What is HDL cholesterol and how it affects health

To determine the risk of forming atherosclerotic plaques, it is not enough to know the concentration, the ratio of “good” and “bad” cholesterol is important. In women, it is approximately 2: 1, in men – 2,8: 1. You can learn more about its normal content from special tables. But doctors are not even interested in this: they need to know the atherogenic index. Here his growth, indeed, indicates the threat of atherosclerosis.

A blood test for hdl and ldl is called a lipid profile. It includes not only harmful and beneficial cholesterol, but also general, triglycerides, atherogenicity coefficient. A study is prescribed for suspected impaired lipid metabolism, as well as to control treatment with existing changes. In general, it is recommended to do it at least once every 5 years at a young age, and 1-2 times a year after 45.

Unlike other laboratory indicators, the norms of “good” and “bad” cholesterol change every five-year period. The lowest numbers are observed at birth. Then they grow, and for different sexes: in women, physiological jumps occur during pregnancy, in men, the highest concentration is determined during puberty (by age, the level of cholesterol in the stronger sex decreases slightly compared to the peak). But the ratio of “bad” and “good” cholesterol should be constant in any case.

As we know, HDL is “good,” while LDL is the “bad” type of cholesterol. Here are some of the basic facts about these two types of cholesterol:

  • high density lipoproteins
  • “Good” cholesterol
  • their level increases with a proper diet
  • smoking lowers HDL
  • helps reduce LDL cholesterol and remove from arteries
  • a higher level reduces the risk of serious problems with the heart and blood vessels
  • low density lipoproteins
  • Bad cholesterol
  • their level increases with improper nutrition
  • smoking increases LDL
  • are the main source of cholesterol accumulation and blockage of arteries
  • their higher level increases the risk of developing serious problems with the heart and blood vessels
  • overweight is associated with higher levels of LDL and lower levels of HDL

Good HDL cholesterol transfers excess/bad LDL cholesterol back to the liver so that it does not accumulate in our circulatory system, or rather, on the walls of arteries (making them inelastic/hard and narrow). If your blood contains a low content of HDL/HDL (high density lipoproteins) and, conversely, a high content of LDL/LDL (low density lipoproteins), this indicates a serious problem: high cholesterol.

As you know, it leads to atherosclerosis, angina pectoris (a disease often experienced like chest pain), and also increases the risk of heart attacks/strokes.

It turns out the following picture: in order to get rid of such an ailment as “elevated cholesterol in the blood” you need not to declare a total war on “cholesterol”, giving up everything in the world (depleting your body with harmful diets and dubious medicines), but in addition to other effective measures, enhance its good HDL variety. Which, in turn, will lead to a decrease in the level of poor LDL form and normalization of health.

1) Wellness program

Regular physical activity (being an important component of a healthy lifestyle) can significantly increase the level of good cholesterol. Even simple active exercises such as running, cycling and swimming, along with weight control, can create ideal conditions for high HDL/HDL cholesterol in the blood. Cardiologists of many countries of the world call this condition “longevity syndrome”.

According to the results of a study published * in August 2016, it was found that for women after menopause – it is intense training (on a bicycle, treadmill) that is an excellent option for quick normalization of health. That is, to effectively increase the level of HDL cholesterol, lower LDL cholesterol, as well as for significant loss of “excess” weight.

Other trials, published ** in May 2016, showed that men who are obese, but practicing active physical activity (morning jogging) or other strength exercises with kettlebells/weights (3 times a week for 3 months), happened a significant decrease in the level of bad LDL cholesterol and a sharp increase in good HDL compared with men (obese) who did not exercise, but still followed a “light” diet.

* – on the pages of the authoritative medical journal “Diabetes and Metabolism” ** – in the famous honey. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism

High density lipoproteins – what is it and what are the norms of the indicator

Cholesterol, which circulates freely in the peripheral blood flow, is conditionally divided into two fractions – “good” (HDL) cholesterol and “bad” – LDL. This separation is associated with the feature of the functions and properties of each type.

LDL (low density cholesterol) plays a decisive role in the formation of atheromatous vascular lesions. Molecules of this fraction tend to stick together and form conglomerates between endothelial fibers. So the process of sclerosing of the vascular wall begins, in other words – atherosclerosis develops. This is a formidable disease that has been undermining the health of the cardiovascular system for years and causing heart attacks, strokes, ischemic attacks, and aneurysms.

HDL is “good” blood cholesterol. It owes its name to properties. The protein molecules that make up HDL are aimed at removing excess cholesterol from the tissues of organs and vascular walls. As a rule, normal HDL values ​​are relatively low – their concentration in the blood should be in the range from 0,7 to 1,94 mmol/l, both in men and women.

In more detail, the norms of useful cholesterol are indicated by age in the table below.

