The pharmacological action of these drugs is based on their beneficial effect on metabolic processes in the brain:
- They enhance the synthesis of macroergic phosphates (biological molecules that accumulate and transmit energy), proteins, and some enzymes.
- Nootropics stabilize the membranes (membranes) of neurons that have been damaged.
We can distinguish the following effects that nootropic drugs can have:
- Reducing the manifestations of asthenic syndrome (weakness, increased fatigue, drowsiness, decreased concentration, sleep disturbances);
- Stimulation of some mental activity;
- Fighting depressive conditions;
- They have a moderate inhibitory effect on the nervous system;
- Contribute to the resistance of brain cells (neurons) to oxygen deficiency;
- Reducing the manifestations of epilepsy (moderate anticonvulsant effect);
- Improving cerebral blood flow during vegetative-vascular dystonia;
- Promotes the activation of cognitive activity;
- Contribute to the adaptation of the body to changing environmental conditions;
- Strengthening immunity and overall stability.
These funds have positive effects only with prolonged use. Nootropic drugs for children with speech impairment and developmental disorders should be used for at least 2 weeks in combination with other therapeutic measures.
Like any drug, nootropic drugs have their own indications and contraindications, which must be taken into account by the doctor when prescribing these drugs.
Conditions in which the use of nootropics in children is indicated:
- Cerebral palsy;
- Lag in physical and mental development;
- Speech disorders and developmental retardation;
- The consequences of traumatic brain injury;
- Perinatal damage to the nervous system of various origins;
- Transferred neuroinfection;
- Restlessness, disinhibition, attention deficit.
In addition to the positive effects, nootropics can also have a negative effect if the child has the following contraindications to their use:
- Impaired renal function;
- Increased intracranial pressure;
- Severe psychomotor agitation;
- Pathology of the liver;
- Individual intolerance to any component of the drug
When new generation nootropic drugs are prescribed, the list for children is limited precisely by contraindications to their use. The intake of any drug should be agreed with the attending physician.
The modern pharmaceutical market offers a large number of drugs with nootropic action. Such drugs are used in children of any age. Modern drugs are available in various dosage forms that are suitable for use even in the neonatal period.
Available in the form of bottles with a ready-made solution. The route of administration is only injection (intramuscularly). It contains a complex of polypeptide fractions obtained from the brain of piglets and / or calves.
The mechanism of action of the drug is in such processes as:
- Activation of neuropeptides (proteins that regulate the functioning of nerve cells) and factors providing brain nutrition;
- Optimization of the balance of inhibitory and excitatory substances in the brain;
- Inhibitory effect on the nervous system;
- Decreased convulsive activity;
- Prevents the formation of free radicals.
More information about the indications and contraindications, the method of administration can be found in a separate article on Cortexin.
The drug is available in the form of a suspension and tablets. It can be used from the neonatal period (the first 28 days of life). The main effects of this medication are as follows:
- Improves metabolic processes in brain cells;
- Promotes the transmission of nerve impulses;
- Stabilizes the structure of cell membranes, preventing exposure to free radicals (antioxidant effect);
- Reduces blood viscosity and improves blood flow;
- Improves blood supply in ischemic areas.
Indications for use are:
- Impaired memory, thinking, fatigue, decreased concentration of attention;
- Delay in the development of the psyche;
- Conditions after suffering encephalitis (inflammation of the brain tissue).
Encephabol is contraindicated in cases:
- Sensitivity to pyritinol (the main active substance);
- Impaired renal function;
- Severe liver damage;
- Changes in peripheral blood tests;
- Autoimmune diseases in the acute period;
- Myasthenia gravis;
The drug is prescribed in dosages depending on age. Reception in the evening and at night is not recommended. When using Encephabol in newborns at risk of developing perinatal pathology, the duration of the course of treatment is 6 months, followed by a repeat if necessary after 3 months.
The drug is produced and produced in tablet form. It is prescribed to children from 1 year. The main active ingredient of the drug is gamma-aminobutyric acid. The effects of the drug are expressed in the fact that it:
- Recovery of metabolic processes in the brain;
- Helps to remove toxic substances;
- Improves memory and mental activity;
- It has a mild stimulating effect on the psyche;
- Positive effect on the restoration of movements and speech;
- It stabilizes blood pressure.
