Preinfarction condition is also usually defined as unstable. It includes situations of the following type:
- Angina pectoris, arising for the first time.
- Progressive angina pectoris. In this case, the condition provides for the presence in the past of angina attacks with their frequent manifestation in recent times. Here, situations with the occurrence of prolonged and more pronounced pains, with a change in their localization and the appearance of irradiation (that is, the spread of pain in areas outside the heart muscle) are noted here. The elimination of pain involves the use of more nitroglycerin than before.
- Angina pectoris (with the occurrence of earlier angina pectoris). Pain in this case occurs after physical exertion in one form or another.
- Early angina pectoris. Attacks of pain occur in the period from the first day to a month from the moment of myocardial infarction.
- Angina pectoris after shunting. An operation of this kind is performed if, due to atherosclerotic plaques, the lumen is narrowed in the large arteries of the heart.
- Prinzmetal angina, arising from a spasm in the coronary arteries. It is characterized by severe pain attacks, manifested mainly in the morning.
When considering a pre-infarction condition, it should be noted that it is characterized by the development on a progressive scale of angina pectoris, which, moreover, is in a neglected own stage. After some time, with inadequate or incomplete treatment, as well as under the influence of stress and under the influence of a different type of complications, angina can go directly to myocardial infarction. Often, it also stops on its own, which, accordingly, allows the patient to recover.
A progressive pre-infarction condition is characterized by increased pain in the sternum, an additional symptom is an increase in pressure.
The condition is characterized, as we have already noted, by an extremely pronounced pain syndrome, which in particular consists in pain in the area behind the sternum, in addition, this pain is similar to pain that occurs during exertional angina. Meanwhile, if the manifestation of pain with angina pectoris can be eliminated by taking nitroglycerin, then with a pre-infarction state, nitroglycerin does not eliminate the pain, the number of attacks that occur throughout the day only increases.
The accompanying pre-infarction state pain gives away under the clavicle and in the hyoid region, in the right side of the sternum and in the hands. Cold sweat forms, the patient experiences severe anxiety, agitation, the heartbeat intensifies, in addition, he also experiences a fear of death. Often, nausea, suffocation is added to these conditions.
The course of the preinfarction state is also possible on an atypical scale. So, the patient complains of dizziness and severe weakness, sleep disturbances, insomnia occur. Atypical pain is absent. The course of this pathology in this form provokes the occurrence of shortness of breath and cyanosis, arising without any reason for them and when at rest.
Diagnosis is possible only with the help of an electrocardiogram, which will indicate the formation of blockade in the patient, as well as decompensation in the blood circulation, paroxysmal tachycardia and extrasystole. A predominantly atypical picture of preinfarction conditions in this course is observed among older persons aged 79-90 years.
In certain cases, an abdominal syndrome occurs in which the localization of pain is concentrated in the left hypochondrium, as well as in the upper abdomen. The patient experiences a characteristic burning sensation of the epigastric region, as for pain, it can be by the nature of the manifestations of cutting, stitching or aching.
This condition can be accompanied by nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, hiccups, flatulence. In some cases, pain occurs in the neck, throat, or lower jaw area. There are also possible cases in which only shortness of breath or disturbances noted in the rhythms of the heart are noted. With a cerebrovascular form of the pre-infarction state, fainting, dizziness, and nausea are possible.
In men and women, the symptoms of this disease are somewhat different. The most striking symptom of a pre-infarction condition is the appearance of a pain syndrome. It affects the chest and has the same character as angina pectoris. One of the features of such pain can be called the fact that it is simply impossible to eliminate it with nitroglycerin. Attacks are quite frequent, about 20-30 times a day.
Pain is felt in the chest and radiates to the right side of the body, usually the arm and collarbone. The main signs of a pre-infarction state in women include:
- the emergence of feelings of anxiety, there is a strong excitement;
- loss of deep breathing ability;
- the appearance of cold sweat;
- sensation of pain in the shoulder region;
- difficulties with coordination of movement appear.
In this case, not all with a pre-infarction state will be manifested precisely these symptoms. Sometimes the disease manifests itself completely differently. Patient’s apathetic behavior appears, he feels weakness, constant dizziness, insomnia is observed, he is constantly sick. A person becomes irritable and aggressive, shortness of breath may appear.
A pre-infarction condition does not appear in one day. Therefore, you can recognize the symptoms in the early stages and start treating the disease in time. Signs to pay attention to:
- pain periodically occurs in the heart, in the side on the right or in the right shoulder blade;
- sometimes weakness occurs;
- there was a feeling that there was not enough air.
With these symptoms, the key is the word “periodically.” This is not a regular phenomenon, it occurs sometimes and then passes. That is why many do not take this seriously. Although, if such symptoms are detected, you should already consult a doctor for an examination.
If you do not go to the doctor when the first signs of a pre-infarction state appear, this will result in myocardial infarction. That is why when the slightest suspicion appears, you should visit a cardiologist.
Diagnosis of this disease is reduced to examining the patient with a doctor and conducting an ECG, which the cardiologist subsequently decrypts. After this, the patient is usually placed in a hospital, as a rule, this is an intensive care unit. Treatment consists in taking special medications. Also, the patient will be provided with complete rest, silence and a sparing diet, in which there will be a minimum cholesterol content.
Also, the patient should independently monitor blood pressure. You should abandon strong stresses, emotional and physical, try to adhere to proper nutrition and get enough sleep.
Those who have pathologies of the cardiovascular system should carefully monitor their condition and be constantly monitored by a doctor. For everyone who is at risk for a pre-infarction condition, there are special preventive recommendations to avoid the onset of a pre-infarction condition. Among them:
- taking drugs for the cardiovascular system, which should be prescribed by a doctor;
- regular monitoring of blood pressure;
- proper nutrition and monitoring of cholesterol;
- rejection of bad habits;
- maintaining an active and healthy lifestyle;
- observe the regime of good rest and sleep.
During the examination of the patient, as a rule, you can detect:
- cold, sticky sweat;
- pallor or gray skin tone;
- face and neck may be red;
- fingertips, nose and lips are cyanotic;
- lethargy or excessive agitation.
The pressure is initially elevated, but as the condition worsens, it can drop dramatically (below 80 mmHg).
When examining a pulse, tachycardia or arrhythmia can be detected. During auscultation, heart sounds are muffled. When deviations from the norm are not found, except in cases of cardiac decompensation – an enlarged liver, swelling on the lower extremities.
It is not always possible to focus on chest pain in a preinfarction state, since there are known cases of heart attack with pain in the arm, shoulder blade, throat, lower jaw, teeth, thoracic spine or abdomen.
With a violation of the innervation of the heart, which occurs in diabetes mellitus and cardiosclerosis, as well as when taking a large number of painkillers or cytostatic drugs, a painless form of acute violation of coronary blood flow develops.
The following symptom complexes may be its clinical equivalents:
- asthma attack – suffocation, cough;
- decrease in pressure – dizziness, shakiness when walking, darkening in the eyes;
- cerebral ischemia – speech impairment, weakness in the arm;
- arrhythmia – a frequent or sharp pulse, interruptions in contractions;
- edematous – pastility of the legs and face;
- abdominal pain, nausea, flatulence.
Such signs can be combined in various combinations, and there is also an erased form without clear symptoms.
If the diagnosis of angina pectoris is not in doubt, then start with the use of Nitroglycerin – one tablet under the tongue
You should immediately take an Aspirin tablet at the same time. If after 15 minutes there is no result, then this combination of medicines should be repeated.
- Take prescribed medications regularly;
- Monitor blood counts, especially;
- Quit smoking;
- Move more;
- Control blood pressure;
- Lose weight;
- Avoid stress.
