Postpartum high blood pressure causes and treatment

If earlier, before pregnancy and during gestation, there was no hypertension, and after the birth of the baby, pressure surges appeared, it could be a neuropsychiatric disorder. And to be more specific – this is an overstrain, which often occurs precisely in the postpartum period.

The reasons for it are obvious: a woman is recovering physiologically and morally, but the recovery period cannot be called calm. In her arms is a baby who requires around-the-clock attention.

And if the young mother has not yet learned how to distribute her powers, if the mode of her life with the baby in her arms has not yet returned to normal, her body is in serious stress. Fatigue, stress, overwork lead to the physical reaction of the body to such events. Failure of self-regulation of the nervous system leads to pressure surges, headaches, and fatigue.

This condition requires medical and psychological intervention. This is not always associated with postpartum depression – this pathology is extremely serious, but it is not so common. But the so-called baby blues is a much more common condition, and the psychosomatic manifestations of this disorder can be expressed just by changes in blood pressure.

In addition, after the birth of the baby, the pressure jumps due to:

  1. Hormonal imbalance (vasospasm due to hormones);
  2. Recurrent chronic diseases;
  3. Side effects of drugs that are taken by mom.

If a pathology is detected, you need to go to the doctor and in no case do not curtail lactation. The doctor will help you choose those products that are characterized by a low degree of absorption in breast milk.

Antihypertensive drugs should be taken so that the lactation period does not coincide with the time of the maximum concentration of the drug in the blood. Therefore, it is recommended that a woman take tablets immediately before feeding, so that the active substances of the drugs simply do not have time to get into the bloodstream so quickly.

And if mom decided to complete lactation, she should know: drugs that reduce lactation, increase blood pressure.

It is important to understand that high blood pressure was present earlier or occurred directly during pregnancy or after childbirth.

In the first case, it may already be a question of chronic hypertension, which was controlled by specialists during pregnancy and childbirth. As a rule, a young mother is already familiar with this condition and knows how to stop it.
In the second case, gestational or pregnancy-induced hypertension, as a rule, has a favorable diagnosis and, in most cases, goes away after childbirth.

After childbirth, a woman recovers both physiologically and psychologically. However, discomfort after childbirth, changes in the body and appearance of the woman, the vagaries of the baby, can lead to increased nervous tension and, as a result, increased pressure.

A difficult pregnancy or difficult birth can deplete the body of a young mother, and against the background of general weakness, an increase in blood pressure is possible.

• Hormonal restructuring of the body

Excess hormones cause vasospasm – increasing their tone and causing hypertension.

A large body weight creates an additional burden on the vessels and can cause
hypertension.

In any case, the increased pressure after childbirth must be controlled and, if possible, treated to avoid its negative effect on the body.

Reasons for the change in indicators

The last months of the gestational period are associated with the fact that the woman’s body adapts to the upcoming process of the baby’s birth. It is very important during this period to listen to the body in order to respond to alarming symptoms in time. Even an absolutely healthy, calm pregnancy of all previous months can address significant problems of the last trimester.

In a healthy woman, the average blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. Art., this is the norm. Some deviation of these values ​​is permissible, so for expectant mothers the range of blood pressure marks ranges from 90/60 to 140/90 mm Hg. At each appointment with the gynecologist conducting the pregnancy, the patient is measured blood pressure. And if the indicators are alarming, the doctor takes immediate action.

Provocateurs of increased pressure before childbirth can be:

  1. Pregnancy itself, which is a burden on the female body (especially unprepared);
  2. Stress, in particular, is chronic;
  3. Genetic predisposition to hypertension;
  4. Smoking;
  5. Weak or inadequate physical activity;
  6. Excess weight;
  7. Pathology of the k />

Diabetes mellitus alone is not a direct cause of increased pressure, but it can cause hypertension during pregnancy. On the recommendation of a doctor, pregnant women with diabetes should be monitored on a special schedule, visiting specialist doctors on time.

High blood pressure after childbirth is the cause of hypertension. But why is this happening? There are a large number of things that contribute to the increase of this indicator. This is especially true in the postpartum period, when the body is very weak, but still takes a heavy load.