In addition to the indications inherent in all nootropics, Aminalon is used for sleep disorders caused by increased pressure and motion sickness (seasickness, in land transport).
From contraindications, only hypersensitivity to the main component of the drug is released.
Aminalon is dosed according to age. The daily dose is divided into 3 doses, before meals. The duration of treatment is from 2 weeks to 4 months.
This substance is produced in tablets. It is prescribed to children from infancy. Glutamic acid belongs to the group of essential amino acids. Actively involved in the metabolism and nutrition of the brain, protecting it from toxins and the effects of hypoxia.
- Minor epileptic seizures;
- Cerebral palsy;
- Mental exhaustion, insomnia;
- The effects of encephalitis and meningitis;
- The consequences of birth trauma;
- Down’s disease.
Glutamic acid is contraindicated in:
- Damage to the kidneys and liver;
- Anemia and suppression of bone blood formation;
- Peptic ulcer disease;
- Hypersensitivity to glutamic acid;
Of the side effects, allergic reactions, abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and overexcitation can be observed. With prolonged use, anemia and a decrease in white blood cell count may occur, therefore, when taking this drug, blood tests should be monitored.
The only nootropic drug that comes in the form of nasal drops. Approved for use in children from 7 years. It is used in pediatrics for the complex treatment of minimal brain dysfunctions.
1-2 drops are prescribed in each nasal passage in the morning and afternoon. The course of treatment is a month. It is contraindicated in the presence of seizures in history and in acute mental disorders.
The release form of this drug is tablets. Approved for use in childhood. Phenibut is prescribed strictly according to indications and in doses corresponding to the age of the child.
Positive properties of the drug are expressed in such effects as:
- Improving cerebral circulation;
- Improving mental and physical performance;
- Decreased headache, sleep disturbances;
- Decreased irritability, emotional lability;
- Improvement in motor and speech disorders;
- Improving memory, attention.
The main indications for its use are:
- Asthenic syndrome and anxiety;
- Neuroses and obsessive states;
- Stuttering, tics;
- Urinary incontinence;
- Prevention of motion sickness.
Phenibut is contraindicated only with individual sensitivity to the drug, and also used with caution in diseases of the kidneys and stomach.
Nootropic drugs are widely used in pediatric practice. They have a wide range of positive effects on the functioning of the nervous system. In this case, they relate to low toxicity agents. An experienced neurologist can choose an effective drug and prescribe the proper treatment regimen. Therefore, before using the nootropic, you must always consult your doctor.
Valentina Ignasheva, pediatrician, specially for Mirmam.pro
Detonic – a unique medicine that helps fight hypertension at all stages of its development.
The complex effect of plant components of the drug Detonic on the walls of blood vessels and the autonomic nervous system contribute to a rapid decrease in blood pressure. In addition, this drug prevents the development of atherosclerosis, thanks to the unique components that are involved in the synthesis of lecithin, an amino acid that regulates cholesterol metabolism and prevents the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.
Detonic not addictive and withdrawal syndrome, since all components of the product are natural.Detailed information about Detonic is located on the manufacturer’s page .
The cause of many somatic diseases, decreased attention span, memory impairment, cognitive qualities – stress and psycho-emotional overload.
Nootropics – a group of drugs created at the end of the twentieth century, to level the negative symptoms associated with brain activity. The essence of the mechanism of action of drugs is a direct effect on the metabolism of neurons.
Drugs of the nootropic group:
- demonstrate the effect of stabilization of cell membranes;
- antioxidant properties;
- prevent hypoxia of the brain and stop already arising;
- work as neuroprotectors.
As a result, the brain acquires great compensatory capabilities, resists endo- and exogenous provocative factors. Most in need of nootropics, children and the elderly.
