The human body is made up of many cells. For a number of reasons, the normal cellular structure can undergo mutation. If this process becomes malignant (malignancy), an oncological focus occurs.
The Cancer diagnosis sounds ominous even by its name. Unfortunately, this is justified and is explained by the main difference between cancerous tumors and benign tumors. For malignant tumors, rapid and aggressive penetration into other tissues is typical, and ultimately total damage to the body and a threat to its viability as a whole.
In urological practice, oncopathology also takes place. Transitional cell carcinoma or urothelial carcinoma is one of the most common (up to 90%) problems of this kind with bladder involvement.
Pathogenesis of the disease
The type under consideration is characterized by the nucleation of cancer cells in the transitional epithelium of the urinary bladder. The malignant focus is most often located in the mucous membrane of the organ. The course of any oncological disease usually goes through 4 stages. In relation to urothelial carcinoma, the following are distinguished:
- The oncogenic site is limited to the mucous membrane.
- The transition of the neoplasm to the muscle layer.
- Involvement of the fatty layer and the adjacent reproductive system in the process.
- Metastasis to the lymph nodes and further throughout the body.
Specialists-histologists have determined the degree of differentiation of education:
In urology, there is such a concept as a precancerous condition, which includes papillomatous outgrowths in the bladder, which subsequently allow them to grow into its wall.
Who is in danger?
According to medical statistics, urothelial carcinoma is observed in men 4 times more often than in women. Among the risk factors that can lead to cancer, the following are currently known:
- Age over 50-60 years old.
- Chronic diseases of the urinary system and birth defects.
- Work involving contact with toxic reagents (paints and varnishes, rubber products)
- Constant and uncontrolled use of artificial sugar substitutes.
- Nicotine addiction (the likelihood of occurrence increases 4-6 times).
What symptoms to look for?
The danger of this ailment is largely due to the lack of vivid manifestations in the early stages of development. At the same time, there are signs in which it is necessary to consult a urologist:
- The appearance of urine with traces of blood (both abundant and weak)
- Discomfort with urination.
- Suprapubic pain radiating to the perineum, genitals.
Great possibilities of modern diagnostics
An appointment with a medical specialist will begin with a history and palpation examination. A neoplasm that has reached an impressive size, the doctor will be able to probe.
Next in line are clinical and laboratory research methods, namely, the collection of urine and blood for analysis. In addition, the patient is tested for the BTA antigen.
Instrumental methods, which are widely used in modern clinics, will help to supplement the diagnostic picture for doctors:
Treatment tactics in the case of urothelial carcinoma can be of different directions.
The decision to carry out a surgical intervention for partial excision of areas captured by cancer or total removal of the organ itself is taken by a specialist doctor after a full range of examination and an accurate diagnosis.
If the development of cancer did not have time to go far, experts try to use the most gentle method – transurethral resection. Such operations are performed with laparoscopic equipment and minimize blood loss.
In a cystectomy, a new bladder is usually formed from a piece of bowel.
In some embodiments, it is possible to use an innovative technique aimed at coagulating the vessels feeding the tumor.
In the postoperative period, chemotherapy is prescribed in order to destroy possible metastases that were not detected by surgeons during work. It is worth knowing that in patients who have undergone such operations, reproductive abilities are lost.
Chemotherapy is often resorted to due to the impossibility of performing surgical actions. This path is quite effective in the fight against papillomatosis, but the effect of chemical agents does not just affect the patient’s well-being. Side effects of this method are vomiting, anemia, hair loss.
Oncologists are actively using radiation. This manipulation is performed in two ways:
As additional methods of treating patients at the initial stages in medicine, stimulation of human immunity is used, which allows you to adjust your own defenses to fight the disease.
In addition, cancer patients need to adhere to a special dietary regimen with the use of:
- Vegetables and fruits.
- Adequate amount of liquid.
- Non-fatty fish and meat in boiled, steamed and baked form.
- Fermented milk products.
- Whole grain black bread.
It is forbidden to eat spicy, fried, salty and smoked products, preserves, strong coffee and tea, carbonated and alcoholic beverages.
Food must be healthy and of good quality.
Complications and consequences
Transitional cell carcinoma can provoke a number of problems that impede the work of the urinary apparatus, which include:
- Inflammatory manifestations in the kidneys and bladder (pyelonephritis and cystitis)
- Fistula formation (vesicovaginal, vesicovaginal)
- Intoxication syndrome (uremia).
Chances for later life
Doctors never tire of repeating that early diagnosis and timely medical care provide a guarantee of a positive resolution of the situation.
In oncology, it is customary to give further predictions of patient survival commensurate with a five-year period.
If an ailment is detected in a precancerous state, the patient can count on a 100% cure. At the first stage, the probability of a successful outcome decreases to 60%, and at the last stage, no more than 20-30% remains.
Summarizing the above, it must be remembered that each person is responsible for their own health. Cancer pathologies can also be prevented by observing some precautions:
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