Essential, or primary, is called the form of arterial hypertension with a prolonged and persistent increase in pressure characteristic of this disease. Pathology is chronic and increases the risk of certain disorders, including strokes and heart attacks. Essential hypertension requires ongoing treatment and lifestyle changes.
Among cardiovascular diseases, essential hypertension is most widespread. Among various types of hypertension, such a variety is diagnosed in 95% of cases. There is a chronically elevated pressure of 140 mm Hg. Art. on systole and from 90 mm RT. Art. on diastole.
In children, such a pathology is recognized at lower rates. Up to 10 years, this pressure is over 110/70 mm Hg. Art., after – from 120/80 mm RT. Art.
The origin of the disease is associated with a violation of the functional state of various body systems. Of particular importance is the nervous and endocrine system. Such violations affect the regulation of vascular tone, so it changes, causing a spasm of small arteries. Against the background of such changes, the pressure rises.
With a prolonged spastic state of arterioles, their sclerosis develops. This causes persistence of hypertension and malnutrition of organs and tissues.
Depending on the characteristics of the course of the disease, its benign and malignant form is distinguished. In the first case, pressure increases are periodic. Taking the appropriate drug quickly relieves the symptoms. With the malignant nature of the disease, a significant increase in pressure is observed. Attacks occur suddenly and are poorly stopped by medicines.
The magnitude of the pressure with essential hypertension can be different, therefore it is customary to distinguish 3 of its degrees:
- Up to 160/100 mmHg Art.
- 160/100-170/110 mmHg. Art.
- From 180/110 mm Hg Art.
There is also a classification according to risk factors: the disease can have a low, medium, high and very high degree.
At the initial stage of the development of pathology, patients often perceive its symptoms as overwork. If the pressure rises slightly, then the clinical picture of the disease may be blurred. Often only a headache testifies to it. As a result, the person does not pay attention to the symptoms and does not receive timely treatment.
In the future, the clinical picture becomes more pronounced. The main symptoms of pathology include:
- anxiety state;
- coordination problems;
- sleep disorders;
- decreased attention;
- decreased performance;
- decreased sensitivity in the fingers;
- vision problems, the appearance of flies in front of the eyes;
If symptoms occur regularly or their intensity increases, then a visit to the doctor should not be postponed. The presence of any of these signs indicates any violations. In no case should they be left without attention.
A comprehensive approach is needed to identify primary hypertension. Diagnosis begins with a medical history. The specialist must analyze the patient’s complaints. On examination, it is possible to identify wheezing in the lungs and noise in the heart.
Blood pressure measurements are required. It is important to identify the parameters at rest and during physical exertion. It is necessary to compare the obtained indicators. The most effective daily monitoring of blood pressure. It allows not only to know the degree of pressure, but also to determine the factors influencing it.
Daily monitoring consists in the patient wearing an automated blood pressure monitor. Blood pressure is fixed during the day. Typically, during the day, measurements are taken at intervals of half an hour, at night – 1-2 hours.
In the diagnosis of essential hypertension, laboratory and instrumental techniques are used. The most informative are the following studies:
- Blood tests. A general analysis reveals signs of inflammation. Biochemical research is important for assessing the condition and functioning of internal organs and body systems.
- Analysis of urine. Such a diagnosis may indicate kidney problems.
- Electrocardiogram. Research may reveal left ventricular hypertrophy.
- Echocardiography. The study is important for assessing the structure and size of the heart, the state of its valves, and contractility.
- Chest x-ray. In this study, dilatation of the left ventricle of the heart, atherosclerotic changes are revealed.
- Ultrasound diagnosis of the kidneys. With high blood pressure, certain changes in the kidneys occur. Ultrasound allows you to identify them.
- Fundus examination. This diagnosis reveals changes in blood vessels associated with high blood pressure.
A full-fledged comprehensive diagnosis allows not only to confirm essential hypertension, but also to evaluate the features of the course of this disease and associated pathologies. All this information is necessary to prescribe the optimal treatment.
An important point of treatment is a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular complications. This requires not only drug therapy, but also a change in lifestyle.
Conservative therapy can only be prescribed by a specialist. He will take into account all the important features of the pathology, which will make it possible to choose the optimal drugs in a particular case among a huge selection of medicines.
Drug treatment can be performed in various ways. Monotherapy involves the use of a single drug. Combined treatment means the simultaneous use of several medicines.
With essential hypertension, the following groups of drugs can be used:
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. A decrease in blood pressure is provided by exposure in several directions at once.
- Angiotensin receptor blockers. The action of such drugs involves the expansion of blood vessels.
- β – blockers. These medicines work in several directions, expanding the blood vessels, slowing the heartbeat and normalizing the heart rate.
- Calcium antagonists.
- Diuretics. There are several groups of such drugs. Thiazide agents promote the excretion of sodium with water. In potassium-sparing medicines, the diuretic effect is weak, but they retain potassium in the body. The most powerful effect in loop preparations.