- Chest pain or heaviness, feeling unwell
- Severe pain in the arms, neck, jaw, shoulders or back
- Quick overwork, shortness of breath
- Labored breathing
- Anxiety, Anxiety
- The appearance of sweat
- general blood analysis;
- magnetic resonance therapy.
|Asthmatic||Shortness of breath, palpitations, choking, pain is weak or absent||About 10% of all heart attacks occur mainly in the elderly|
|Gastralgic||Pain in the upper abdomen, nausea, vomiting, hiccups and belching, bloating||In 5% of cases, it is most often diagnosed with low myocardial infarction|
|Arrhythmic||Palpitations, weak pain, general malaise||In 1-5% of all cases|
|Cerebrovascular||Dizziness, loss of space, loss of consciousness, vomiting||5 to 10%, most commonly found in older people|
|Low symptom||None, myocardial infarction is diagnosed only by ECG||Varies from 0.5 to 20%, most commonly found in diabetics.|
- regularly recurring attacks of weakness;
- periodically occurring pain in the chest, regardless of the exact location;
- constant lack of air.
- sit on a chair, put pillows under the headboard;
- get rid of tight clothes, unfasten the buttons on the shirt and remove all accessories from the neck;
- put Nitroglycerin under the tongue, renew the tablet every 5 minutes, but no more than 3 times;
- dissolve an effervescent tablet of Aspirin and Plavix in a glass of water and drink medicine – this will help thin the blood;
- with a prolonged absence of an emergency patient, Baralgin or Analgin must be administered intramuscularly to reduce pain.
- What is the danger of a pre-infarction condition?
- How to recognize a pre-infarction condition on your own
- Preventive measures
- Common harbingers of the disease
- Pre-infarction condition symptoms pressure
- Heart attack – symptoms
- How long does the prodromal period last?
- Diagnosis of a pre-infarction condition
- Methods of treatment
- What can a pre-infarction condition lead to?
- Common harbingers of the disease
- The first signs of preinfarction in men
- Reasons for the approaching threat
- Worse situation and when ambulance is required
- Preinfarction condition: how to understand
- How long does the condition last
What is the danger of a pre-infarction condition?
In the distant past, myocardial infarction was most often a disease of the elderly, but, unfortunately, with a modern rhythm of life, this condition is increasingly diagnosed in young people.
This disease develops gradually and makes itself felt in the form of some “disturbing bells”.
Each person must know how to recognize a pre-infarction condition and prevent such a serious violation.
The preinfarction state and myocardial infarction are shared only by the borderline state. In this case, it is said about progressive angina pectoris without medical support. In some cases, a spontaneous relief of a developing disease is observed, but this is rare, most often the clinical severity is only exacerbated.
A cardiologist can detect such a violation in diagnostics, where the initial stage of a possible necrosis of the muscle layer of the heart will be presented as an increase in the wall of the coronary artery, which most often appears as a result of thrombosis.
Depending on the existing violation, one can distinguish the following predisposing forms of pre-infarction state:
- Progressive angina pectoris. Pathology will progress if there is a past history of angina attacks. In this case, heart pain is long and pronounced.
- Angina pectoris after shunting. It develops as a result of a surgical intervention to remove atherosclerotic plaques that cause narrowing of the walls of blood vessels.
- Angina pectoris at rest. She is characterized by pain after increased physical exertion.
- Angina pectoris. It occurs if spasms of the coronary artery are observed, proceeds severely and most often appears in the morning.
Depending on the progression of such a condition, symptoms are released that make it clear about the existing violation.
Signs of a pre-infarction condition are characterized by a certain clinical severity, namely:
- manifestation of severe anxiety and emotional overexcitation;
- pain localized in the shoulder girdle;
- the appearance of difficulties with coordination of movements;
- secretion of cold sticky sweat;
- the patient cannot take a deep breath.
But it should be noted that the most characteristic symptoms for this condition are pain in the chest area.
They cannot be eliminated even after taking nitroglycerin, and the frequency of daily attacks can reach the amount of 20-30 times. Most often, pain overtakes a person at night with a duration of up to half an hour.
All this leads to the inevitable necrosis (necrosis) of the muscle tissue of the heart and the development of myocardial infarction in the absence of attention to this problem.
In some people, a pre-infarction condition can be characterized in an atypical way. Someone notes constant weakness, dizziness, nausea, insomnia, shortness of breath, aggression, etc. If you or people in your environment have similar symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor to begin timely treatment.
The appearance of alarming symptoms is always associated with provoking factors. The following reasons can accelerate and strengthen clinical severity:
- frequent stress and nervous strain;
- conducting frequent intensive training;
- hypothermia of the body or, conversely, heat stroke;
- physical exhaustion of the body;
- high-dose alcohol and smoking;
- drug addiction;
- overdose of drugs;
- developing hypertensive crises, etc.
It should be understood that there are certain differences between usually angina pectoris, pre-infarction condition and myocardial infarction. If there is no treatment, the condition worsens, the symptoms become more pronounced as a result of the onset of the process of dying of the muscle mass of the heart.
Patients who have experienced attacks of a pre-infarction condition may note the following changing symptoms:
- pain changed localization, severity, duration and prevalence;
- there are complaints that have not been noted before;
- attacks became more frequent;
- when taking Nitroglycerin, the pain continues.
In order to recognize the onset of myocardial infarction in time, you need to know about certain signs. So, in this condition there will be the following symptoms:
- pain is long, intense and constricting. It is localized in the region of the heart behind the sternum and can give to the neck, shoulder blades, back or arm;
- the skin is pale, there is a cold, sticky sweat;
- the patient is in a fainting state.
Treatment and home help with a pre-infarction condition is provided, as with an attack of unstable angina. In this situation, you need to do the following:
- To provide the patient with complete rest and help him to take a comfortable position, most often the attack is more easily tolerated in the half-sitting position.
- Be sure to call an ambulance.
- Try to create the most comfortable conditions (open a window for a stream of fresh air, unfasten tight clothing).
- Put a nitroglycerin tablet under the tongue. Medicines such as Isoket, Nitrominate, etc. are also suitable. If there is no effect, repeat the medication after 3 minutes. However, during an attack, it is not recommended to give more than three doses.
- Measure your blood pressure and see your heart rate. If severe tachycardia is present, you can offer 1 tablet of Anaprilin, and with hypertension give a sublingually tablet of Clofelin.
- If the pain is very severe, you can stop the pain with the help of analgesics (Spazmalgon, Sedalgin, Baralgin).
Caution: Medications may cause allergic reactions. If you know that a person has an increased individual hypersensitivity, you need to do only with the medications that the patient is treated in ordinary life.
Even if it was possible to alleviate the patient’s condition and stop the attack, it is necessary to continue treatment in a hospital. In this case, doctors will do everything to prevent the development of cardiac muscle necrosis. For this purpose, the following treatment is applied:
- taking medications (antispasmodics, antiplatelet agents, ACE inhibitors, antiarrhythmic drugs, nitrate drugs, etc.);
- strict bed rest;
- sparing diet.
With the improvement of well-being and discharge from the hospital, a person must necessarily take the prescribed medications, follow the doctor’s instructions and be observed by a cardiologist. A pre-infarction condition is fraught with serious complications, so it is important to undergo inpatient treatment to avoid the development of a heart attack.
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When coronary vessels are examined. A contrast agent is introduced into the blood, due to which the coronary vessels become clearly visible. You can see in which place the vessel is narrowed, how dangerous the situation is. This study helps develop an upcoming treatment plan.