HDL is above normal – what does it mean. It is believed that if the HDL is diagnosed with increased HDL, then the risks from the circulatory system are significantly reduced. However, the upper limit of the norm is established for a reason. Although an increase in HDL in itself does not pose any danger, it can indirectly indicate a number of adverse processes in the body.

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Raising good cholesterol is rare. The exception is the period of pregnancy, when all parameters of the biochemical analysis of blood can be higher than the reference and are considered a physiological increased norm. The placenta has a cholesterol structure, therefore, for its formation, more carrier proteins with lipids are needed. In addition, the increased production of hormones, the substrate of which are also fats, leads to an increase in their needs.

In most clinical situations, if HDL cholesterol is elevated, this means that the risk of atherosclerosis or other vascular diseases is very low. In parallel with this, elevated lipoproteins may have the following negative causes:

  • Alcohol intoxication. Due to direct toxic effects on the liver, its detoxification functions are impaired. Elevated HDL is one of the markers of this process.
  • Biliary cirrhosis.
  • Hepatic pathologies – fatty hepatosis, in which evenly overpriced processes are the synthesis of lipoproteins of all fractions.
  • Genetically determined hypercholesterolemia. In this disease, increased biosynthesis of other lipid fractions, therefore, to establish a diagnosis, it is necessary to pay attention not only to HDL, but also to all other elevated lipid profile indicators.
  • Thyroid dysfunction – hypothyroidism.
  • Improper nutrition – the intake of excessive amounts of foods that contain animal fats.
  • Inactivity and the wrong, inactive lifestyle. Cholesterol molecules are small energy stations in the blood. They are transported to the muscles and other energy-consuming organs. When a person leads a sedentary sedentary lifestyle, cholesterol is not in demand in the volumes in which it is present in the bloodstream. Due to uselessness, this excess can transform into a low-density fraction and begin to settle on the vascular endothelium.
  • Tobacco smoking.

According to medical statistics, an increase in HDL most often indicates malnutrition and the intake of excess fat in food. Often, foods contain substrates for cholesterol, both low and high density. Therefore, with such an etiology, following “HDL”, “harmful” cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood can be affected.

holesterin lpvp 03 - What is HDL cholesterol and how it affects health

High levels of HDL can be dangerous

Despite the use of high density lipoprotein, a deviation from the norm can provoke the development of various diseases.

Usually, when passing a detailed analysis of the level of cholesterol, an atherogenic coefficient is indicated. It is he who reveals the level of high density lipoproteins.

With a high atherogenic coefficient, it can be concluded that the former prevail between low-density lipoproteins and high-density lipoproteins.

As a result of the ambiguity, a predisposition to the development of various diseases appears.

A high ratio can cause various factors. For example, hereditary factor, cholestasis, various pathologies of the liver, inflammation of the kidneys, diabetes mellitus.

A low atherogenic coefficient suggests that HDL predominates over LDL. In most cases, even if this coefficient is excessively low, it does not do much harm to the body. Moreover, a low level indicates that the cholesterol in the body is normal and does not require correction.

The statement that the atherogenic coefficient may be lower than the norm is applicable only to average patients. In most cases, due to the presence of various diseases or factors affecting the level of cholesterol in the body, even too high a level of high density lipoproteins indicates a predisposition to the formation of various diseases or symptoms.

On a note! An excessively low amount of cholesterol in the blood leads to various diseases, including diseases of the central nervous system.

High HDL can be dangerous because cholesterol is a source of energy in the body and is one of the components in various systems. An excessive amount of this component leads to a violation of the functionality of the whole organism.

HDL has a molecular weight of 0,25 million daltons. Their diameter is 7-15 nm, the density is 1,13. The ratio of protein to lipids in their composition is 50:50. The half-life of high density lipoproteins is 5 days. Thanks to such physicochemical properties, they are able to perform an important function – the purification of the vascular system.

HDL has an antiatherogenic effect – they reduce the risk of the formation of cardiovascular pathologies. Such properties are due to the small size. They easily penetrate into blood vessels without injuring them.

Despite the benefits, an increase in the content of good cholesterol in the blood, as well as a decrease, leads to the development of various diseases. Determine HDL in a biochemical blood test. The study is carried out in the morning, on an empty stomach. The day before the test exclude physical activity, from the diet – spicy, salty foods, alcohol. An hour before analysis should refrain from smoking.

The following indicators are considered to be the norm of HDL:

  • women – 1,3-1,68 mmol/l;
  • men – 1,0-1,45 mmol/l.

With an increase or decrease in performance, an additional analysis is carried out. The atherogenic coefficient is determined by calculating the ratio of bad and good cholesterol. The indicators are taken from the results of biochemistry or lip >

Normal values ​​of the atherogenic coefficient (the same for men and women):

An indicator of more than 4 is most often observed in patients with coronary heart disease.