- According to indications, they resort to an α-blocker. They relate to centrally acting medicines. Such therapy reduces the activity of the nervous system, against which the level of blood pressure decreases. The action of the drugs is based on vasodilation and a decrease in blood total cholesterol.
With a hypertensive crisis, the patient needs rest and bed rest. In a medical institution, they usually resort to enalaprilat, nitroglycerin, β-blockers, diuretics, antipsychotics.
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Detailed information about Detonic is located on the manufacturer’s page.
- Essential hypertension: what is it, arterial, primary, treatment
- Essential hypertension: symptoms, causes, treatment
- How to prevent the development of hypertension
- Pathological changes in the body with essential hypertension
In the treatment of essential hypertension, alternative medicine is also appropriate. You can use the following folk recipes:
- Red pine cones. An infusion is prepared from them. The raw materials must be washed and dried, then fill them with a glass container. It must be filled to the top with alcohol or vodka. Insist in the dark for 15-20 days. The finished product should have a dark red color. It is necessary to take a teaspoon half an hour before meals three times a day.
- Rosehip infusion. 100 grams of dried berries need to brew a liter of boiling water and insist in a thermos. The finished product can be drunk instead of tea, but in moderation, since it has a fixing effect.
- Infusion of viburnum. It is necessary to pour 1,5 cups of berries with a liter of boiling water and insist in a glass container for 5 hours. Then strain the composition by rubbing the berries through a sieve. Add a glass of honey. Take 2 weeks in a third of a glass three times a day before or after a meal.
You should consult with your doctor about the possibility of using traditional medicine. Some ingredients may be contraindicated in a particular case. Plant materials can cause individual intolerance.
A person with diagnosed essential hypertension needs to change his lifestyle. A prerequisite is the rejection of bad habits. Smoking and alcohol should be ruled out completely.
In the diet, you need to include more plant foods. The volume of animal fats should be reduced. A sufficient amount of calcium and potassium should be present in the diet. These trace elements contain dairy products, cereals, vegetables and fruits. The use of salt should be limited – no more than 5 grams per day.
In the presence of excess weight, its normalization is necessary. Mild exercise is required. If there is no opportunity to play sports, then you need to walk more. A day should go 10 thousand steps.
The prognosis for essential hypertension is favorable in case of timely detection of the disease and its correct treatment. To maintain stable pressure, the patient should regularly take the drugs prescribed to him, monitor his lifestyle, and eliminate the factors provoking complications.
The prognosis is unfavorable when primary hypertension passes to stage 3 or becomes malignant. A concomitant lesion of target organs, frequent hypertensive crises, a rapid increase in symptoms, and a sharp decline in well-being have a negative effect on the outcome.
Essential hypertension without proper medication can lead to certain complications:
- hypertensive crisis;
- malignant form of pathology;
- hypertonic heart, which increases the risk of pathologies of the cardiovascular system (heart attack, ventricular arrhythmia, heart failure);
- damage to the central nervous system;
- kidney damage;
- ophthalmic pathologies.
With a hypertensive crisis, the pressure can increase to a critical point – 220 mm RT. Art. – and even exceed it. This condition is accompanied by a headache that can not be stopped with a conventional analgesic. The risk of stroke, heart attack and aneurysm increases several times.
You can reduce the risk of developing pathology with the help of preventive measures. It is important to adhere to the following recommendations:
- maintain normal weight;
- lead a healthy active lifestyle, which means moderate physical activity, regular walks in the fresh air;
- rational nutrition: it is necessary to eat healthy food, do not abuse table salt;
- exclude smoking, alcohol, drugs;
- avoid stress, severe psycho-emotional overload;
- control blood pressure;
- regularly undergo preventive examinations and treat chronic diseases.
The etiology and pathogenesis of essential secondary arterial hypertension are well known, susceptible, and largely eliminated along with the cause of high blood pressure. The formation of primary essential hypertension – an increase in blood pressure – is affected by the complexity of various factors: inheritance, lifestyle, and the environment. The most important pathophysiological mechanisms and etiology factors are:
- increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system, manifested by an increase in heart rate, minimal heart rate, and peripheral vascular resistance;
- psychosomatics – chronic stress in genetically predisposed people causes a steady increase in TK;
- renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system;
- physical activity;
- salt intake;
Blood pressure values, by their nature, are constantly changing throughout the day. In the morning they are higher, in the evening they decrease, the lowest rates are during sleep. If a person changes the rhythm of the day, for example, switches to night shifts, the pressure variability “adjusts” to these changes. The critical values for people with classical biorhythm are the period in the morning and early morning, when the highest level of cardiovascular complications is observed.
Today, about 26% of older people around the world have this disease, regardless of gender and nationality. Nine million people seek medical help a year, of which sixty thousand people die from this ailment. Mortality is 7% of the number of sick. Numerous studies indicate the heredity of this ailment.
Essential hypertension: what is it, arterial, primary, treatment
According to generally accepted standards, 120/80 mmHg is considered optimal blood pressure. Art. Normal values are considered to be within no higher than 135/85 mm Hg. Art. The threshold level is bordered by marks 139/89 mm RT. Art.