The work of the heart is traced for 24 hours. Using a small device, a cardiogram is recorded. A special computer program processes the results. This method allows you to detect hidden cardiac arrhythmias and myocardial ischemia. Also controlled. Using this method, the development of a pre-infarction condition is usually observed. With a heart attack, it is not suitable, because the time in this case goes for minutes.
How to recognize a pre-infarction condition on your own
If dangerous signs are found, the following steps should be taken:
- To reassure the patient and provide him peace and quiet. People in this state are under great pressure and are in fear for their lives, so the best thing to do is to minimize their contacts with others, especially crying and due relatives.
- The patient is arranged in bed in a half-sitting position – the pain is more easily tolerated.
- Clothing that may interfere with normal breathing is removed or unfastened. Mandatory take off a tie, belt, tight tight clothing, unfasten the collar of the shirt.
- Call an ambulance crew. During a call, you must always indicate the presence of suspected heart attack.
- Give the patient Corvalol, Valocordin or tincture of valerian, motherwort.
- Open the window and provide the patient with fresh air. At the same time, drafts and hypothermia should be avoided – they can cause pneumonia.
- A tablet of Nitroglycerin or nitrate preparations with a similar effect is placed under the patient’s tongue. If the effect does not occur, the administration can be repeated approximately 3 minutes after the first dose. Do not give more than 3 tablets in a row.
- To dilute blood and prevent thrombosis, you can give Aspirin or Clopidogrel 300 mg.
- If the patient is high, they are given Anaprilin for tachycardia, and for hypertension – Clonidine. The dose should not exceed 2 tablets.
- With very severe pain, you can give an anesthetic such as Spasmalgon, Baralgin and other antispasmodics.
Even if it is possible to remove the pre-infarction condition, treatment must be continued in the hospital, as it can continue to develop asymptomatically or with mild signs.
It can be extremely difficult for an inexperienced person to distinguish between a pre-infarction condition and a starting heart attack, so treatment should be continued in a hospital. It practically does not differ from the treatment of myocardial infarction, since in both cases it pursues the same goal – the prevention of necrosis of the heart muscle.
When a pre-infarction condition is detected, the treatment consists in the intravenous administration of drugs containing nitroglycerin. This blocks spasm of the coronary arteries.
In order to prevent a thrombus from forming, anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents are administered to the patient. To prevent the development of angina pectoris, nitrates, antispasmodics, beta-blockers, MAO inhibitors, and heart rate normalizing agents are used.
The survival of patients largely depends on how early symptoms were noticed and how quickly the patient was hospitalized. The prognosis is affected by the age of the patient, the presence of concomitant diseases, as well as a previous heart attack and other serious diseases of the cardiovascular system, especially coronary heart disease.
The most serious complication of a pre-infarction condition can be rapidly developing. In this case, you can save the patient from death only as soon as possible by surgical intervention.
Its goal is to restore blood flow in the damaged artery in order to restore normal tissue nutrition and prevent the expansion of the area of necrosis.
With myocardial infarction, two types of surgical interventions are performed:
- . It consists in the introduction of a special device into the affected artery – a stent. It prevents the occlusion of the affected vessel and prevents the further spread of cardiac necrosis.
- Aorto-coronary artery bypass grafting. This is the creation of a workaround (anastomosis), which will improve the blood supply to the area of heart tissue suffering from a coronary artery, affected by atherosclerosis and thrombus.
The main thing to do is to stop the pain syndrome and prevent a heart catastrophe. First of all, the patient should get rest and fresh air. Before the arrival of an ambulance, you should take (1-2 tablets).
If, after taking the medicine, the head becomes dizzy or sore, there is no need to panic – it is not dangerous and usually passes after a while.
You can not take a large dose of nitroglycerin – this can lead to a sharp drop in blood pressure.
Instead of glycerol, a valididol tablet or a few drops of a liquid product for sugar can be put under the tongue. If the patient was previously helped to eliminate the pain of valocordin or corvalol, then these drugs can also be used. They can also improve myocardial blood flow by vasodilation.
You can reduce the likelihood of thrombosis with an aspirin tablet. Aspirin dilutes the blood, which significantly improves the prognosis of the disease.
Not every pain in the heart is an indispensable sign of a heart attack. But the insidiousness of this disease lies in the fact that even an experienced doctor fails to make a diagnosis based on the patient’s complaints. Therefore, when any of the signs of myocardial ischemia appears, you need to contact a medical institution for examination. The most characteristic manifestations of a pre-infarction condition include:
- – occurs for the first time or becomes stronger, longer, changes the usual color or localization, crushing. Gives to the left half of the chest: scapula, shoulder, as well as the arm and lower jaw, neck. The usual dose of nitroglycerin does not relieve the attack.
- General weakness, dizziness, sweating.
- Heart failure, increased heart rate.
- Difficult and shallow breathing.
- Anxiety, fear of death.
The minimum set of laboratory tests for suspected heart attack includes:
- blood test – general and sugar;
- determination of myocardial proteins – troponin, myoglobin;
- analysis of the enzyme composition – creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase.
ECG diagnostics is the most efficient method for diagnosing a pre-infarction condition. It is based on the fact that the site of myocardial destruction does not generate electrical impulses, which changes the resulting vector.
In typical cases, a shift of the ST segment by 1 mm or more from the isoelectric line and a violation of the position of the T wave are detected. With a developed heart attack, Q becomes wider and deeper in the lead, where the electrode on the chest is located closest.
In a hospital, additional studies may be prescribed:
- monitoring to detect latent episodes of ischemia;
- Ultrasound – reveals reduced motor ability of the myocardial site;
- based on the accumulation of technetium pyrophosphate in the necrosis zone, a hearth will be visible with a heart attack, and with unstable angina pectoris – diffuse isotope dispersion;
- coronary vessels – helps to investigate the place and degree of overlap of the vessel, the functional reserve of the left ventricle.
If a pre-infarction condition occurs, as evidenced by a strong pain syndrome, you must immediately call an ambulance.
Before the arrival of doctors, the patient must accept a state of rest. Let fresh air into the room.
Drinking several tablets is highly undesirable, despite the positive feedback from patients. A large dose of medication can lead to a sharp drop in pressure.
If nitroglycerin is not at hand, you can replace it with validol, corvalol, valocardine. They contribute to the expansion of blood vessels and increase blood access to the myocardium. To eliminate the risk of blood clots, aspirin is taken, it dilutes the blood.
After calling an ambulance, you must undergo treatment in a hospital.
To eliminate all disturbing symptoms, nitroglycerin is administered intravenously, which relieves spasm from the coronary arteries.
The treatment is carried out similar to the treatment of the heart attack itself.
The following groups are prescribed drugs:
- beta blockers
- nitrate preparations
- antiarrhythmic drugs
- antiplatelet agents
- ACE inhibitors
During the entire treatment, the patient is provided with maximum peace, a diet is observed.
Before discharge, motor activity gradually increases.
If the pre-infarction condition is uncritical, but the doctor determines a high risk of subsequent heart attack, then stenting of the coronary artery or coronary artery bypass grafting is performed.
At home, you will need a long medication, constant monitoring of blood pressure, diet and a healthy lifestyle.
In this article, we will focus on the symptoms of a pre-infarction condition that everyone needs to know, because it is very important to notice signs of a malfunction of the heart in time. If you notice such symptoms in yourself, sound the alarm: perhaps your body is in serious danger!
First of all, you must know exactly what a pre-infarction condition is: it is a malfunction of a section of the heart muscle called the myocardium.
Impaired functioning of this muscle causes severe chest pain, which occurs due to the fact that the flow of blood to the heart decreases. Chest pain can occur often and in an acute form, and this is the main signal that your heart is in danger and requires immediate medical attention.