2) Lose extra pounds

If you are overweight, then getting rid of extra pounds can also increase the level of normal HDL cholesterol, respectively, lower the content of bad. Leah Groppo * states that even a loss of about 6-7% of the total weight can cause a positive metabolic shift. But, as Groppo notes, “it is very important to consolidate the result, that is, to maintain this state, not to relax.”

Abdominal obesity (to a greater extent, its intra-abdominal variety) significantly increases the risks of cardiovascular disease, and also lowers HDL cholesterol. Weight loss will be especially useful for people who have a “round” physique (when fat accumulates around the waist).

The best methods to “lose” kilograms include diet, vigorous exercise, and (in rare cases) surgery. Although, a study ** conducted in January 2014 proved that 318 participants who underwent laparoscopic surgery *** had high HDL cholesterol. Moreover, the result obtained remains for a long time (up to 10-12 years).

Reasons for lowering cholesterol

There are a lot of reasons why people’s test results reveal deviations from the norm of HDL in the direction of lowering. Most of them are associated with malnutrition and daily routines.

Factors affecting the reduction of good cholesterol:

  1. Low physical activity. In people whose work involves many hours of lack of physical activity, the blood circulation is primarily disturbed, an imbalance of all substances occurs.
  2. Violation of diet and lack of balance of BZHU in the diet. A large amount of fat and fast carbohydrates in food increases the level of bad cholesterol.
  3. Overweight. Low HDL in obesity is due to impaired lip >hdl cholesterol - What is HDL cholesterol and how it affects health

Hereditary damage to symptomatic therapy cannot be corrected. In this situation, hardware purification of blood plasma comes to the rescue.

Whatever the fractions of cholesterol are called, its concentration must be periodically monitored. This must be done in proven laboratories or clinics. And do not neglect the correct preparation for the study. Only in this way can objective results be obtained.

Decrease in HDL values ​​is asymptomatic and few people notice this, only with the usual periodic medical monitoring.

Symptoms occur when health is already damaged and diseases develop.

But what are the reasons that can lead to lower HDL values?

There are many of them, and they are not always associated with diseases:

Diseases that lead to a decrease in the level of good cholesterol:

3) Stop smoking!

Literally every modern person is aware that smoking leads to many problems (with health), including lung/heart disease, which is often the root cause of many cancers. This information is painted on packs. But did you know that “love” for cigarettes can dramatically lower the level of good cholesterol?

“Smoking can lower HDL cholesterol in many ways, including by inhibiting HDL synthesis, primarily by blocking its maturation and speeding up metabolism,” says Dr. Ahmed. “Complete cessation of smoking can help the synthesis and metabolism of HDL to return to their natural level so that he can again do his job normally.”

A study released in September 2013 (Biomarker Research) showed that smokers had higher levels of good cholesterol than smokers, noting: “We concluded that quitting tobacco increases HDL cholesterol and it happens very quickly. ”

If you are trying to quit smoking (with all your nature, but not for a tick), but fail, then be sure to consult a doctor (preferably non-smokers) about valuable and practical ways that are guaranteed to help you in this matter.

Natural ways to increase HDL cholesterol

A healthy lifestyle is the cornerstone of well-being, immunity, well-coordinated work of all human systems and organs. A decrease in HDL is somehow related to inadequate health care.

Changes in the concentration of lipoproteins may not appear outward for a long time. The absence of symptoms does not mean the absence of pathology. Bad cholesterol can slowly accumulate in vessels and organs, gradually destroying them. Dysfunctions of various systems also gradually lead to a decrease in HDL production.

Is it possible to increase good cholesterol and how to do it? There are several ways to normalize the concentration and ratio of different classes of lipoprotenes. But all methods take time, and for some it will be necessary to fundamentally change the established way of life and habits. Almost all methods are associated with a healthy lifestyle, it will be easy to perform them.

Your lifestyle has the single biggest effect on HDL cholesterol. Therefore, making changes to your daily lifestyle and full control over your habits, such as eating habits and physical activity, can lead to healthier levels of high density lipoproteins, which can reduce the risk of life-threatening health problems.

Smoking leads to the development of various diseases, including cancers of more than 15 organs, heart and blood vessel diseases, lung diseases, diseases of the reproductive system, etc. In addition, smoking can have a negative effect on the level of high density lipoproteins in your body. Studies show that smoking reduces HDL and increases the risk of coronary heart disease. In order to avoid the development of diseases of the cardiovascular system, and the occurrence of heart attacks and strokes, experts recommend smoking cessation.