The degrees of essential hypertension are identical with symptomatic hypertension:
- first degree: “upper” pressure borders on 140-155 mm Hg. Art., lower – 90-99 mm RT. st .;
- second degree: 160-179 mmHg. Art. systolic pressure and 100-109 mm RT. Art. diastolic;
- third degree: equals or exceeds the mark of 180/110 mm RT. Art.
Increased blood pressure can lead to a large number of complications, disruption of the normal functioning of internal organs: kidneys, heart, brain, fundus, blood vessels. The patient has weakness in the arms and legs, impaired coordination of movements, memory, vision, and reduced intelligence. All this can lead to a stroke.
In the modern world, diseases of the cardiovascular system are considered one of the most common on earth. Among them is hypertension.
There is also a disease such as essential hypertension, which is a form of high blood pressure.
Many do not understand what it is, what is the difference between different forms of hypertension and how it affects treatment.
What is essential hypertension? What distinguishes essential hypertension from normal hypertension? Try to answer these questions.
One form of hypertension, which is characterized by a chronic course that manifests itself as a persistent, long-lasting high blood pressure, is called essential hypertension.
Normal pressure in adults is considered to be 120/80 mm Hg.
A person comes to a medical facility complaining of high blood pressure. For systolic pressure, this is 140 mmHg. Art., for diastolic – 90.
If it is not often above the norm, then the diagnosis of essential hypertension cannot be made. But if the pressure above the norm is constant, then you will be diagnosed with essential arterial hypertension.
Then the doctor will begin to establish the exact cause of high blood pressure.
Depending on the form and degree of the disease, treatment will be prescribed. It is at this stage of the examination that a diagnosis is made. Essential hypertension is characterized by a primary form of development of this disease. If the disease is caused by any chronic pathology, then this disease is arterial hypertension.
About 95% of cases, the disease is in its primary form, respectively, primary hypertension is diagnosed.
In the essential form, if the patient is not treated, the disease progresses, thereby damaging the internal organs. The international classification of diseases for essential hypertension is code 10.
Primary arterial hypertension is classified depending on what indicators of increase in blood pressure it has. It is customary to distinguish three degrees:
- For the first degree, systolic pressure ranges from 140 to 159 mm Hg. Art. For diastolic indicators should be from 90 to 99 mm RT. Art.
- For the second degree, systolic pressure is characterized by indicators from 160 to 179 mm Hg, for diastolic – from 100 to 109 mm Hg. Art.
- The third degree is considered the most difficult. With it, indicators reach 180 mm Hg, and the “lower” indicator can reach 110 mm Hg.
The risks of stroke and heart failure, which are complications of this form of hypertension, can be judged from the degree of essential hypertension.
When a doctor makes a diagnosis of this disease, he must indicate at what stage of development it is, what degree is characterized and what are the risks of complications.
At stage 1, there are no signs of any changes in the internal organs of the patient, only blood pressure indicators indicate a disease.
At stage 2, the heart and other organs function normally, but the first signs of changes in the vessels and heart are already visible.
At stage 3, disorders in the functioning of internal organs and the vascular system are already clearly visible.
Having studied all this, the doctor determines the risks of dangerous complications, which can be insignificant, low, high and very high.
Moreover, if the patient suffers from diabetes, then even having the first degree of essential hypertension, he may have a high risk of complications.
Until now, the exact cause of this disease is not known. But what causes it has already been proven:
- the presence of bad habits;
- if the human immunity is reduced;
- with a genetic predisposition;
- with the wrong lifestyle;
- for the elderly or middle-aged people, the likelihood of developing this disease increases;
- this disease is more common in men;
- heredity, which conveys a disorder of the tone of the vascular system.
In addition, modern medicine has accurately proved the existence of a number of factors that can trigger the progression of this disease. These include:
- overweight or obesity. There is an opinion that up to five times, because of this, the risk of an increase in blood pressure indicators may increase;
- addiction to smoking and alcohol. This leads to increased activity in some parts of the nervous system;
- excessive salt intake. As a result of this, a person consumes more fluid, which can lead to an increase in blood pressure;
- insufficient amount of trace elements in the body, including potassium, calcium, magnesium;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- life in constant stress and emotional stress. This is usually characteristic of mental workers and those living in big cities;
- pregnant women may develop this disease. After the birth of the baby, the disease can disappear, and can accompany a woman all her life;
- menopause in women can provoke the development of this disease.
If a person is diagnosed with essential hypertension, its symptom is elevated blood pressure.
Initially, a person does not feel any signs of the disease, although blood pressure indicators are already elevated. This is due to the fact that the vascular system is not yet damaged and itself adapts to pressure.
Therefore, this stage of the disease passes mainly unnoticed by the patient, or he does not react to the present signs of the disease.
If you have these symptoms, you need to take control of your health condition, blood pressure and consult a doctor.