- Chest pain or heaviness, feeling unwell
- Severe pain in the arms, neck, jaw, shoulders or back
- Quick overwork, shortness of breath
- Labored breathing
- Anxiety, Anxiety
- The appearance of sweat
Until the medical team arrives, the patient can be given first aid at home, which is as follows:
- First of all, the patient needs to ensure complete peace, rid him of asphyxiating objects, run fresh air into the room.
- In order to reassure the patient, you can give him such funds as Corvalol, tincture of valerian or motherwort.
- It is very important to completely exclude any physical activity.
- You can alleviate the condition of the patient with the help of “Nitroglycerin.” The tablet of the drug must be placed under the tongue and wait for its complete dissolution.
- The patient needs to measure the pressure, and then, based on his indicators, offer the appropriate medicine (to lower / increase blood pressure).
Treatment of a pre-infarction condition is aimed at preventing a heart attack itself. It is not much different from the treatment of advanced angina pectoris. To reduce the load on the heart muscle, bed rest is prescribed.
Myocardial oxygen demand decreases with beta-blockers. With their action, the strength and heart rate that depresses myocardial conduction decreases.
Reduced oxygen demand of the heart muscle and also contribute to its better transportation through vessels of prolonged preparations of the nitroglycerin series – Sustac, Sustonite, Trinitrolong, Sustabuccal,
as well as nitroglycerin itself.
To prevent coronary as an alternative to aspirin, an old proven tool is used – heparin.
This medicine shows not only anticoagulant properties, but also reduces the number of angina attacks. Also, when using this drug, lipid metabolism improves, which is important for the treatment of a pre-infarction condition.
If the cause of anginal attacks is a spastic component, it is recommended to take medications representing the group. When the concentration of calcium cations in the cells of the myocardium and blood vessels decreases, the arteries of the heart expand. As a result, blood flow and oxygen supply to the heart muscles improve.
During treatment with an ECG, the state of the heart muscle and blood vessels of the heart is monitored. Physical activity is prohibited at this time. It is sometimes recommended to extend dormancy to one month or more. Usually during this time, coronary insufficiency is compensated, and the patient is recovering.
In more severe cases, when drug therapy does not give the proper result, surgical treatment is performed – usually this. It should be said that the operation does not guarantee a complete cure.
To prevent a pre-infarction condition in women, it is recommended first of all to change the lifestyle, give up alcohol and smoking, and also establish a regime of relaxation and physical activity. Partially abandon fried, smoked products and confectionery. In addition, it is necessary to introduce regular intake of cardiovascular drugs.
Common harbingers of the disease
In order not to develop a pre-infarction condition, the treatment of which can be very difficult, lengthy and expensive, a person needs to reconsider his attitude to his health and lifestyle in general.
The first enemies of health, including the state of the cardiovascular system, are stress. They provoke the production of the stress hormone – cortisol, which in turn “knocks down” all the normal functioning of organs and systems. A huge threat is posed by both strong “one-time” stresses and constant minor ones, which we are used to not noticing.
Bad habits can significantly shorten our life and make it very difficult due to many diseases. This is not only about alcohol and smoking, but also about the habit of overeating, eating incorrectly and leading a sedentary, sedentary lifestyle. Obesity and physical inactivity cause no less harm to the heart than stress and alcohol with tobacco.
But we are talking exclusively about dosed and feasible loads. If a person with poor health decides to “pump iron,” this will not make him superman, but will lead to the development of many dangerous complications, including a pre-infarction condition. Exercise should be selected individually according to age and state of health. It is best to prefer swimming, walking, cycling, Pilates and yoga, rather than the gym.
To prevent the development of unpleasant consequences will help only a comprehensive follow-up to a healthy lifestyle. When the slightest unpleasant and incomprehensible signs appear, you need not to self-medicate, but to consult a doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment.
A pre-infarction condition is nothing but an unstable condition. It can be classified as a dangerous heart disease. But this is still not a heart attack. With timely first aid and further competent treatment, the attack can recede.
Not all patients respond correctly to the first signs of a formidable disease, and therefore an unjustifiably high percentage of deaths from a heart attack. This is annoying, because today cardiologists have the richest modern arsenal of effective methods of treating the most complex cardiac pathologies.
- chest discomfort;
- aching in the bones;
- general malaise;
- a change in normal body temperature in both directions.
It should be noted that in women it is much more difficult to determine the pre-infarction state than in men
. They have such a serious cardiovascular deviation already diagnosed in fact. More easily, signs of a pre-infarction state are borne by pensioners and diabetics. Due to the increased pain threshold, they can endure discomfort for a long time and not betray it any value.
Among the precursors of pre-infarction, one can also distinguish shortness of breath, blueness of the nasolabial triangle, pain in the left side of the chest, dizziness and fainting. Call your doctor right away if at least one of these signs appears.
Pre-infarction condition symptoms pressure
Often women do not feel heaviness in the chest, but only unpleasant tingling, dizziness, shortness of breath or abdominal pain. For this reason, they can easily take these symptoms for signs of some other disease.
This should never be allowed, because medical care should be provided as soon as possible. An erroneous diagnosis and self-medication can delay the necessary medical care and lead to very dire consequences.
The pre-infarction state has a pronounced pain syndrome – the pain behind the sternum is the same as with angina pectoris. But, unlike angina pectoris, seizures are not stopped by nitroglycerin, and their number is becoming more frequent. Sometimes 30 or more seizures can occur per day, which leads to a gradual necrosis of the heart muscle.
The pain that occurs with a pre-infarction state radiates under the tongue, to the right side of the sternum, under the collarbone, to the hands. The patient has a cold sweat, there is a strong excitement and anxiety, fear of death. Nitroglycerin does not help relieve pain, this is also noted by the patients themselves, sometimes only taking in a row about two to three dozen tablets of nitrosorbite or nitroglycerin can slightly ease the pain syndrome.
The atypical course of the pre-infarction state is marked by weakness, irritability, severe dizziness, sleep disturbances, insomnia, but pain syndrome, as such, is absent. A patient with such a course of a pre-infarction state appears shortness of breath, cyanosis occurs for no apparent reason, even at rest.
A pre-infarction condition helps to diagnose only an electrocardiogram: the patient is rushed off with extrasystole, blockade, decompensation of blood circulation, paroxysmal tachycardia. The atypical picture of a pre-infarction state is most often observed in elderly people (age group from 75 years to 90 years).
Sometimes there is an abdominal syndrome of a pre-infarction state, in which pains are localized in the left hypochondrium, in the upper abdomen. The patient notes that he bakes in the epigastric region, the pain can be aching, stitching, burning, cutting, and increases with physical exertion, walking, stress and experience. The pain can significantly decrease at rest or after a large dose of drugs – nitrates.
The reason for the appearance of a pre-infarction state from angina pectoris is stress, nervous strain and excessive physical exertion, conflicting conditions, sports overload, taking excessive doses of alcohol, drugs, frequent smoking, overheating of the body and so on.
A pre-infarction condition is not always characterized by an increase in blood pressure, although hypertensive patients are most prone to the appearance of a pre-infarction condition.
The duration of the pre-infarction state may not exceed three days, and may last up to three weeks. Mortality from a heart attack could be significantly reduced if the diagnosis of a pre-infarction condition could be accurate and timely in each case.
If the patient is diagnosed with a pre-infarction condition, then he must be urgently admitted to a hospital, prescribe treatment and ensure complete rest.
Certainly a pre-infarction state can be considered the very first attack of angina pectoris in a patient, as well as spontaneous, unpredictable, situational angina pectoris, progressive, or unstable angina pectoris.
In patients with angina pectoris for the first time, changes are visible on the electrocardiogram: displacement of segments, change in T wave, impaired conduction and heart rhythm.