In order to keep your body healthy, you need to increase your daily physical activity, especially if you lead a sedentary lifestyle. An increase in physical activity directly helps to increase the level of “good” HDL cholesterol, which is another of the many benefits of playing sports. Aerobic exercise is the best choice for raising HDL cholesterol. These include:

  • walking
  • running
  • swimming
  • dance classes
  • cycling
  • active games (football, volleyball, basketball, handball, tennis, etc.)

If you are currently overweight or obese, losing weight by even a few pounds can improve HDL cholesterol levels. A decrease in body weight for every 3 kg leads to an increase in the level of high density lipoproteins by 1 milligram per deciliter.

In order to increase HDL and total cholesterol, you should avoid eating trans fats, which are commonly found in hard margarines, baked goods, and fried fast foods. Preference should be given to eating healthy fats present in avocados and avocado oil, olive oil, nuts and oily fish.

A diet high in refined carbohydrates such as white bread, white rice, pasta, sugar, etc., has a negative effect on your HDL cholesterol level. Reducing the intake of this type of carbohydrate will help you improve your high-density lipoprotein levels.

Alcohol does not bring any benefits to the body, and its use causes only harm. If you drink alcohol, limit it to a small amount. In fact, moderate versus significant alcohol consumption was associated with higher HDL cholesterol. If you still drink alcohol, try to give preference to natural red wine (in moderation) and your “good” cholesterol level will be normal.

Niacin is nicotinic acid, also called vitamin B³ or vitamin PP. Your body uses niacin to release energy from food when it is digested. This vitamin also helps maintain the health of your digestive system, nervous system, skin, hair and eyes. Most people get enough niacin from food. However, with a reduced HDL cholesterol level, in order to raise it, niacin is often prescribed in the form of supplements.

Nicotinic acid can be taken in lower doses, despite the recommendations for use, since taking these supplements can sometimes cause unwanted side effects, especially when taken in high doses. These side effects of taking niacin include:

  • hyperemia
  • itching or tingling in the skin
  • problems with the gastrointestinal tract
  • muscle problems
  • liver problems

When it comes to getting enough niacin from food, you should include some foods rich in this vitamin in your daily diet, such as:

  • turkey meat
  • chicken breasts (only from domestic chicken)
  • peanuts
  • mushrooms
  • liver
  • tuna
  • green pea
  • organic beef
  • sunflower seeds
  • avocado

Try to eat more of some of these delicious, niacin-rich foods to naturally increase your “good” HDL cholesterol.

Can one of the drugs you take cause a decrease in HDL cholesterol in your body? It is possible! Medicines such as anabolic steroids, beta blockers, benzodiazepines, and progestins can lower high-density lipoproteins. If you are taking any of these drugs, tell your doctor about it, and if possible, try replacing these drugs with natural products that can also solve your problem.

4) Fish/fish oil/Omega-3

By adding fish to your diet in a short period of time, you can not only defeat high LDL cholesterol, but also increase the good. According to the results of tests published in February 2014 (PLoS One magazine), scientists came to the conclusion that a proper diet (where fish is one of the main elements) contributes to an increase in the size of HDL particles.

HDL Risks

Given the protective function of HDL in relation to arteries, low HDL cholesterol exposes the body to a high risk of cardiovascular disease.

When the level of HDL cholesterol falls far below the optimal levels, the ratio of total cholesterol is above 5, then damage to the arteries can lead to:

  • Atherosclerosis: Fat deposits in arteries that result in a decrease in blood flow.
  • Stroke: Obstruction or rupture of an artery of the brain, resulting in death of brain tissue.
  • Myocardial: decrease or cessation of blood flow, resulting in death of the heart muscle.
  • Coronary heart disease: complete or partial arrest of blood flow to the heart.

When correcting cholesterol production disorders, dietotherapy is always in the first place. Compliance with the diet and consumption of the desired balanced amount of nutrients will primarily save you from extra pounds. In moderate to severe obesity, a doctor should be involved in the development of a diet. This also applies to severe chronic diseases.

You should limit your intake of saturated fats, especially for people with a low-activity lifestyle. It is impossible to completely exclude triglycerides from the diet, since the lipid balance is disturbed. Preference must be given to unsaturated fats. Nutrition Rules:

  1. Dairy and dairy products. The fat content of milk should not exceed 2,5%. Recommended cottage cheese, low fat yogurt, fermented baked milk. The consumption of cheeses, butter is sharply limited.
  2. Meat. The diet includes beef, veal, duck meat, goose are completely excluded. The product is boiled, cutlets are cooked for a couple, it is impossible to fry. Exclude semi-finished products and sausages.
  3. Offal is removed from the diet, with the exception of chicken liver. It contains vitamin D, which improves the production of good cholesterol, and calcium, which ensures the transport of lipophilic alcohol.
  4. The eggs. Preference is given to quail, when eating chicken it is better to abandon the yolk. Soft-boiled eggs or steam omelettes are cooked.
  5. Bread. In fact, the product does not contain anything useful, and a freshly baked product increases the acidity of the stomach, causes gas formation in the intestine. If it is difficult to completely abandon the bread, then at least try to replace it with breadcrumbs.