Indications for use
Since nootropics work in brain cells, they use drugs with great care, based on the basic principles of using neurometabolic drugs:
- expediency, since the nootropic effect is necessary not so often: you need a complete clinical and laboratory examination of the patient, an accurate diagnosis, prediction of the desired result, analysis of possible risks, side effects;
- the prerogative of the neurologist in the appointment of nootropic drugs;
- systematic course of administration – episodic use of drugs is pointless, nootropics have a cumulation and the effect becomes noticeable only against the background of prolonged use of drugs;
- complexity – drugs of the group of nootropics are not able to solve therapeutic problems, concomitant diseases are treated simultaneously as part of combination therapy (sometimes ischemia or brain hypoxia require an integrated approach to treatment);
- constant monitoring is a necessary measure in therapy, since there is a likelihood of adjusting the dose or duration of the course during treatment, sometimes – drug withdrawal.
Nootropics, despite the heterogeneity of the group in chemical structure, have general indications for use:
- dystrophic changes in neurons of any genesis (psychoorganic);
- chronic alcoholism, withdrawal syndrome;
- neurolepsy (decreased motor and mental activity, indifference to others) as part of a set of measures;
- asthenia – neurotic or organic in nature;
- cerebrovascular insufficiency;
- sickle cell anemia;
- treatment of ophthalmic problems as part of a comprehensive treatment;
- Cerebral palsy;
Nootropic drugs are required in the treatment of Parkinson’s syndrome.
Nootropics, in addition to individual contraindications, which are prescribed in each instruction to the prescribed drug, have the general restrictive framework:
- the development of allergies, anaphylaxis against the background of sensitization of the body (especially carefully take medications of the polypeptide series, amino acids);
- brain tumors, including a medical history (cysts are not taken into account, they are not capable of proliferation);
- impaired liver and kidney function;
- pregnancy, lactation;
- hemorrhagic stroke;
- psychomotor agitation.
The naturalness of the components of drugs dictates the minimum list of contraindications for use, but sometimes the situation forces us to prescribe nootropics in the presence of relative restrictions on use. In this case, side effects occur.
The therapeutic effects of nootropics are based on the following mechanisms:
- increased glucose utilization;
- protein enhancement and ribonucleic acid synthesis;
- enhancing the synthesis of adenosine triphosphoric acid.
Thus, medications directly affect the metabolic processes of the central nervous system and bioenergy, interacting with the brain.
Nootropics have the following effects on the human body:
Nootropics are used as part of the complex therapy of ophthalmic pathologies.
According to statistics, nootropics are prescribed for every third child.
The latest nootropics practically have no side effects and are characterized by low toxicity. The therapeutic effect develops over time.
Nootropics are taken for a long time and continuously. Dosage and duration of the course are prescribed individually, depending on the clinical manifestations and stage of the disease.
Nootropic drugs should not be taken in patients with hypersensitivity to the main component, as well as with the following problems:
- pronounced psychomotor agitation;
- renal and hepatic impairment;
- acute hemorrhagic stroke;
- Huntington’s chorea.
Medications are contraindicated for nursing mothers and women in position.
In some cases, side effects are possible:
- diarrhea, constipation;
- increase or decrease in blood pressure;
- poor sleep;
- increased symptoms of the disease.
In elderly patients, nootropics can cause increased manifestations of coronary insufficiency.
Nootropics are the best medicine to stimulate the brain. Thanks to them, the stability of the nervous system to adverse factors increases. Before taking, you should consult with a specialist. Self-treatment can aggravate the situation, especially if the problem is with the child.
Old and new generation drugs
Nootropics of the old generation are derivatives of Piracetam – the very first synthesized drug of the group. The essence of the action of drugs is to improve the status of existing neurons. Such tools not only affect the psychophysiological reactions of the body, but also adjust the general condition of the nervous system, improving perseverance, the process of memorization.
The drugs are well tolerated, rapidly absorbed, easily overcome the blood-brain barrier, penetrating into neurons.