Distinguish hypertension during gestation and after the baby. In the first case, it is likely to become chronic and will be observed by doctors for a very long time. In the second, it is a consequence of the stress experienced and will pass on its own or with minimal effort. Holds for several months.

1. Fatigue, nervous state and exhaustion, lack of sleep, depression, dissatisfaction with oneself, the vagaries of the child, increased responsibility. All this directly affects the appearance of hypertension.

2. Overweight – overweight changes the overall load on the body. The vessels are in a state of stress, blood volume increases and fatigue increases rapidly. A set within 6-15 kilograms is considered the norm. It is important to remember that with each kilogram gained, the body has to supply blood and it, which increases the area of ​​blood circulation.

3. Breastfeeding – with full lactation, the young mother will have to forget about a sound sleep during feeding. This is due to the work of the adrenal glands secreting adrenaline and norepinephrine.

4. Hormonal changes in the body of a young woman contribute to spasms in the veins and increase their tone.

5. Bad ecology negatively affects the circulatory system.

6. Problems in kidney performance.

As already known, in the first time after childbirth, this condition is considered the norm. Do not panic prematurely, as this will lead to emotional shock and aggravate the situation. No need to be nervous and make your heart skip the maximum number of beats per second.

High blood pressure after childbirth in women is called arterial hypertension. Often in women in labor there are changes in indicators both in one direction and in the other direction – pressure jumps due to certain reasons.

The most likely and common prerequisites include the following factors:

  • heredity;
  • the presence of bad habits;
  • excess of normal body weight;
  • overwork and lack of sleep.

Causes of increased pressure after childbirth may be associated with a more serious disease of pregnant women – gestosis. Gestosis is diagnosed during pregnancy. The disease is characterized by an increase in blood pressure, edema, toxicosis in the later stages and other symptoms.

Often the cause of maternal hypertension is hormonal imbalance. An imbalance occurs naturally during pregnancy. After childbirth, the excess of certain hormones provokes muscle spasms, and this entails high pressure.

Childbirth is stress and an enormous load on a woman’s body, so often after birth an exacerbation of chronic diseases occurs. Most exacerbations lead to the development of hypertension.

The following possible chronic diseases that provoke high blood pressure in a woman in labor are distinguished here:

  • kidney diseases – pyelonephritis, polycystosis, prolapse of the kidneys, stenosis, tumors and other pathologies;
  • endocrine disorders;
  • VVD – vegetative-vascular dystonia – lesions and disorders in the functionality of blood vessels;
  • pathology of the heart and cardiovascular system;
  • unequal disorders, postpartum depression.

If high pressure does not occur during an exacerbation of the disease, it can be increased as a result of taking certain medications that a woman is forced to take to relieve painful and unpleasant symptoms.

If a woman before the onset of an “interesting situation” and during it did not suffer from hypertension, then the cause of her occurrence may be neuropsychic overstrain. After all, childbirth itself is a huge stress for the female body, which leads to a breakdown of the nervous system regulation system, especially with low physical fitness of the body.

Often the cause of high blood pressure in newly mummified mothers may be hormonal imbalance in the body. Vessels under the influence of an excess of hormones are spasmodic. Their tone rises, peripheral resistance increases. The result is a jump in blood pressure.

If the newly mummy has chronic diseases, in particular pyelonephritis, then after childbirth they can go from the stage of remission to relapse and also provoke the development of hypertension after childbirth. In addition to kidney disease, in women who have recently given birth, a prolapse of the kidneys, their tumors, renal vascular stenosis, endocrine disorders (diseases of the pituitary gland, adrenal glands, thyroid gland), and vegetovascular dystonia can provoke an increase in pressure.

Heart and vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, angina pectoris, heart failure, and myocarditis, also lead to an increase in blood pressure. Sometimes some drugs provoke pathology, so lactating women should carefully study the list of contraindications and side effects before starting to take the medication.

Arterial hypertension is a common complication of both pregnancy and the postpartum period. Moreover, if in recent years the number of other complications of pregnancy and childbirth has been reduced by doctors, the frequency of occurrence of hypertension remains at the same level. This is primarily due to the diversity of the nature of the causes of high blood pressure after childbirth.