5) We practice a glass of wine (moderately!)

Practice has shown that moderate consumption of alcohol (especially wine) can increase good blood cholesterol. According to the Mayo Clinic, this means: up to one alcoholic drink per day for women and men over 65 years of age (for men under the age of 65, there can be up to two normalized servings per day).

Medical experiments (made public in February 2016 on the pages of the scientific journal PLoS One) have successfully confirmed this fact. Doctors found that in 11 adults, wine consumption in the amount from small to moderate (000 or less normalized servings per week for men, respectively, half as much for women) showed an increase in HDL.

But there is another side to the coin. Drinking too much alcohol (abuse) can easily change all health benefits to serious problems and lead to weight gain, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, as well as alcohol dependence (women are especially prone to alcoholism).

Healthy foods

If the results of the tests showed that high density lipoproteins are lowered, first you need to find out from the doctor how critical the situation is. With small deviations from the norm, the concentration of HDL is adjusted using certain substances contained in the products:

  1. Omega 3. It is impossible to completely exclude lipids from the menu, it is necessary to replace saturated fats with aliphatic monobasic acids of the carboxylic group. Most omega-3s are found in mackerel, trout, haddock, and anchovies. From plant foods, unsaturated fats prevail in seaweed, flax seeds, and spinach.
  2. Niacin. Nicotinic acid, or vitamin B3, is involved in redox processes, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Niacin improves the digestive tract, contributing to the rapid and complete processing of incoming food. Most of all it is found in buckwheat, beets, beans, some offal (liver, kidneys), mushrooms. Niacin has a lipid-lowering property, the consumption of products with its content significantly reduces the risk of developing atherosclerosis.
  3. Beta-sitosterol is phytosterol, similar in structure to cholesterol. In medicine, the synthesized substance is used to reduce the content and production of bad cholesterol. The substance is found exclusively in plant products: seaweed, avocado, peanuts, rice, flaxseed and pumpkin seeds.

A little about what cholesterol is, and why nature created it.

  1. Cholesterol is an organic fatty alcohol, which is traditionally referred to as lipids.
  2. It is present in the body of many living things (except for plants and non-nuclear).
  3. Cholesterol is produced by internal organs (primarily by the liver), and partially comes with food of animal origin.
  4. It is part of the cytoplasmic membranes of all cells of a living organism, providing them with resistance to temperature changes, strength, elasticity, and selective permeability.
  5. Cholesterol is also involved in the synthesis of fat-soluble vitamin D, steroid hormones (aldosterone, cortisol, testosterone, progesterone, estrogen), is part of bile acids.

It would seem that what is bad here? It prevents hormonal imbalance and hypovitaminosis, indirectly supports blood pressure and reproductive function, restores the integrity of cell membranes . It is the last function of cholesterol that, under certain conditions, begins to “work” against the body. And this condition is damage to the inner choroid.

Each microcrack, scratch, bare wall of the artery after desquamation of the cells, he immediately begins to fill. And with increased concentration, cholesterol does this uncontrollably. That is, the process is not limited to restoring integrity: sterol masses are deposited in the underlying vascular layers with the formation of an atherosclerotic plaque. Subsequently, they pull on themselves lipids, proteins, calcium salts, exacerbating the condition of the vessel.

As a result, the wall of the artery thickens, bulging into the lumen, which narrows it. Less blood enters the nourishing tissues, and therefore, oxygen and nutrients. In medicine, these conditions are called hypoxia and malnutrition. Each deprived cell begins to suffer, its function gradually fades away, and, ultimately, the structural tissue unit dies.

In fact, the pathogenesis of a common disease of the cardiovascular system — atherosclerosis, complicated by a heart attack of the brain, myocardium, soft tissues of the limbs, and intestinal wall — has now been described. These are the most life-threatening conditions. But they are preceded and accompanied by less dangerous today, but fatal tomorrow changes in internal organs. Therefore, the passage for blood must be “kept open”, and excess cholesterol must be removed from the body.

Fats do not freely flow in the bloodstream, otherwise fat droplets would get stuck in small vessels. They bind to transport proteins at the site of synthesis and entry with the formation of lipoproteins that dissolve in the blood. The protein component condenses the compound, and the larger it is, the denser it is. That is, low-density fat-protein complexes consist practically of a large fat droplet surrounded by single protein molecules. Conversely, high-density ones contain little fat and consist mainly of a protein component.