Several consecutive attacks, which are absolutely not stopped by medications, indicate a great threat to the development of myocardial infarction against the background of a pre-infarction condition.
The greatest concern in patients with angina pectoris should cause a change in the nature of pain and seizures: with a constantly existing angina pectoris, seizures suddenly occur at rest, or, conversely, with rest angina, the pain occurs with exertion or nervous shock. Of particular concern with regard to the pre-infarction state should be night-time attacks, an increase in seizures, an increase in their duration, intensity, characteristic changes in the electrocardiogram.
Any first-occurring symptom indicates the possibility of progression of the pre-infarction state, and should be a signal of urgent medical attention.
In a pre-infarction state, loads that were previously well tolerated by the patient cause increased pain and worsening of the patient’s condition.
In this condition, the nature of the pain can change in the patient – they can appear in other areas of the body, change directions and intensity. Night pains are accompanied by a newly arising state of suffocation, which was not previously observed. The pain may intensify when the patient tries to strain during bowel movements or urination.
On the ECG, all changes that occurred in the patient with the onset of the attack do not disappear within two to three days, but may last longer. Unstable angina pectoris can last up to several months, eventually leading to stable angina pectoris.
With spontaneous angina pectoris, pain attacks appear mainly at night or in the morning.
Treatment of preinfarction condition.
With a pre-infarction state, it will not be enough to stop pain attacks in the patient – it is necessary to carry out intensive therapy with anticoagulants, antispasmodic drugs. The patient needs an intravenous infusion of nitroglycerin to stop attacks.
Treatment of a pre-infarction state is long, and after intensive therapy and first aid, the patient must be monitored by a doctor, undergo a preventive examination and an ECG to identify the progression of the disease. A pre-infarction condition, symptoms of pressure and pain attacks are the basis for hospitalization of the patient in hospital and intensive care.
First of all, you need to cast aside panic, gather your thoughts, equip the patient with bed rest and comfortable conditions of rest, until the doctor arrives. A heart attack is described in the medical literature. as damage to the heart muscle with partial death of tissues, due to impaired blood supply and clogged arteries, blood clots.
There are a great many reasons that can provoke a pre-infarction condition:
- bad habits, such as smoking and drinking;
- improper nutrition, consisting in the use of foods rich in cholesterol, which in turn slowly kills the vessels of the human body, as it contributes to the formation of plaques on their walls.
- people with diabetes are at risk;
- excessive physical exertion;
- but the most important thing is the constant stress that accompanies a person, no matter where he is: conflicts with superiors, tense atmosphere in the family, quarrels with friends. All diseases come from nerves, or rather, from their unstable state.
So how to recognize a pre-infarction: symptoms, first signs. The first main symptom is an increased heart rate or angina pectoris, which attacks become more frequent over time, accompanied by acute pain in the chest area. Concomitant symptoms: pallor of the skin, nausea and vomiting, shortness of breath, shortness of breath, dizziness and general weakness, expressed by a loss of strength. The decisive indicator is a decrease in the action of nitroglycerin or in general its complete inaction.
The person himself is not able to distinguish between a pre-infarction condition and a heart attack, this can only be done by a specialist based on the results of analyzes, a cardiogram and the collection of information on examination. The saddest thing is that in some cases these symptoms may not be observed, people often suffer a microinfarction, not even knowing about it.
If you have at least a few symptoms from the above list, you should immediately call an ambulance. Doctors will put droppers that dilute blood and slow down its coagulation in order to remove fresh blood clots, thereby avoiding the dangerous consequences of clogging blood vessels, disturbing blood supply and dying off areas of the heart.
Health care should always come first. The only organ in the human body that never rests, always works, ensuring the vital functions of the body – the heart. Regular visits to the cardiologist several times a year for a routine examination will save you from possible problems and complications in the future. And following a therapeutic diet, limiting fatty foods and getting rid of bad habits will become the main assistant in strengthening the heart muscle.
During myocardial infarction, blood flow to a specific area of the heart is very much weakened or stopped altogether. In this case, the affected part of the muscle dies, that is, its necrosis develops. Cell death begins in 20–40 minutes from the moment of termination of blood flow.
Myocardial infarction, first aid for which should be provided in the first minutes of the onset of symptoms indicating this condition, can subsequently determine a positive outcome for this disease. Today, this pathology remains one of the main causes of death from cardiovascular diseases.
With myocardial infarction, one of the coronary vessels becomes blocked by a thrombus. This starts the process of irreversible changes in the cells and after 3-6 hours from the onset of occlusion, the heart muscle in this area dies.
The disease can occur against the background of coronary heart disease, arterial hypertension, as well as with atherosclerosis. The main reasons contributing to the occurrence of myocardial infarction are: overeating, unhealthy diet, excess animal fats in food, insufficient motor activity, hypertension, bad habits.
Large and small focal infarction are distinguished depending on the size of the deceased site. If necrosis captures the entire thickness of the myocardium, it is called transmural.
Heart attack – symptoms
The main symptom of myocardial infarction in men and women is severe chest pain. The pain is so strong that the will of the patient is completely paralyzed. A person has the idea of near death.
The first signs of a heart attack:
- Stitching pain behind the chest is one of the first signs of a heart attack. This pain is very sharp and looks like a knife stab. It can last more than 30 minutes, sometimes for hours. The pain is able to give to the neck, arm, back and shoulder area. Also, it can be not only constant, but also intermittent.
- Fear of death. This unpleasant sensation is actually not such a bad sign, as it indicates the normal tone of the central nervous system.
- Shortness of breath, pallor, fainting. Symptoms arise due to the fact that the heart is not able to actively push blood to the lungs, where it is saturated with oxygen. The brain tries to compensate for this by sending signals that increase breathing.
- Another important hallmark of myocardial infarction is the absence of a decrease or cessation of pain at rest or when taking nitroglycerin (even repeated).
- stress and nerve strain;
- high cholesterol;
How long does the prodromal period last?
The length of the prodromal period can be several minutes or even days. It is characterized by increased anginal pain, a change in their localization and intensity. With the passage of the ECG, dynamic changes can be observed, indicating the presence of ischemia.
Diagnosis of a pre-infarction condition
If there are suspicions of a pre-infarction condition – what to do in this case should be decided by a specialist. At the slightest disturbance in the work on the heart, the patient is recommended to conduct an electrocardiogram. Another diagnostic method is an echocardiogram. Thanks to this study, one can detect tumor-like formations, scars, blood clots, existing defects and pathologies of the heart.
It may also be necessary to undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is used to assess the blood supply to the myocardium and detect ischemia. To get a detailed picture of the problem, contrast agents can be injected into the blood.
Coronarography allows you to assess the condition of the coronary vessels. During the procedure, urographins are introduced into the patient’s body. Thus, it is possible to determine where there is a narrowing of blood vessels, and how this can further affect human health.
A detailed study of the work of the heart is capable of monitoring by the method of Holter. A special device during the day captures the ongoing changes in the heart muscle. After that, the obtained results are analyzed using a computer program.
If the slightest disturbance occurs, you can check the health status with the help of an electrocardiogram.
In old age, the diagnosis will be noted: decompensation of blood circulation, blockade, paroxysmal tachycardia
The second research method is an echocardiogram. It reveals tumors, scars, blood clots, defects, pathologies of the departments and cavities of the heart, circulatory disorders.
Magnetic resonance therapy assesses the blood supply to the myocardium, determines whether there is ischemia, and also allows you to determine heart attack and tumors. To complete the picture, contrast agents are introduced into the blood.
Coronary vessels allows the study of coronarography. During the procedure, non-ionic contrast agents (urographins) are introduced into the blood. It is analyzed in what places there is a narrowing, its size and what threat it poses to the body at the moment.