Drugs – derivatives of Piracetam get along well with antidepressants, stimulating the activity of the latter. The minus of old nootropics is the feeling of drowsiness after taking and a rather weak therapeutic effect, which manifests itself only with prolonged use of funds (after cancellation, the result is quickly reset).
|Drug name||Price in rubles|
New nootropics are drugs of the third or last generation of drugs. The list of such drugs is constantly expanding, but not every new drug has proven effectiveness. All new medicines are divided into three types:
- mediators – suppliers of neurotransmitters responsible for transmitting signals from one nerve cell to another (Lecithin);
- Steam-like – drugs have a neurometabolizing and tonic effect at the same time (Phenotropil);
- neuropeptide – drugs do not stimulate old neurons, but create young ones (Semax).
Nootropic drugs of a new generation are able to stimulate the synthesis of mediators and stabilize the work of biologically active substances, improving the transmission of a nerve impulse from one neuron to another. This allows the nervous system to perform its functions in full. Nootropics help generate energy within the body, correlate its level in accordance with increased or decreased physical activity.
Medicines improve the functioning of the immune and cardiovascular systems, affecting the blood supply and oxygen supply to nerve cells. Due to the mild vasodilating effect, regional blood flow is normalized, the effect on metabolic processes allows nootropics to participate in the resorption of atherosclerotic plaques, restoring the lumen of the vessels that feed the neurons.
The minuses of the new generation of nootropics include irritability and possible insomnia, which are quickly leveled by sedative drugs.
The main drawback is the low knowledge of new drugs, not completely clear features of their effect on the central nervous system, side effects. However, the emergence of modern drugs is a guarantee of the future treatment of neurophysiological and neurometabolic disorders.
By and large, the result of the action of all nootropics is a younger and younger brain. And this is important for the future.
|Drug name||Price in rubles|
Important criteria for choosing a medication are efficacy, price, quality and safety. Below is a list of drugs by effectiveness:
- Pantogam (hopantenic ac />It has a tranquilizing effect, not recommended for children under 3 years. For 30 tablets, you will have to pay about 75 rubles.
With a real pathology, nootropics with proven effectiveness can solve the problem and improve the patient’s well-being, but in the case of an incorrect diagnosis, they will not bring anything but side effects.
The division of nootropic drugs into groups is rather arbitrary, but convenient when prescribing one or another pharmaceutical group of substances. All drugs with neurometabolic properties can be classified according to the main active ingredient in:
preparations based on pyrrol >
After 10 days, the baby began to sleep better and behave calmer. The main thing is to strictly observe the indicated dosage, otherwise the child will be lethargic and sleepy.
The principle of administration and manufacturer of the drug is the same as that of Glycine. I immediately felt positive changes. It can not be taken with alcohol, otherwise there will be no effect. Therefore, for those who periodically drink alcohol – it is a waste of money.
Imagine my surprise when, within half an hour after taking it, I felt a surge of strength, and my sleep completely disappeared. I was amazed that I completed a two-day work in 5 hours. Over time, I could no longer work without a stimulant.
As soon as the action of the pills ceased, I felt lethargy and discomfort. I stopped drinking Phenotropil and for a long time I felt its side effects.
All nootropics act individually on each person, depending on concomitant diseases, the age of the patient. Reviews reflect the effect on a specific organism, therefore, before taking the funds, you must consult your doctor and study the annotation attached to the medicine.
Top five nootropics for adults
Despite a fairly wide selection of drugs with neurotropic effects, in real neurological practice, most often the five most effective drugs are used, the effectiveness of which corresponds to the cost of drugs.
According to the degree of diminishing effectiveness, the leader opens the list of nootropics, closes the list – the weakest drug:
- Cerebrolysin is an injectable nootropic that regulates brain metabolism, protects neurons from damage, stimulates the activity of nerve cells, and restores cognitive functions. The cost of the solution for injection is 1090 rubles.
- Mexidol (Ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate) – the drug is available in tablets and injections, shows the properties of an antihypoxant, membrane protector, improves metabolic processes in the brain, relieves convulsions, and soothes. The price of ampoules is 490 rubles, tablets – 390.
- Encephabol (Pyritinol) – the drug stimulates the synthesis of nucleic acids, which reanimates destroyed neurons, stabilizes cell membranes, improves red blood cell plasticity, balances blood viscosity, improves cerebral blood flow, stops hypoxia, normalizes glucose metabolism, and restores memory. It costs 990 rubles.