Lipids that can penetrate the thickness of the vascular wall are contained in low density lipoproteins (LDL), and intended for disposal – in high density lipoproteins (HDL). “Good” (alpha-, hdl) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and “bad” (beta-, ldl) are the main indicators of fat metabolism.

Initially, cholesterol is not synthesized “bad.” It is produced in the required quantities purely for the needs of the body. An increase in its concentration in the blood begins with excessive intake, incomplete use, impaired destruction and inferior excretion. A decrease in its level develops with the pathology of the synthesizing organs: liver, intestines, kidneys, adrenal and genital glands.

LDL is formed in these organs in several stages, but they enter the bloodstream en masse: the preceding fractions penetrate outside the cells in smaller quantities.

  1. The primary compound is very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). It is formed from brought components that came from food and synthesized locally. More than half the compound consists of triglycerides, and it carries it to the periphery.
  2. VLDL, both intracellularly and in the general bloodstream, is enriched with protein, cholesterol, phospholipids and turns into an intermediate density lipoprotein. His only vocation is to become the basis for the formation of LDL.
  3. The synthesized low-density lipoprotein delivers beta-cholesterol and lipids to needy cells. It is fixed on specific peripheral tissue receptors and makes a “donation”, becoming poorer and increasing density due to an increase in the percentage of unused protein component.

An unused impoverished complex attaches a transport protein and becomes a full-fledged high-density lipoprotein. HDL is disconnected from the receptor and sent to the liver, transporting alpha-cholesterol for utilization. In liver cells, under the action of lipases, HDL disintegrates into simple compounds. Cholesterol is used in the synthesis of bile acids.

Through the intrahepatic bile ducts, bile acids enter the reservoir – the gall bladder – and are stored in the bile until the next meal. As soon as the digestion process begins, the gall bladder contracts, pushing bile into the intestinal lumen. Bile acids break down the food lump into absorbed elements, and they themselves also break down.

If the food composition is poor in fats, bile acids are not fully used. Some of them are excreted with feces, and some are absorbed back into the bloodstream and enter a new cycle of lipoprotein formation.

Plate with foods high in cholesterol.

ProductCholesterol in mg per 100 g
Pork brains2000
Egg quail600
Chicken egg570
Mackerel360
Carp270
Capelin210
Herring200
Pork buds200
Beef tongue150
Sour cream 30%130
Pork liver130
Pork heart120
Beef fat110
Fat mutton, pork100
Cream Sterilization. 25%100
Veal80 – 110
Meat Cattle70
Pork60 – 70
fat cottage cheese60
Cod30
Goat’s milk30
Kefir low-fat10
Milk10
Kura 1 category30
Kura 2 cat.10
Goose 1 category.110
Goose 2 category.80
Turkey Category 150
Turkey 2 Cat30

Bad cholesterol label

ProductThe proportion of phytosterol in mg per 100 g
Brown rice bran400
Wheat germ400
Sesame seeds400
Sunflower seeds300
Fistashki300
Pumpkin seeds265
Cedar nut200
Flax seed200
Almonds200
Olive oil150
Avocado76

Immediately I want to highlight the avocado. It contains the largest amount of the substance phytosterol among fruits, and it helps to control and regulate cholesterol in the blood. Per 100 g, approximately 76 mg. If you consume half an avocado for twenty-one days, this can reduce total cholesterol by eight percent and increase the proportion of good cholesterol by fifteen. Sixty grams of almonds per day can reduce bad cholesterol by seven percent and increase good cholesterol by six.

A little olive. If you use it as an alternative to animal fats, you can reduce the level of bad cholesterol by eighteen percent. Choose unrefined olive oil, it is also able to reduce inflammation and relax endopelia on the walls of arteries.

Berries (blueberries, cranberries, raspberries, red grapes, pomegranates, strawberries, aronia). They contain polyphenols, like all fruits of blue, red and violet color, which stimulate the production of HDL in the blood. With the help of berries, you can increase the level of good cholesterol in two months by five percent.

Omega 3 helps normalize cholesterol

Cholesterol new - What is HDL cholesterol and how it affects health

It is a dietary supplement made from sugarcane. With it, you can adjust blood pressure, lower bad cholesterol, and reduce weight.

With prolonged use (a month or more) slows the production of bad cholesterol

White cabbage in any form.

Lowers cholesterol and removes it from the body when consuming one hundred grams daily.

Any greens. Due to the content of dietary fiber, carotenoids and lutein in their composition, they reduce the level of bad cholesterol and reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.

6) Reduce sugar intake

According to a study published in November 2015 in the journal Nature, eating foods that are high in carbohydrates and adding sugar (from white bread to cookies and pastries) reduces HDL cholesterol, increasing the risk of metabolic disorders.

Refined carbohydrates, which are stuffed with many modern products (even with the label “low fat”), in fact, make any food as bad as foods with the highest fat content. Because this fat in them is often replaced by carbohydrates (with the addition of sugar and other starches).