With the development of this disease, its signs become distinct, the presence of hypertensive crises is characteristic, the patient clearly feels an increase in blood pressure due to the following symptoms:
- he has a feeling of anxiety, his face turns red, sweating appears;
- headaches become severe, with a ripple in the head;
- chest pain is felt, shortness of breath occurs;
- dots flicker before your eyes, it darkens in your eyes.
It happens that by lowering a sharp increase in blood pressure with drugs, the patient does not constantly monitor it and does not accept any course of treatment. In the case when a diagnosis has already been made, you need to clearly understand for yourself that this disease is chronic, progressive and dangerous, as it causes a number of complications.
As a result of the further development of the disease, changes occur in the vascular walls of the body and in the myocardium of the heart. Because of this, the patient begins to feel chest pain.
The process of the development of the disease leads to cardiac ischemia, malfunctions in the heart rhythm, angina pectoris develops. At the last stage of this disease, patients complain of internal organs.
Complaints of poor memory, a change in one’s behavior, depression, and other signs associated with vascular encephalopathy are added to the symptoms.
Vision problems may begin, signs of kidney damage and heart failure occur.
With this disease, it is important to consult a specialist as soon as an increase in blood pressure on the tonometer has been detected. In a medical institution, you will have to examine your body for a diagnosis.
If the study does not reveal any diseases that cause secondary hypertension, then its primary form will be delivered. If pathologies are found, the specialist must determine whether this is the cause or the result of high blood pressure.
A full examination of the body will require time, therefore, at this stage, the patient can be put in a hospital.
The study uses the following diagnostic measures:
- It is necessary to donate blood and urine to glucose, cholesterol, to find out the indicators of urea and creatinine. If the doctor has a suspicion of thyroid disease, the presence of a tumor in the adrenal gland and in the pituitary gland, then blood hormone tests will be additionally prescribed. To exclude diabetes, it will be necessary to undergo studies in metabolic disorders.
- During the examination, it is necessary to make an electrocardiogram of the heart. For the initial stage of the disease, there should be no pathology, with subsequent stages of the disease, symptoms of heart disease may appear. In addition, all internal organs and the thyroid gland are subject to ultrasound examination. Based on this, the doctor makes a conclusion about the cause of the increase in pressure or how much increased blood pressure affected the damage to internal organs. With daily monitoring of blood pressure and electrocardiograms of the heart, a complete picture is made about the increase in blood pressure against the background of rest, during meals and physical activity. To diagnose heart disease, in order to exclude the form of secondary hypertension, radiography of the chest cavity is prescribed. If the patient suffers from angina pectoris or with myocardial infarction, coronarography is done. In cases of suspected secondary hypertension due to brain tumors, traumatic brain injuries, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain is prescribed. If adrenal or kidney tumors are suspected, an MRI of these organs is performed.
Essential hypertension: symptoms, causes, treatment
This type of hypertension does not involve organ damage, it develops as a result of prolonged emotional stress, among residents of megalopolises, as a result of constant stressful situations, and anxious and suspicious personalities. This provokes an increase in adrenaline in the blood, which is produced by the adrenal glands. At the same time, the vessels are constantly in good shape, increasing resistance to blood flow, resulting in increased pressure.
The renal arteries narrow. There is a disorder in the formation of substances in them that regulate the volume of blood in the channel. The kidneys begin to retain water and sodium in the body, this provokes an increase in pressure. Also, the disease causes diseases of the cardiovascular system, diabetes mellitus, VSD, obesity and high cholesterol in the blood.
A disease such as essential hypertension is now widespread in our modern society. This is due to the general deterioration of the environmental situation, the increased number of stress conditions, the frequent consumption of products containing a decent amount of harmful chemicals.
Essential hypertension is a disease of a chronic form, accompanied by a long and constant increase in blood pressure. Its diagnosis is carried out by eliminating secondary type hypertension. This disease is characterized by an increase in the upper pressure to 140 mm, and the lower to the level of 90 mm.
A little earlier, primary hypertension was referred to as hypertension, today these 2 terms have the same meaning.
A healthy human body acts to maintain the dynamics of the balance of current blood pressure, which is achieved due to the tone of the sensitive vessels and their level of neurohumoral regulation, the total volume of circulating blood flow, and the degree of concentration of sodium in the blood. Primary arterial hypertension acts on the destruction of these regulatory processes. What caused the occurrence of such violations, it was not possible to clearly establish.
Essential hypertension is most common in middle-aged people, that is, it affects the age of 40 years and above, and women are more susceptible to this disease than men.
This disease has its own specific stages of the course, which will certainly be taken into account by a specialist when prescribing the optimal treatment when calculating the likely risks of various forms of complications up to an unexpected cardiac death.
The following 3 degrees of disease severity were identified:
- 1 degree is characterized by an increase in pressure in the range from 140/90 to 159/99;
- 2nd degree is expressed in numbers from 160/100 to 179/109;
- 3rd degree is determined by an indicator over 180/110 mm.
For a disease such as essential hypertension, stages of progression are characteristic.
For the initial stage, the unstable nature of the increase in blood pressure is decisive: it manifests itself only in moments of strong emotional stress, increased physical activity.