- Pantogam (Hopantenic acid) – the drug increases the resistance of neurons to negative endo- and exofactors, exhibits sedative properties, reduces hyperactivity, and improves brain metabolism. The price is 390 rubles.
- Glycine – the drug has minimal effectiveness against neurocytes, but is absolutely safe (it is an amino acid familiar to the human body), regulates metabolism, improves mood, concentration, perseverance, normalizes sleep, and blocks the negative effect of alcohol toxins on the brain. It has a minimal sedative effect. The cost is 30 rubles.
Each drug has its own characteristics, so the appointment must be agreed with a qualified doctor.
Nootropics for children
The composition of nootropics for children is absolutely safe; tablets or injectable solution include vitamins, amino acids, and neurotransmitters. Toxic components are absent. These drugs a priori do not cause negative side effects, are prescribed to improve memory, develop creative abilities, increase activity and curiosity. Nootropics increase neurocyte resistance to hypoxia and nutrient deficiency.
The advantages of nootropics for children include the possibility of appointment at different ages, ease of use, complex action, affordable prices (analogues). When using drugs, the rhythm of a child’s life does not change.
The disadvantages include relative contraindications and the risk of side effects. In the list of the most sought after:
Some preparations are already familiar to the reader; we will analyze the properties of others.
A nootropic with a stimulating effect – Picamilon, which is prescribed for babies from three years old. The drug is well absorbed, helps to cope with moods, tearfulness, emotional lability, nocturnal enuresis, improves psychomotor, cognitive abilities of the child. The medicine supports physical and mental activity while studying. It is combined with B vitamins, magnesium. The price is 80 rubles.
|It has a complex effect on neurons||Allergic reaction possible|
|Relieves Anxiety||There are contraindications: functional failure of the liver and kidneys, individual intolerance|
|Normalizes sleep||Reduces the effect of barbiturates, enhances – narcotic analgesics.|
Kogitum is a nootropic that activates the brain. The drug has a general tonic effect, enhances the metabolism of neurons, relieves asthenia, increased fatigue, lung neurosis, depression, speech delay. Assign to children of school age in an individual dosage. Cost – 4 rubles.
|Quickly restores nerve function||Causes tearfulness|
|Improves overall health during cerebral palsy||Provokes hyperactivity|
|Suitable for long-term treatment.||May cause irritability|
Initially, Cortexin was created to treat brain pathologies, therefore, it is combined with many drugs of other pharmacological groups. Applied with a child lagging in development, contains a combination of neuropeptides. The drug exhibits the properties of an antioxidant, a neuroprotector, improves trophism of the brain. The cost of the solution for injection is 766 rubles.
|Stimulates stress resistance, concentration of attention||Sore injections, lack of tablet forms|
|It has a complex, but mild effect, recommended from birth||The risk of infiltrates at the injection site and secondary infection|
|Reduces intoxication from psychotropic treatment||Value for money with a minus sign|
The mechanism of action and effects of nootropics
Despite the safety of many nootropics, the risk of developing side effects remains, since the body of each patient (child or adult) has its own physiological and age-related features, and there are concomitant diseases.
Side effects are:
- sleep disorders;
- increased excitability;
- panic attacks;
- negative effect on the biliary system of the liver, kidney;
- lack of coordination;
- crimson face;
- confused consciousness;
- hallucinatory reactions;
- blood eosinophilia;
- thrombosis and thromboembolism;
- hyperthermia, fever;
- skin rashes.
Discontinuation of the drug normalizes the patient’s condition without additional intervention. Overdose cases are not noted.
- Akhapkina V.I., Voronina T.A. The spectrum of pharmacological effects of Phenotropil.// Farmateka, 2005.
- Avedisova A.S., Yastrebov D.V. Comparative efficacy of Noopept and Piracetam in the treatment of asthenic disorders and organic genesis disorders. // Russian Medical Journal, 2007, No. 5.
- Korotkov S.A. An experimental study of the pharmacokinetics and biotransformation of a new diopept >
Higher medical education. 30 years of working experience in practical medicine.