Clinical trials conducted among 2500 patients with diabetes (published in October 2016 in the journal Nutrition Metabolism Cardiovascular Disease) showed that these nutritional recommendations (that is, with the maximum sugar limit) led to HDL levels significantly increased.

Other valuable recommendations based on the results of this experiment: if you want to quickly reduce sugar intake, the best option would be to smoothly replace it with sweet fruits and vegetables. That is, do not abruptly refuse sugar. As regards trans fats, fried/spicy foods or fast foods, here the sentence should be harsh and final: a sharp rejection. They significantly lower normal cholesterol.

Refusal of alcohol and cigarettes

A complete cessation of smoking (including vaping, hookah) and alcoholic drinks will help raise the level of good cholesterol, as well as improve overall health.

Cigarettes contain nicotine, which has nothing to do with nicotinic acid. Nicotine is an alkaloid (poisonous substance) that destroys cholinergic receptors. During smoking, the alkaloid disrupts the heartbeat. Disruption of the heart leads to malfunctions in pressure and trauma to blood vessels. Inadequate amounts of nutrients enter various tissues. Deficiency of micro- and microelements leads to a violation of lipid metabolism.

Alcohol is harmful in any quantity. There is no benefit in wine either; the consumption of a grape alcohol-containing drink disturbs the natural acidity of the stomach. Nutrients are not completely processed, putting an additional burden on the liver. Alcohol is a powerful toxin; when it enters the body, the liver tries to cleanse the blood. Hepatocytes work in an enhanced mode, which leads to their death. A diseased liver is not able to produce the right amount of HDL.

7) We use vegetable oils

As it turned out, not all oils are equally useful when it comes to the health of our heart. Olive or soybean oil is mainly unsaturated fats that help lower LDL cholesterol, and at the same time, increase good HDL cholesterol. This fact was confirmed by the results of experiments published in July 2015 in the medical journal The Journal of Nutrition. Scientists have found that olive oil in the diet reduces the concentration of bad LDL cholesterol, especially in the blood of young men.

Other laboratory tests have shown that coconut oil, in principle, is useful for some increase in HDL cholesterol, but it (to put it mildly) is not the best oil for heart health due to the high content of saturated fats, which under certain conditions can provoke a sharp excess of the norm LDL cholesterol.

Физическая активность

Good cholesterol – what is it? In fact, it is a substance that processes fats into important elements that provide energy to the body. With weak activity, the body does not have time to consume fats coming from food, they are deposited. To normalize the ratio of bad and good cholesterol, they resort to physical activity of any type. When choosing sports activities, one should focus on how lowered HDL is, on the presence of diseases, personal preferences.

Limited morning exercises will not work. To maintain the body and restore disturbed processes, one should resort to moderately intense training. It is better to give preference to those species in which there is a uniform load on the whole body. Great running, swimming, tennis. You can use the help of a sports instructor, he will help to develop a set of exercises taking into account individual characteristics.

People whose work is not related to activity should exercise every 1,5 hours, squat, bend, etc. In the evening, from a stop to an entrance, it is better to walk. Enter the elevator on the second floor, walking up the stairs improves blood circulation.

What to do to increase HDL

Quit smoking. The exclusion of smoking entails an increase in HDL levels of approximately 10%. Especially if you add physical activity (at least 5 days a week for 30 minutes): swimming, biking, running, brisk walking, gardening, all that increases the heart rate.

Lose extra pounds. Weight loss by 3 kg increases HDL by 1 mg/dl of blood.

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Follow the rules of good nutrition. The basis of such a diet should be the consumption of healthy fats. In particular, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated, in the latter case it is omega 3 contained in fruits with hard shells and oily fish.

Drinking one or two glasses of red wine per day. Not everyone agrees with this recommendation, but wine certainly helps maintain high HDL values. Perhaps this is the reason that explains the French paradox. The French, being active consumers of saturated fats (butter, fatty meat), have a low prevalence of cardiovascular disease.

Taking drugs that increase HDL is the most common niacin. Supplements also exist based on this ingredient. It should not be used without medical advice, because there may be side effects on liver function.

To reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, it is necessary to use foods that help increase the proportion of HDL cholesterol and lower LDL.

  • Piscesrich in omega-3s (fats) such as salmon or swordfish.
  • Cereals, especially whole grains such as bread and pasta.
  • Non-greasy boiled sausage or low fat ham.
  • Low fat cheesesuch as mozzarella, ricotta, goat cheese.
  • Milk and yogurt.
  • Lean meatsuch as turkey, chicken and rabbit.
  • Dried fruitssuch as hazelnuts, walnuts and almonds because they contain omega-3s.
  • Antioxidant-rich foodssuch as vitamin C, which is abundant in kiwi, broccoli, oranges and lemons.
  • Some beansuch as soybeans, which contain phytoestrogens, substances that can mimic the effects of estrogen and lower cholesterol.