There are no lesions of internal organs at this stage. This mild stage of the disease can remain at this level for a long time.
The second stage is characterized by an increase in blood pressure on an ongoing basis, but it decreases perfectly with the help of effective hypotonic medications.
Most often hypotonic crises are manifested, here lesions of susceptible organs and systems are already felt.
In the form of complications, diseases such as myocardial infarction, pathology of the thin ocular retina, atherosclerosis in the aorta, carotid, femoral and other arteries can develop.
The third stage involves a significant increase in the permissible level of pressure, which is reduced only by potent medicines that are prescribed in the complex. Hypertensive crises occur much more often. At this stage, complications are already expressed in the form of periodic attacks of strokes, heart attacks, angina pectoris or heart failure may develop, and much more.
Unlike other types of this disease, essential arterial hypertension is not directly related to any organic lesions of the internal organs.
A similar type of hypertension begins its development with a long stay of a person in a strong psycho-emotional stress. This is especially often observed in individuals who have chosen mental work for other activities.
Also, such a disease is a frequent companion of large cities, where there is a huge number of mental stimuli.
People with a suspicious personality type who are constantly in the overwhelming state of stress and anxiety fall into a special risk group. This is due to the increased content of hormones responsible for stress. These substances are actively produced by the secretion of the adrenal glands.
Thin vessels are in a constant state of increased tone, because of this, the general resistance to blood flow increases, due to which the level of pressure increases.
Narrowing of the renal arteries can cause impaired production of substances that are responsible for regulating the total volume of blood entering a special vascular bed.
In this situation, a kind of vicious circle closes: at this stage, the kidneys start the mechanism of sodium and water retention, which provokes an even more persistent increase in blood pressure.
In addition to reasons of a purely psychogenic nature, the following risk factors directly affect the development of primary hypertension:
- hereditary predisposition;
- excessive consumption of table salt in food;
- inadequate nutrition;
- the presence of bad habits;
- reaching the age threshold of 55 years;
- the presence of obesity;
- menopause in women;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- exceeding the norm of permissible cholesterol in the blood;
- vegetative-vascular pathology.
In order to identify the disease in the initial stages, it is important to know its main symptoms.
Despite all the modern advances in medicine, the causes of primary hypertension have not yet been established. There are only a number of factors that increase the risk of developing this kind of disease. Among them:
- injuries of the spinal cord and brain, as a result of which the tone of the vessels on the periphery is disturbed;
- nervous shocks, regular stress. In this case, a persistent focus of excitation is observed in the cerebral cortex, a prolonged spasm causes an increase in peripheral resistance, the vessels lose their elasticity;
- hereditary factor;
- overweight: many people with extra pounds attribute their obesity to abnormalities in the endocrine glands, write themselves on the lists of “patients” and do not want to change anything in their lifestyle. In fact, there may not be any endocrine disorders. Excess weight is gained due to improper diet and diet, as well as regular overeating. With this development of events, a well-chosen diet can save patients from extra pounds and high blood pressure;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- excessive consumption of many beloved coffee. At the same time, the level of caffeine in the blood rises, which prevents the vessels from relaxing normally and expanding. You always need to remember: “the good is that in moderation”;
- excessive salt intake. It retains moisture in the body and leads to an increase in blood pressure. It is known that the Japanese consume salt twice as much as the Europeans, and essential hypertension is very common among the Japanese population;
- increased blood pressure can be caused by prolonged use of glucocorticosteroids, hormonal contraceptives and some other drugs, in particular, vasoconstrictive drops from a cold;
- alcohol abuse and smoking lead to impaired normal regulation of vascular tone.
Approximately 2% of patients have renovascular arterial hypertension, a disease resulting from occlusion of the renal branches.
Although this number is already quite high, it does not include people suffering from the essential form of hypertension, without going to a doctor with high rates. This means that the percentage of patients is higher.
Essential hypertension is often called a non-infectious epidemic, and is part of a group of civilizational diseases. An estimated 25% of deaths over the age of 40 are caused by hypertension.
One of the reasons for the sad statistics is that hypertension (high pressure) in the early stages has almost no signs, therefore, people are not aware of the presence of high rates, or simply ignore their insignificant symptoms, and treatment is not carried out.
Essential arterial hypertension (EAG) is a disease that is characterized by an increase in blood pressure above 140/90. This is one of the most common modern diseases. Arterial hypertension affects almost every person over 40 years old. Essential hypertension is discussed if high rates are measured repeatedly.
It is believed that a person who has extra pounds is prone to this disease 5 times more than with a normal weight. Often the victims of obesity are not those people who eat a lot, but those who lead the wrong lifestyle. Proper nutrition, athletic stress, good rest, giving up bad habits – the key to a good figure and good health.
It is this addiction that can increase the activity of some parts of the nervous system, being also a risk factor for the occurrence of coronary heart disease.
- Excessive intake of salted foods
For this reason, the body will accumulate an excessive amount of water, which can affect a person’s pressure – significantly increase it.