Long-term monitoring of heart function will allow Holter monitoring method. The device records the work of the heart throughout the day. The results are analyzed by a computer program. Thus, it is possible to determine the moments of high blood pressure, myocardial ischemia and cardiac arrhythmias.
When the patient enters the hospital, the first thing the staff does is to exclude the presence of a heart attack. For this, the patient undergoes the following examinations and tests:
- which studies data on myoglobin, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and MV fractions.
If necessary, the doctor may prescribe additional individual examinations.
Methods of treatment
Having understood what a pre-infarction condition is, you still need to understand how to treat it. It should be aimed at relieving pain and preventing the progression of the disease.
It is worth noting that the treatment of a pre-infarction condition largely depends on the age of the patient, the results of the examination, the presence of concomitant pathologies of the cardiovascular system, the nature of the changes in the electrocardiogram.
Conservative therapy is used with a small risk of heart attack. It is represented by the following drug groups:
- Beta blockers. Reduce blood pressure, have an antiarrhythmic effect.
- Antiplatelet agents. They help prevent blood clots, reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke.
- Inhibitors Normalize blood pressure, reduce vascular tone.
- Anticoagulants. Improve blood properties, prevent the formation of blood clots.
- Satin. Normalize cholesterol.
- Nitrates. They contribute to the expansion of blood vessels, which allows to increase blood supply to the myocardium.
When drug therapy is helpless, doctors are forced to resort to an invasive treatment strategy. The prognosis depends on compliance with the recommendations of the doctor. It is important to adhere to prevention, change the approach to nutrition and lifestyle.
At present, cardiological pathology occupies one of the leading places among the causes of mortality. Diseases of the cardiovascular system should be identified and treated in a timely manner, if it is not attentive to such diseases, this approach can lead to dangerous health consequences.
Cardiologists equate a pre-infarction condition with unstable angina, which, if the necessary and timely help is not provided, can cause the development of partial necrosis of the heart muscle area.
If you carefully pay attention to the emerging symptoms, then it is completely possible to avoid the development of an extremely serious complication of ischemic disease.
Not all patients are vigilant about their health and monitor the symptoms of the condition, which are the harbingers of a heart attack, and they can not be left without due attention and ignored, because timely access to a doctor will help save lives.
The preinfarction state develops against the background of a significant deterioration in coronary circulation as a result of stenosis (narrowing) of the arteries that feed the myocardium. As a result, it is difficult to supply the heart muscle with blood and oxygen, or it completely stops.
Clinical symptoms will depend on the size of the lesion of the area of the heart muscle, as well as on individual characteristics. There are no differences in the symptoms of the pre-infarction state in men and women, except for the fact that most of the weaker sex more emotionally tolerates the disease.
The main symptoms of preinfarction in men and women
The provoking factors causing the development of a pre-infarction state are the following situations: excessive physical activity; psycho-emotional arousal; a long stay in the cold can provoke a spasm of the coronary vessels; in some situations, symptoms may occur after eating.
Typically, the symptoms of a pre-infarction state in women and men are the appearance of pain behind the sternum, which can be compressive or oppressive, often radiating to the left upper limb, as well as to the lower jaw, under the scapula, and sometimes in the neck.
Usually the duration of a pain attack varies from 1 to 15 minutes. In such a situation, pain should certainly be stopped (prevented), for this purpose, the patient should have nitroglycerin tablets with him, which contribute to the normalization of coronary blood supply.
In addition to the classic manifestation of a pre-infarction state, it can also occur in an atypical form. If this is the case, then atypical symptoms in women and men will not be accompanied by pain, but instead of it there will be weakness, irritability. Dizziness joins, and you can also see cyanosis (blueing) of the nasolabial triangle and fingers, which is associated with impaired blood supply to the tissues.
In addition, the patient may be disturbed by sleep, which will be expressed in the form of drowsiness or insomnia, in addition, shortness of breath is observed. In this situation, the atypical form of the pre-infarction state can be diagnosed by conducting an ECG (where extrasystoles, signs of paroxysmal tachycardia appear).
In some situations, symptoms in men and women on the eve of a heart attack are expressed in abdominal syndrome. In this case, pain appears in the upper abdomen, it can give off to the left side of the sternum, the patient complains of some burning and pain in the so-called epigastric region.
In addition, pain can be noted in the upper back, which can be mistakenly regarded as arthrosis or osteochondrosis of the cervico-thoracic spine. But after an X-ray examination, the diagnosis is not confirmed, and the pain increases, which brings about the onset of a heart attack. Accordingly, it is important to recognize the patient’s condition in a timely manner in order to provide him with proper qualified care.
They suspected a pre-infarction condition – what should I do right away?
The patient should be at rest. If the patient’s condition does not improve after taking nitroglycerin, it is recommended to urgently call an ambulance to hospitalize the victim in the cardiology department.
The principles of treating a pre-infarction condition are to prescribe the following groups of pharmaceutical preparations to the patient: anticoagulants, nitrates, in addition, antiplatelet agents, calcium antagonists, beta-blockers, and also beds.
Prevention of a pre-infarction condition consists in the obligatory treatment of angina pectoris, it is necessary to control blood pressure and monitor blood cholesterol, as its elevated level can trigger the development of blood clots on the so-called intima (inner lining) of blood vessels, which is fraught with a violation of the blood supply to the myocardium.
It is important to eat right, do not lean on the intake of fatty foods, as this leads to high cholesterol. Evening meal is light – up to 19 hours. Taking medication prescribed by your doctor is now permanent for you. Discuss the need for magnesium potassium vitamins if they are not prescribed separately (they may be in the main drugs).
Now in your pocket you should always have a plate of Validol tablets or its analogues and a container with Nitroglycerin. In addition, you should lead a healthy lifestyle, be sure to abandon bad habits (smoking, drinking), which negatively affect cardiac activity. Discuss the possibility and number of feasible physical exercises – squats at a convenient pace, lifting on toes, other without weights, as well as time for walks in the fresh air.
Did you know ? In our article, we will talk about how to recognize heart disease in time and prevent dangerous consequences.
In most cases, recognizing the symptoms is easy.
If a person has a sudden chest pain, which rapidly intensifies and passes into the region of the left arm and back, then you need to provide medical help as soon as possible, otherwise it can turn into a fatal outcome.
a rare-infarction condition and angina pectoris are not so dangerous.
However, they also require urgent treatment, because they serve as the first signal that something has gone wrong in the body and the heart is broken for some reason.
In this article, we will focus on the symptoms of a pre-infarction condition that everyone needs to know. If you notice such symptoms, sound the alarm: your health is in serious danger!
First of all, you need to know exactly what a pre-infarction condition is. This is a violation of the heart muscle called the myocardium.
In this case, the flow of blood to the heart decreases, which causes severe chest pain.
(or vasodilators). They control, dilate blood vessels and help improve blood circulation.
- If you have heart problems, you need to make fundamental changes to your diet. Include as many fruits, vegetables, cereals, fish as possible. Also exclude from the diet all foods containing fats.
- With heart disease, regular moderate exercise is very useful. This can be, for example, hiking or cycling. Such exercises should be performed regularly – they will improve blood flow to the heart and will greatly benefit your body.
All medical measures for pre-infarction in women are carried out in stationary conditions. The patient is anesthetized with symptoms according to the same principle as with a heart attack. A bed rest is prescribed until the pain disappears completely and the electrocardiogram indicators are restored to a normal level. As a drug therapy, drugs are prescribed that reduce the oxygen demand of the heart muscle, such as:
Heparin is used to prevent thrombosis. This tool will reduce the likelihood of angina attacks and improve lipid metabolism. In some cases, drugs that improve blood flow may be prescribed, these include:
In this condition, treatment is focused on preventing the possible development of myocardial infarction after it. In other words, the treatment is aimed at eliminating severe angina pectoris. This involves prescribing the patient to bed rest, which should reduce the burden on the heart, accordingly, reducing its energy needs.