An increase in pressure in the postpartum period can be observed in women who have been diagnosed with hypertension of varying severity even before pregnancy. They also had high blood pressure in early pregnancy (up to 20 weeks). Also, this complication can occur if hypertension first manifested itself during pregnancy, or rather, in the second half (after 20 weeks).

Postpartum blood pressure must be monitored daily, and if a woman has increased blood pressure during pregnancy, she needs to be monitored every two hours for the first day, and then at least 3 times a day.

If the woman did not increase pressure before childbirth, then the causes of this complication may be the following:

  1. Psycho-emotional overstrain. Childbirth is a very difficult process in the physical, mental and energy-intensive terms. It takes a lot of strength and energy, which leads to the depletion of the body and its systems, and primarily the nervous system suffers. In this regard, there is a violation of regulatory function and pressure rises.
  2. Hereditary predisposition. In this case, a complication can occur in a woman in childbirth if she has blood relatives suffering from hypertension, or high blood pressure was observed in their mothers or grandmothers in the same situation.
  3. The presence of bad habits in a young mother. These include smoking and drinking. In this case, the woman’s body is already very weak, and a process such as childbirth exacerbates the process. The elasticity of the arteries is impaired, which leads to such consequences.
  4. Repeated pregnancy despite the fact that the previous one proceeded with complications.
  5. Women who have given birth who have not reached the age of 18 or are older than 35 years. In both the first and second cases, the body is not ready for such strong loads. In young girls, it has not yet fully matured, and in older women, all processes slow down. All this leads weakened organisms to overstrain and trigger protective mechanisms in the form of increased blood pressure.
  6. High birth weight, obesity. Overweight also leads to deterioration of the body and a violation of the main types of exchanges. Violation of fat metabolism leads to hypertension.
  7. Physical fatigue and regular lack of sleep.
  8. Imbalance in the hormonal balance in the body. In a woman, the level of hormones in the blood rises, which have a vasoconstrictive effect and thereby affect the increase in blood pressure.
  9. Exacerbation of chronic diseases due to excessive stress associated with pregnancy and childbirth.

Recommendations for women with hypotension

If a nursing mother feels weak, low tone due to low pressure, you can raise it by following these recommendations:

  • First of all, you should try to identify the cause of low blood pressure and try to eliminate it.
    Despite the possible nausea and dizziness, it is advisable to drink as much fluid as possible in order to avoid dehydration.
  • To raise tonus, you can occasionally drink a little coffee. However, this drink is contraindicated for a nursing mother, so it is better to replace it with a small amount of green tea. Tonic drinks should be used carefully, since the active substances are transmitted to the baby during breastfeeding and can lead to overexcitation.
  • Walking in the fresh air, swimming or cycling will also help to tone up.
  • Herbal teas, tinctures of eleutherococcus, ginseng, and traditional medicine recipes can be very effective. However, before taking them, you must consult your doctor.
  • Massage, yoga, acupuncture techniques will help to tone up.
  • The diet should include foods high in folic acid, vitamins C and B (walnuts, liver, meat, fruits).

You should not be frivolous with such a problem as high blood pressure after childbirth. A nursing mother must independently control the pressure. Pressure surges can be harbingers or even causes of severe diseases of the cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous system. Avoid complications will help timely contact a doctor and the exact implementation of his recommendations.

How does blood pressure change during pregnancy

Pregnancy is a special period in a woman’s life, this is not a disease, but a natural process of human reproduction, laid down by nature. Therefore, all the basic vital signs of the body should be normal, including blood pressure at 120 to 80 with slight fluctuations in one direction or another. However, some women still have problems with pressure, especially if they were already before pregnancy.

  • poor sleep, lack of sleep, insomnia. It is recommended to sleep at least 8 hours a day;
  • lack of nutrition, strict diet. A pregnant woman should eat at least 4 times a day with the inclusion in the diet of plant, dairy, lean meat, sea fish, etc. on the recommendation of a doctor;
  • nervous breakdowns, feelings, stresses. They must be excluded, involving relatives, friends and work colleagues for help;
  • excessive physical activity. During pregnancy, you can perform special exercises, engage in swimming, exercise, all the time remember the measure.

In any case, you should not panic, because the blood pressure in pregnant women, like all others, can change many times a day, but it should quickly return to baseline.