How to prevent the development of hypertension
The vessels through which blood flows have the property of expanding and narrowing, that is, changing their tone. This regulates the pressure set by the heart.
Due to the dynamic functioning of this “pump” and blood vessels, blood circulation is carried out. If it is necessary to lower blood pressure, when, for example, a person is calm, the arterioles relax.
Under loads, when its increase is required, the vessels, on the contrary, narrow.
However, if arterioles are constantly in hypertonicity, this is a pathological condition. The diagnosis of hypertension (hypertension) is established when the systolic (upper) pressure exceeds 130-140, and the diastolic (lower) pressure is 90 millimeters of mercury.
In 90% of cases, essential hypertension is observed – what is it? Steadily progressing primary pathology, not caused by external factors.
What is essential hypertension can be judged by what violations have occurred in the neuro-endocrine regulation of blood vessel tone.
So, what is essential hypertension in its pathogenesis, that is, in the mechanism of nucleation? This is the primary form of multifactorial damage to the cardiovascular system. The thorough causes of the disease are not yet known to medicine.
Benign essential hypertension is slow, with mild symptoms. If the pathology is characterized by rapid development, hypertensive crises, doctors state a malignant form of the disease.
Essential primary hypertension depends on the pathogenesis and is divided into these types:
- hyperadrenergic – with increased hormone emissions, chills, redness of the skin;
- hypo- or normorenin – in which severe swelling occurs;
- hyperrenin – with significant jumps in blood pressure, vomiting, headaches (more often in young men).
- pressure – 160-180/95-105;
- headaches, insomnia, dizziness, nosebleeds, tinnitus occur only occasionally;
- There are no changes in the condition of the heart, kidneys, or ocular apparatus.
- pressure 180-200/105-115 holds steady;
- headaches, heartaches, dizziness, crises often occur;
- pathologies of the heart, kidneys, brain, fundus are revealed.
- jumps Blood pressure reaches very high values in the form of hypertensive crises – 220-230/130-150;
- vital organs are affected.
Hypertensive heart disease is dangerous because it can lead to myocardial infarction or stroke. The higher the blood pressure, the higher the risk of these catastrophic diseases. Depending on the stage of development, it is customary to differentiate the degrees of the disease:
- I – 140-159/90-99;
- II – 160-179/100-109;
- III – above 180/110.
Given this gradation, doctors in determining the diagnosis establish the likelihood of damage to organs that become targets of essential hypertension. The degree of risk may be:
The clinical picture of the onset of this disease is characterized by a prolonged absence of symptoms. Over time, signs indicating that essential hypertension is progressing become apparent.
Initially, these are headaches, shortness of breath, palpitations, dizziness, insomnia, chest pains. The symptoms of essential hypertension are especially pronounced when hypertensive crises occur.
However, the clinical picture becomes most pronounced with pathologies of the internal organs.
The main targets that affect essential hypertension are:
- heart – arrhythmias, angina pectoris, microinfarctions;
- vessels – atherosclerosis;
- brain – encephalopathy, microstrokes;
- kidneys – functional impairment;
- eyes – retinal dystrophy, hemorrhage, partial or complete loss of vision.
In the pathogenesis of the disease, a hereditary predisposition prevails, which is found in every second patient with high blood pressure.
The risk of GB increases significantly in men after 50-55 years and in women who have crossed the 60-year mark.
Essential primary hypertension also often develops in obese people, when the waist in women is over 88 cm, and in men – 102 cm. Excess weight increases the likelihood of hypertension by 5 times!
In addition, the list of risk factors includes:
- excess of “bad” cholesterol;
- excessive salt intake;
- frequent stress;
- lack of vitamins, calcium, magnesium, trace elements;
- alcohol abuse;
- physical passivity;
- gestation period.
The clinical picture of the disease is characterized by an abundance of disorders caused by high blood pressure. Signs of arterial hypertension common to primary hypertension of all forms:
- increased sweating;
- redness of the skin;
- bouts of irritability;
- “Flies” in front of the eye;
- noise in ears;
- decrease in working capacity;
- numbness of the fingers of the limbs;
- weakening of coordination of movements;
- impaired vision, memory, intelligence, dementia.
You can’t get rid of this disease, but you can achieve a significant improvement in the quality of life. The goal of essential hypertension therapy is to delay the onset of dangerous complications by reducing pressure. Treatment with this diagnosis should be comprehensive. The cause, stage, degree of risk of the disease, gender and age of the patient must be taken into account.
Treatment of primary stage I arterial hypertension is started using non-pharmacological agents:
- a diet with a decrease in the amount of salt and fat, the rejection of nicotine and alcohol;
- medicinal herbs;
- methods of psychotherapy;
- therapeutic exercises;
- spa treatment.
If such treatment does not give the desired results, antihypertensive drugs should be taken. At first it is monotherapy, when 1 or 2 medicines are prescribed. With essential hypertension of the II and III stages, one cannot do without a combination of several drugs that reduce blood pressure. Most often these are beta-blockers or calcium antagonists in combination with diuretics.