If you experience any anxiety related to the work of the heart, as well as in the presence of one degree or another of these symptoms, you should consult a cardiologist.
What can a pre-infarction condition lead to?
In fact, preinfarction in various cases
may vary in duration, severity and symptoms.
You need to know very well the possible symptoms and be extremely vigilant. Chest pain can be a sign of unstable angina pectoris, which is much more dangerous than regular angina pectoris.
With any manifestation of the symptoms that we described above, without hesitation, consult a doctor so that he makes a diagnosis and prescribes treatment as soon as possible, until the disease begins to progress.
Common harbingers of the disease
The morphological basis of the pre-infarction syndrome is based on the increase that the occlusion wall in the corresponding coronary artery acquires, which, for example, can develop due to an increase in thrombosis.
Returning directly to the heart attack itself, we note that it is not only an acute condition, but also leads to the necrosis of a certain area of tissue in the heart muscle. Moreover, it can provoke a cardiac arrest, or even cardiac rupture, and its effect can also be expressed in ventricular fibrillation and the formation of an acute type.
Naturally, any condition that provokes myocardial infarction can carry a more than serious risk to human life. Therefore, it will not be an exaggeration to highlight the fact that the timely recognition of symptoms of a pre-infarction condition will allow you to save the life of a person who, in fact, these symptoms arose.
The first signs of preinfarction in men
Angina pectoris is of several types:
- It can occur only once, such is considered to be angina pectoris.
- If attacks are repeated frequently over a short period of time, then this is a progressive appearance. They go one after another, last for half an hour, they are not eliminated by taking nitroglycerin.
- Angina pectoris occurs against the background of its first appearance. With her, pain appears after physical and mental efforts, which previously did not bring deterioration. Most often they happen at night when a person is in a relaxed state. Their duration, strength and frequency are growing steadily.
- Post-infarction angina appears as a result of a heart attack. It can begin from the first days of overcoming it. Pain may be present for up to a month.
- “Pectoral toad”, manifested after shunting. It is performed to narrow the gaps in the arteries of the heart.
- Angina pectoris. Its appearance is associated with spasm of the coronary arteries. It most often manifests itself in the morning and makes itself felt with severe pain.
The causes of the pre-infarction state are most often atherosclerotic plaques, which become an obstacle to oxygen and nutrients. These elements necessary for the body do not pass through the narrowed gaps of the coronary arteries, but, in addition, a thrombus begins to form on their inner damaged membrane, which can completely hide these gaps. All this is reflected in visible symptoms.
In medical practice, a pre-infarction condition is defined as unstable angina
. It develops against the background of improper or incomplete treatment, stress and various complications. In some cases, this condition can be stopped on its own, after which the person is rapidly recovering. Preinfarction includes the following:
- Angina pectoris is intense, arising in a person for the first time.
- Angina pectoris progressive, when attacks of a similar state have already occurred in the past. It is characterized by a more pronounced pain syndrome, irradiation of a burning sensation and compression.
- Angina pectoris, which develops after a phase of tension. Usually occurs after active physical exertion and other types of stress.
- Early post-infarction angina pectoris – pain in the left side appears 1-30 days after a heart attack.
- Angina pectoris that appeared after shunting occurs due to impaired blood flow by atherosclerotic plaques.
- Prinzmetal angina pectoris, developing against a background of spasm in the large coronary arteries. It is characterized by severe pain in the heart in the morning.
For a long time before an attack, men suffer from unstable angina, which occurs mainly at rest. She does not stop with medications, after a while she passes by herself. The following precursors of a pre-infarction condition in men are also distinguished:
- fatigue, lack of vigor, even after prolonged rest;
- sleep disturbances, insomnia, frequent awakenings;
- shortness of breath, development of shortness of breath;
- causeless attacks of fear and anxiety;
- persistent headache, decreased visual acuity;
- persistent discomfort in the chest;
- digestive disorders: nausea, vomiting, heartburn;
- pallor of the skin, the allocation of cold sweat.
If the first signs appear that indicate a pre-infarction condition, try to immediately contact your doctor. The sooner you receive medical care, the faster you will be able to restore the body. Do not ignore the discomfort
that cause you serious discomfort.
The patient should take a half-sitting position, he is provided with complete peace, silence, and an influx of fresh air. Be sure to call an ambulance if after taking the medication does not get better or if severe weakness persists.
A prerequisite for the development of the disease is a steadily progressive angina pectoris. Any deterioration or changes in well-being should be taken into account not only by employees of medical institutions, but also by the patients themselves.
Ignoring the symptomatic manifestations will allow the development of acute myocardial infarction – with this disease, this possibility is represented by a high degree of risk. Common symptoms of a pre-infarction condition include:
- pain in the chest, clavicle, in the region of the right scapula, with radiation to the facial areas;
- rapid seizures – the amount exceeds the usual norms for angina pectoris;
- the patient noted the occurrence of causeless anxiety, panic attacks, psycho-emotional arousal;
- there are high rates of tachycardia;
- immunity is formed in relation to conventional cardiopreparations;
- night sleep disturbances predominate – insomnia and severe drowsiness in the daytime;
- the skin changes to a bluish tint;
- constant shortness of breath provokes periodic dizziness;
- marked weakness is noted.
In women, the symptomatic manifestations of a pathological condition may differ, compared with men. Preinfarction condition in women is characterized by:
- unexpressed or absent pain in the sternum;
- the main localization of pain becomes the abdomen;
- labored breathing;
- increased irritability and aggressive attitude;
- soreness in the back.
Uncharacteristic manifestations often cause delayed diagnosis and incorrect initial diagnosis.
In men, symptomatic manifestations are more pronounced, so there is no doubt in the diagnosis. A general violation of the functionality of the body is formed after the primary signs of the coronary syndrome. At this moment, urgent hospitalization of the patient to the hospital is necessary – any loss of time at a rapid pace will lead to the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction.
Similar to the manifestations of myocardial infarction, they require immediate medical attention for professional help. The obvious signs include:
- discomfort, pain and a feeling of compression of the chest area;
- increased functionality of sweat glands;
- insufficient oxygen supply and shortness of breath associated with it;
- nausea with vomiting;
- painful manifestations in the cervical region, epigastric region, upper limbs, shoulder girdle, back, lower jaw;
- sudden onset of weakness and concomitant dizziness;
- accelerated contractions of the heart.
A developing pathological condition is characterized by individual symptomatic manifestations:
- severe pain in the thoracic region, with irradiation to the left side – the shoulder, cervical, upper limb, interscapular area;
- spontaneous attacks of panic fear;
- pulling pain in the limbs;
- taking “Nitroglycerin” does not have the proper effect on cardiac activity;
- the duration of the attack varies from 10 minutes to several hours;
- with an arrhythmic form of pathology, frequent contractions of the heart muscle are observed;
- blood pressure indicators sharply go to lower marks;
- against the background of the asthmatic variant, suffocation develops;
- the color of the skin changes to pale gray;
- with cerebral infarction, short-term loss of consciousness occurs;
- symptomatic manifestations of this type of pathology are similar to stroke conditions – the patient’s speech cannot be deciphered, the coordination of movements is formed.
Complaints of pain in the shoulder or back often lead to an erroneous diagnosis – the patient is exposed to “osteochondrosis of the cervicothoracic region.” An X-ray examination allows you to identify the error, but the time for emergency care has already been missed and the patient is delivered to the hospital with a diagnosis of myocardial infarction on the go.