In most cases, in the first trimester, the pressure is often low. Some women first learn about their interesting situation when they see a doctor about fainting. The main reason for hypotension is an altered hormonal background during pregnancy. In the mornings, a woman feels weak, tired, drowsy, sometimes dizzy.

Therefore, hypotension requires close attention, it is necessary to be examined in a hospital with daily monitoring of blood pressure and take the necessary measures in a timely manner.

Another deviation is high blood pressure during pregnancy. More often observed in the second half (after 20−25 weeks). There are physiological reasons for this – an increase in the volume of circulating blood in the mother’s body due to the additional circulation of the fetus. The heart under these conditions works with additional load, the heart rate increases.

Normal is considered an increase in blood pressure and pulse in a pregnant woman at rest by 10-15 units. If the difference is much larger, you should be on your guard and consult a doctor, if necessary, go to the hospital, as these may be signs of late toxicosis. Conducting daily monitoring Blood pressure is also important in this case, to determine when and under what circumstances a woman’s blood pressure rises, and to decide on the advisability of prescribing antihypertensive drugs.

If a woman had problems with pressure before the onset of an interesting situation, then hypertension will manifest itself in the early stages, which is dangerous for miscarriage or can lead to a delay in fetal development. In the later stages, high blood pressure can provoke premature placental abruption, bleeding and fetal death.

If a woman has hypotension, it is recommended:

  • a diet balanced in essential ingredients, vitamins and mineral salts;
  • drink enough water;
  • full sleep at night for at least 8 hours;
  • refuse coffee due to its diuretic effect;
  • in a antenatal clinic, visit prophylactic rooms, learn self-massage techniques, yoga for pregnant women, attend hea water aerobics;
  • if the above does not help, then the doctor will prescribe medication, taking into account safety for the child.

With hypertension, it is recommended:

  • refuse coffee, strong tea;
  • exclude salty, spicy, sour dishes;
  • include lean meat or fish, vegetable food;
  • relax more, do not get nervous, avoid stress;
  • full night’s sleep;
  • useful meditation, yoga, swimming;
  • in case of severe hypertension, it is necessary to take antihypertensive drugs, select drugs in a hospital (calcium channel blockers or adrenergic blockers).

Blood pressure during pregnancy should be monitored daily for all nine months with the correct tonometer at home in a calm environment so that nothing extraneous affects the measurement result in order to eliminate the error. Otherwise, improper treatment and undesirable consequences for the mother and child are possible.

Symptoms of Hypertension

An increase in pressure is manifested by headaches of varying intensity, dizziness, nausea. At high pressure, experiencing small physical exertion, shortness of breath, swelling of the extremities appears, the heart rate quickens, and bradycardia develops. With such symptoms, it is necessary to measure the level of pressure.

But it happens that hypertension is asymptomatic, therefore, having a predisposition to it, you need to monitor the pressure regularly.

It is important to determine what is recognized as postpartum hypertension. Each person has his “own” blood pressure at which he feels satisfactorily – the doctor must know the indicators, as the woman herself is talking about. During pregnancy, the future gynecologist constantly monitors the pressure for the expectant mother, fixing the indicators in the map.

Often at the beginning of pregnancy, blood pressure decreases – this is due to the restructuring of the body and its adaptation to a new state. In the future, as the fetus grows and the woman’s body weight increases, the indicators increase.

Hypertension in a woman after childbirth is a normal occurrence, according to doctors. But right there, doctors stipulate that this can only happen within a month after giving birth in case of natural delivery. In the presence of surgical intervention, the terms can be increased up to 2 months, especially if the cesarean section was associated with the diagnosis and pathological consequences of gestosis.

If blood pressure does not normalize, and especially with the progression of hypertension, you should immediately consult a doctor. Doctors will conduct a comprehensive examination and determine the cause of the negative consequences presented. Based on the results, doctors will prescribe appropriate treatment.

Lactation treatment

There are many methods to deal with this difficulty. Some of them are medical in nature and are prescribed strictly by doctors; others from alternative medicine; the third is general advice for keeping fit. What to do and how to carry out therapy?

So, before you start taking medications, you should consider the pros and cons. If feeding occurs, it is necessary to discuss with the doctor contraindications and possible side effects.