The treatment of essential hypertension is difficult in that the combination of drugs has to be selected by trial and more than once. Firstly, the effect of all these drugs is purely individual.
Secondly, over time, addiction to them develops, and they become ineffective. In addition, a significant minus of antihypertensive drugs is a lot of contraindications and negative effects.
An indispensable condition for the treatment of essential hypertension is a daily medication, without interruptions.
The information presented in the article is for guidance only. Materials of the article do not call for independent treatment. Only a qualified doctor can make a diagnosis and give recommendations for treatment based on the individual characteristics of a particular patient.
Primary essential hypertension (ICD code 10 – 110) is divided into stages and degrees of course that you need to know when choosing a treatment and to prevent sudden death in complications. According to the severity of the disease is divided into:
- The first degree of severity, at which pressure is observed from 140/90 to 159/99 mm. Hg. Art.
- The second degree, in which the pressure rises from 160/100 to 179/109 mm. Hg. Art.
- The third degree of severity, in which the pressure of a person over 180/110 mm. Hg. Art.
It is customary to distinguish the following stages of development of hypertension:
- First stage. At this stage, pressure constantly increases during stress and physical exertion. The organs are not affected, there are no complications. Primary essential hypertension of this stage can last for many years.
- Second stage. With her, the pressure is high constantly, but decreases when taking special medications. Hypertensive crises may occur. The organs that feel the changes are affected. At this stage, hypertension can cause pathology of the ocular retina, an increase in myocardial mass, damage to the brain, kidneys and more.
- The third stage is caused by a persistent increase in pressure, which can only be reduced by combining drugs. And hypertensive crises occur quite often. This chronic disease causes complications such as discomfort behind the sternum, impaired renal function, stroke and heart attack, aortic aneurysm, heart failure, and more.
- chest pressure
- impaired vision;
- noise in ears ;
- bleeding from the nose;
- swelling of the ankles;
- excessive sweating.
These are insignificant signs that a person often does not pay attention to for a long time. Therefore, hypertension – high blood pressure – is usually diagnosed by chance. Symptoms of more advanced stages occur due to organ damage.
Essential hypertension can be divided into 3 groups depending on the stage of development and participation of the target organ.
- Severity 1 – an increase in pressure that does not affect organs.
- 2 severity – a change in organs is recorded that does not cause their failure or dysfunction. For example, fundus findings, changes in arteries, ECG and echocardiography, calcification of the aorta and other arteries, microalbuminuria (protein detection in urine as a result of the study).
- Grade 3 – serious changes in organs with functional impairments are evident. There is left heart failure, atherosclerosis, aneurysm, stroke, coronary disease, renal failure, neuroretinopathy and myocardial infarction.
Phase 3 is also referred to as malignant hypertension, which occurs mainly with essential hypertension, which is not treated or has insufficient pressure control. The pressure at this stage often exceeds 230/130. With rapid damage to organs, which was accompanied by their early failure.
Pathological changes in the body with essential hypertension
At the initial stage of the disease, all pathological processes that occur in the body are reversible. With the development of hypertension, an irreversible organic pathology occurs.
These changes include:
- violation of the tone of veins and arteries in the eyeball;
- left ventricular hypertrophy;
- deposition in the vessels of the heart and other arteries of atherosclerotic plaques;
- myocardial dystrophy in combination with expansion of the heart to the extent of failure;
- the formation of microaneurysms in the tissues of the brain, leading to a stroke;
- the process of difficult filtration of urine due to narrowing of the gaps in the vessels of the kidneys.
The degree of development of pathological processes directly depends on the stage of essential hypertension.
The types of diagnosis of essential hypertension are as follows:
analysis of patient complaints. The doctor specifies how long the patient had problems with blood pressure, what measures he took, whether he applied to the hospital for treatment. It is also important to clarify what pressure the patient has is working. The body of each person is indiv >
In our clinic, any kind of diagnosis is performed. The experience of doctors and modern medical equipment can diagnose the disease at an early stage of its development and prevent complications.
Diagnosis of hypertension is closely related to repeated measurements of blood pressure. But here it is necessary to distinguish whether a disease occurs or the so-called. white coat syndrome. A 24-hour blood pressure measurement is also needed. However, since there are a lot of hypertensive patients, it is impossible for everyone to provide an extensive examination. Typical research methods:
- disease history;
- gynecological examination;
- pulse test on large blood vessels;
- blood pressure measurement in different positions (sitting, standing, lying), pressure is also measured on the lower extremities;
- Analysis of urine;
- biochemistry of blood;
- fundus studies.
In order for the treatment of essential hypertension to be successful, you need to take care of your health in the early stages of the disease. Although there are practically no signs of the disease, except for an increase in blood pressure, the 1st and 2nd stages, you still need to listen to your body as much as possible and go to the doctor at the first suspicion.
How can a doctor detect this disease? First, he conducts a general examination of the patient – measures the pressure, listens to the heart, checks it for noise. The doctor also assesses the state of the retina. In order to confirm the diagnosis and dispel doubts, the data obtained during the examination must be supported by the results of studies and analyzes.