All forms of pre-infarction state require an ECG. The cardiogram allows you to recognize:
- circulatory failure – with an approaching cardiac catastrophe;
- pathological tachycardia.
Non-standard forms of pathological deviations are more often recorded in the elderly age period in both sexes. Atypical symptoms require increased attention and timely provision of the necessary medication.
The clinical picture of the pre-infarction state does not imply duration in a certain time frame. The length of the prodromal period can be several days and months. Pathological deviation depends on the rhythm of life of the sick person, indicators of his general condition, age and gender.
Experts do not note a direct relationship between the duration of the condition and further prospects for recovery. The latter have favorable chances exclusively with timely determination and correctly prescribed therapy.
A prolonged course of preinfarction deviation often provokes serious complications than the acute form that occurs in a short time.
Pre-medical relief of an angina attack allows the patient to hold out until the arrival of the ambulance team. After her arrival, the patient is taken to the intensive care unit, where they conduct a course of emergency care. After suppressing formidable symptoms, the patient is transferred to the cardiology department.
After the patient arrives at the hospital, an assessment is made of the possible occurrence of complications of the cardiovascular department. The calculation of the probability coefficient is carried out on a specialized scale that includes several varieties of indicators:
- age period of the sick person;
- the existing prerequisites for the formation of diseases of the cardiovascular department – chronic nicotine addiction, elevated levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream, diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension;
- summary data from laboratory and diagnostic studies;
- characteristics of the present changes on the ECG.
Based on data on the assessment of possible risk, cardiologists make the choice of the necessary type of therapeutic effect.
Reasons for the approaching threat
The manifestation of a pre-infarction state can occur for a number of different reasons:
- the presence of bad habits, including alcohol abuse and smoking;
- the use of foods with high cholesterol, which negatively affects the vessels in the body (cholesterol slowly begins to kill them, contributing to the appearance of plaques on their walls);
- diabetes mellitus (people who suffer from this disease are at risk);
- large physical exertion;
- regular severe stresses that accompany a person literally everywhere.
It is the last reason that most often provokes a pre-infarction state.
on the walls of blood vessels in this disease can grow, gradually blocking the arteries.
After the lumen narrows by 75%, an attack of pain occurs. Coronary patency of the bloodstream also decreases with persistent spasm,. With further progression of the lesion, the pain intensifies, such attacks become longer, more often, with less physical stress or at rest.
Cholesterol plaques can provoke a pre-infarction state
With a lack of oxygen and energy substances in the myocardium, underoxidized metabolic products accumulate, the movement of ions through the cell membrane is disrupted, and the production of ATP for muscle contraction stops. Such processes are called the “ischemic cascade.” If treatment is not carried out on time, then the site dies away without blood flow – necrosis (heart attack) is formed.
Oxygen starvation is most dangerous with increasing nutritional requirements. Provoking factors for a pre-infarction condition can be:
- physical overstrain;
- stressful effects;
- low air temperature or overheating of the body;
- (including when taking);
- drinking alcohol, spicy or too plentiful food;
- dehydration (increases blood viscosity).
An attack of pain in the heart, which develops into a heart attack, occurs not only when the condition of patients with angina pectoris (or rest) worsens, but also occurs with the first symptoms of myocardial ischemia, after a heart attack or bypass surgery.
A special type of unstable angina is Prinzmetal syndrome, which occurs with a sudden spasm of the coronary vessels for no apparent reason.
Worse situation and when ambulance is required
If the patient ignores the previous symptoms, his condition worsens. Pain in the heart becomes stronger, felt more and more. Their duration also increases. The pain ceases to pass by itself; the patient has to take medicine to get rid of it. After taking the medication, my health improves, the pain goes away. At this stage, you should immediately contact a doctor.
If you ignored the second stage of the development of the disease, it will begin to progress. When there is severe pain in the area of the heart, which constricts your movements and breathing, taking medications does not help to improve the condition. It is recommended to call an ambulance. In most cases, these signs are characteristic of the onset of a heart attack and the patient requires urgent medical attention.
Many are in no hurry to receive signals from the body, because they are not aware of the consequences that a heart attack can entail. It affects the work of the whole organism. When a failure occurs in the blood supply to the heart muscle, this leads to necrosis of some of its parts. In some cases, a heart attack leads to heart failure.
Tachycardia begins to develop, accompanied by high blood pressure, nausea and a constant feeling of anxiety. A few weeks after the attack, you can observe aneurysm of the heart. Her symptoms are shortness of breath, a feeling of weakness and fever.
A heart attack can provoke the development of pericarditis when inflammation of the pericardial sac occurs. Signs of the disease are a fever attack, pain behind the sternum, shortness of breath, dry cough, and sometimes vomiting occurs.
The consequences of a pre-infarction condition are many. And all of them significantly worsen a person’s health and his quality of life. That is why it is important to pay attention to the signs of the disease in time and not to ignore your malaise. With timely and proper treatment, regular monitoring of the state of health, you can avoid not only the negative consequences, but also the heart attack itself.
The further course of coronary heart disease depends on what risk factors of vascular pathology the patient has (age, male gender, hereditary predisposition, smoking, high blood pressure, excess cholesterol in the diet), as well as concomitant diseases.
If timely treatment is started, all the reasons that can be affected are eliminated, then a long-term stabilization of the condition is possible.
An unfavorable prognosis is observed in patients who have:
- myocardial infarction in the past;
- age after 55 years;
- multiple impairment of cardiac blood flow;
- narrowing of the main branch of the left coronary artery;
- severe course of angina pectoris;
- nicotine addiction;
- addiction to alcohol;
- poor reaction to drugs or refusal of treatment.
Preinfarction condition: how to understand
Recognizing a pre-infarction condition is quite simple. It manifests itself in pronounced pain. At the same time, blood pressure rises with them. Its main difference from the usual periodic angina pectoris is that it is necessary to take a higher dose of nitroglycerin so that it has an effect. Moreover, the number of such attacks increases significantly. There may be more than 25 per day.
Also the pain is different. They have a long period of action. Moreover, each time they become more intense. The zone of their action is located behind the sternum, but can also be given to the right side of the body. Its repeated manifestation is of different intensity. In addition, there are a number of symptoms that bother the patient.
These include general weakness of the body, dizziness, unstable breathing, shortness of breath, the heart is intermittent, increased sweating, while it is cold, the complexion changes, it becomes pale, the state is restless and anxious. Sometimes such symptoms may be accompanied by nausea. Thoughts about death and its fear also appear.
Since there are several types of preinfarction conditions, their signs differ. So, with atypical pain under the scapula located on the left in the neck is characteristic. Moreover, the intensity is low. But there are times when there is no pain. Then the same signs are observed, as were listed above. An atypical pre-infarction condition is most often found in elderly people.
The duration of these symptoms is different. Sometimes they lead to the fact that the blood flow in the coronary artery stops completely. As a result, after 20 minutes myocardial infarction begins. If nothing is done, then after less than nine hours, the heart muscle will cease to function. Thus, death will be diagnosed.
How long does the condition last
The duration of the pre-infarction period can be from one hour to 10 days.
It depends on the speed with which the cessation of coronary circulation occurs in any part of the myocardium. The frequency of seizures, as a rule, increases, there may be more than 20-30 per day, and the effectiveness of the use of medications decreases.
A prolonged attack of angina pectoris (more than 40 minutes) is most often a sign of a heart attack. Therefore, the sooner the correct treatment is prescribed, the greater results can be achieved. At this stage, the destruction of heart cells can still be avoided.
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