In special cases, when a woman’s well-being worsens every day, her blood pressure rises and other treatments do not help, she has to give up feeding for a while and take the prescribed medications.

Traditional medicine involves popular methods and recipes. They are designed to improve overall health when blood pressure rises.

In the pharmacy you can buy a collection of herbs that position themselves as antihypertensive. Their advantage is that they do not cause an allergic reaction and do not affect lactation. Plants such as motherwort, ginseng and hawthorn are also commonly boiled. But before use, you must definitely talk with your doctor.

Massages are suitable for relaxation, but it is better to entrust them to professionals who will do everything at the highest level. There are also a number of yoga exercises that are designed to relax the body.

If a woman is concerned about low or high blood pressure and swelling after childbirth, you should identify the cause or try to determine the provoking factors. If you can’t do it yourself, it’s best to seek medical help. Only a specialist can establish the true cause and prescribe the most effective therapy.

First you need to normalize the sleep-rest regimen. Well, if close relatives connect to this and take part of the cares on themselves. Daytime sleep is a good alternative to lack of nightly rest.

Frequent walks in the fresh air are useful for the baby and mother. It is distracting and relaxing. If possible, you can organize jogging in the mornings or evenings, Nordic walking classes. Any physical exercises, both at home and in the gym, will be useful.

Nutrition must be complete. Do not limit yourself to healthy products, as this will reduce the body’s resistance. With episodes of increased blood pressure, it is better to avoid excess salt intake, as this entails an accumulation of water in the body and an even greater increase in pressure.

Each “extra” 10 kg helps increase blood pressure by 10 units, and vice versa. As soon as the woman’s body weight returns to normal, many symptoms will cease to bother her.

PreparationsRecommendations
Medications for lowering blood pressureDuring lactation, only a small category of all existing ones is allowed for use. These are central agents (methyldopa), calcium channel blockers (verapamil, nifedipine, diltiazem), beta-blockers (preferably metoprolol).
DiureticsDuring breastfeeding, the use of spironolactone and hydrochlorothiazide is possible.
Antidepressants in severe cases of asthenic conditions, hypochondriaIn this case, you will have to abandon lactation.

To increase pressure, the list is smaller. These are mainly caffeinated products (citramon, caffeil, ascofen and the like).

Pregnancy and childbirth are accompanied by serious changes in the body of a woman. Often you have to deal with problems of fluctuations in blood pressure, in most cases upward. Sufficient physical activity, proper nutrition, normalization of body weight, compliance with rest and wakefulness regimes will help to cope with this problem in 80%. But it is better to look for the cause and undergo treatment together with a specialist who will select the most effective and safe therapy.

High blood pressure and postoperative endometritis

In some women, high blood pressure accompanies endometritis – this is a serious postoperative complication. Together with air, viruses and germs can enter the uterine cavity, which is open during surgery. And if this happened, then in the first days after cesarean, signs of endometritis will appear.

And before discharge, a woman is observed: an examination is performed, an ultrasound scan is performed to exclude postpartum complications.

Prevention and General Advice

A lot of things in our life depend on the products we consume. We are what we eat, and you can not argue with that! Appearance, body weight, well-being, work of the gastrointestinal tract, Blood pressure – all this is directly related to the food that we choose. After the baby is born, it is important to properly adjust your diet.

Hard diets and strong restrictions should be avoided. They will not help restore the figure, but will make it even worse. You just need to count the approximate number of calories and eat varied.

But even then you need to get into sportswear smoothly. No sharp movements, deep squats, weightlifting, bending forward, headstand. This will increase blood flow and raise blood pressure.

High-grade rest is one of the main points in the settlement of HELL. Sleep, relaxation, time devoted to oneself must be taken into account when recovering and restoring the body. Walking in the fresh air will never be superfluous, but if there is not enough time for them, they can be compensated by airing the room.

Vitamins can be obtained not only from products, but also in its pure form. So, vitamins P (tomatoes, cabbage, grapes, blueberries, strawberries, raspberries, cherries, rabbit and beef meat, plums, apples, etc.) and ascorbic acid – vitamin C (cranberries, cherries, sea buckthorn, onions, dill, parsley, bananas, figs, liver of chicken and beef, pumpkin, carrots, etc.), strengthen the walls of the veins and prevent their fragility.

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Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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