A diet that can help you keep your “bad” cholesterol low is a vegetarian diet, as it eliminates the consumption of animal fats and involves the consumption of large amounts of fruits and vegetables rich in vegetable fats containing sterols, which have a structure similar to cholesterol and stimulate lower total cholesterol .

A study published in January 2016 in the journal Nutrients proved that a diet high in antioxidants increases good cholesterol in the blood against triglycerides, which in turn reduces the risks of stroke, heart failure, and other serious illnesses. Antioxidant-rich foods include dark chocolate, berries, avocados, nuts, cabbage, beets, and spinach.

Based on the values ​​of only elevated HDL, it is not possible to establish a diagnosis or make any recommendations. It is necessary to see all the increased lipid profile indicators – the concentration in the blood test of total cholesterol, its bad and good fraction, triglycerides, and the atherogenic coefficient. Depending on the rest of the clinical picture, the doctor may make certain prescriptions.

The most common causes of high cholesterol (HDL) are unbalanced diets, lack of exercise, and bad habits. In order to normalize the lipid profile, you must first act on this etiological triad.

A daily diet is recommended. Fatty meats, lard, spicy, fried, smoked dishes, fast food and fatty dairy products are excluded from its composition. Preference is given to plant products, which not only normalize the values ​​of HDL and LDL, but also have a number of beneficial effects on the macroorganism.

Selectively elevated HDL in the lipid profile to moderate values ​​are not an indication for prescribing medication and are adjusted by diet therapy. If deviations from the norm are more serious and several lipid parameters are affected, then after consultation, the doctor may prescribe drugs from the group of statins – Rosart, Rosuvastatin, Atorvastatin and others.

How to increase HDL with medications?

In case of serious violations, the doctor is responsible for the correction of lipoprotein content. How to increase good cholesterol with drugs? Self-administration and use of medications can have a very negative effect on health.

The doctor will determine exactly how to increase good cholesterol without consequences. They resort to the use of drugs if low concentrations of lipoproteins become permanent and increase the risk of various diseases.

Medicines that increase HDL:

    Statins are designed to lower LDL fractions. The mechanism of action is as follows: the active substances bind to low density lipoproteins and remove them from the blood, restoring balance. The most commonly prescribed are Rosuvastatin, Actalip >holesterin lpvp 04 2 - What is HDL cholesterol and how it affects health

Stressful as little as possible

Changing the level of cholesterol in the body is a rather complicated process. Especially when it comes to high density lipoproteins.

Raising low-density lipoproteins is easy. It’s enough to eat more foods high in cholesterol.

High-density lipoproteins mainly consist of protein, so its synthesis in the body is more complicated.

In order to increase the level of high density lipoproteins, it is necessary to exclude the use of drugs containing anabolic steroids, corticosteroids.

It is necessary to be exposed to stressful situations as little as possible. The central nervous system also greatly affects the imbalance of cholesterol in the body. With constant exposure to the nervous system, high-density lipoproteins are consumed.

In some cases, when the atherogenic coefficient is too high, and the diet and active lifestyle do not lead to the normalization of this coefficient, it is necessary to use drug therapy.

Depending on what has become a source of lipoprotein imbalance, various drugs are taken: statins, phenobarbital, insulin, fibrates. All of these drugs can reduce the level of low-density lipoproteins, thereby changing the level of atherogenicity.

Nutritional supplements, but only after the advice of a doctor!

If all methods for raising HDL cholesterol have not been successful, then nutritional supplements can be tried. Nevertheless, reputable doctors warn that supplements designed specifically to increase HDL cholesterol are not yet fully understood. It is also not proven that they can minimize the risks of heart attacks.

The use of folk remedies with low HDL

Alternative medicine has in its arsenal many recipes that contribute to raising good cholesterol. Some home remedies were even borrowed by manufacturers of homeopathic medicines and dietary supplements.

  1. A tablespoon with a hill of dried blackberry leaves is poured with boiling water (250 g), insisted for about an hour. Pass through the filter, drink 50 g before meals.
  2. 200 g of fresh carrot juice is mixed with the same amount of beet juice and 150 g of pressed celery. They try to drink the mixture right away. The procedure is repeated every other day for two weeks.
  3. 200 g of linden flowers brew 250 g of boiling water, insist 40-50 minutes. Pass through the filter, drink the drink throughout the day.

Good cholesterol is necessary to maintain normal functioning. With its decrease, the risk of developing vascular pathologies increases. A well-chosen diet, physical education, refusal from addictions are the best means to maintain a normal concentration of HDL.

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Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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