5 liter of boiling water and leave for an hour). Use for a month on a tablespoon of the broth for half an hour before eating.

Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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