First of all, it is necessary to pass an analysis of urine and blood, and then be examined on special diagnostic equipment. With idiopathic hypertension, a cardiogram is a mandatory method of examination. It helps in the early stages of the disease to identify left ventricular hypertrophy and prevent the patient from worsening.
Using echocardiography, it is possible to determine the pathophysiology, size and function of the heart, and evaluate the function of the valves. In order to establish such a diagnosis, a one-time pressure measurement is not enough, it is necessary to monitor these indicators for a long time. Using a special device, which is located on the patient’s belt, daily monitoring of blood pressure can be carried out.
By making an x-ray of the organs of the chest cavity, it is possible to identify atherosclerotic changes in the vessels, lung tissue disorders.
Only after receiving all the results of the study, we can talk about the disease and its treatment. This diagnosis can only be established by a specialist, and it is exclusively with him that it is necessary to develop an action plan aimed at improving the patient’s condition.
The diagnosis is most often made after research, as a result of which organ changes are not detected, which caused high blood pressure. If pathological changes were caused by primary essential hypertension, the diagnosis should confirm this. Patients are examined in a hospital.
- Laboratory diagnostics. This includes the study of urine and blood, cholesterol, hormonal blood tests, glucose tolerance test.
- Instrumental. An ECG, an ultrasound of the internal organs and the thyroid gland, a -hour BP study, chest x-ray, coronography, and MRI of the brain, kidneys, and adrenal glands are performed.
Among the most common complications of essential hypertension are:
- hypertensive crisis is a sharp increase in blood pressure, manifested by severe headaches, tinnitus, a veil in front of the eyes;
- the development of a “hypertonic heart”: the walls of the organ gradually thicken, and its contractility decreases. This can lead to myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death, heart failure;
- lesions of the central nervous system: dizziness, impaired memory and coordination of movements are observed. With a violation of cerebral circulation, a stroke may occur;
- kidney damage: there is an increased excretion of urine or frequent urge to urinate at night;
- eye damage: hemorrhage, narrowing of the vessels of the eyes, loss of vision.
The syndrome of essential hypertension in adults leads to a sharp increase in blood pressure and a decrease in the functions of various organs.
High blood pressure, if left untreated, leads to a hypertensive crisis. This is a condition in which blood pressure reaches 220 mm. Hg. Art. within a few hours or days. In some people who can not stand even a low pressure drop, a crisis can occur with blood pressure up to 150/100 and higher. There is a headache that does not go away when taking special drugs, nausea and vomiting, pain in the heart, shortness of breath and constant dizziness.
It is recommended that the patient immediately give a Captopril tablet. If a person has a chronic disease such as diabetes mellitus, as well as a previous stroke or heart attack, it is necessary to be hospitalized. During this period, complications of the disease such as ischemic disturbance of the blood circulation of the brain, neurological disorders, heart attack, stroke, hemorrhage in the retina of the eye may occur, pulmonary edema may occur, and renal and heart failure may occur.
Such conditions must be treated immediately in a hospital. Also, the patient may have a hypertensive heart, which is characterized by an increase in the size of the organ, as a result of which its function is impaired, which leads to the death of part of the heart muscle, cardiac arrest and death of the patient. Stroke also often develops as a result of the death of brain tissue due to vasospasms and nerve cell death. Blindness due to retinal hemorrhage may occur. In some cases, dementia develops as a result of spasm of the cerebral vessels.
In addition, hypertension can lead to stroke, renal failure, blindness, lower limb ischemia.
Methods of prevention is the constant use of prescribed medications. It is necessary to use hypotensive drugs for life. If the first stages of the development of the disease are observed, the dosage of the drugs is gradually reduced until they are completely canceled. The disease is of great danger in that it can cause diseases of the cardiovascular system such as heart attack and stroke.
The selection of medicines should be done by a doctor. Since stresses play an important role in the onset of the disease, it is necessary to teach the patient how to relate to different life situations, adapt to the social environment, and also eliminate all the traumatic factors that provoke the development of the disease.
As measures for the prevention of the disease are:
- the right way of life;
- refusal of bad habits – smoking and alcohol abuse;
- compliance with the correct diet and diet. You should eat more foods containing fiber and minimize fatty, spicy and fried foods;
- physical activity. In this case, we are not talking about the fact that everyone should exhaust themselves with daily physical activity in the gym. To maintain normal body, it is enough to take walks in the fresh air at a moderate pace for thirty minutes daily;
- regularly undergo preventive medical examinations, during which the level of blood pressure is mandatory for the patient.
To avoid complications, it is required to seek help in a Yusupov hospital in a timely manner, where they will diagnose and treat the pathology.
The quality of the services provided at the hospital is at a European level. All diagnostic and treatment procedures are performed on the latest medical equipment. The rooms are equipped with maximum comfort for patients.
Do not postpone going to the doctor and for any manifestations of increased intracranial pressure, seek help from highly qualified doctors at the Yusupov hospital. Call by phone and the coordinating doctor will answer all your questions.