Myocardial ischemia causes symptoms diagnosis treatment

If acute myocardial ischemia has not been diagnosed in a timely manner, then the disease can lead to the onset of sudden coronary death. In addition, it is worth noting that this may be the main cause of myocardial infarction.

With an asymptomatic course of ischemia, the patient can for a long time really assess the severity of his condition and take the necessary measures. Obvious manifestations of myocardial necrosis in such patients are usually noticed even when there is an extensive damage to the heart muscle, and the risk of death increases significantly.

Complications and prognosis

The prognosis for ischemia is always unfavorable. In the absence of timely treatment, this pathology can lead to disability of the patient and result in the onset of sudden death. According to statistics, painless ischemia increases the risk of heart failure and arrhythmia by 2 times, and the likelihood of sudden death can increase by 5 times.

That is why the solution to this problem remains relevant for modern cardiology, timely detection of such circulatory disorders and their prevention is of great importance. Myocardial ischemia can lead to the development of severe arrhythmia, angina pectoris, heart failure, myocardial infarction. To prevent the occurrence of such complications, it is necessary to undergo preventive examinations and strictly follow all the recommendations of the treating doctor.

The prognosis for a patient’s life will depend on the form of coronary artery disease and concomitant diseases, but coronary artery disease is an incurable condition. If the patient suffers from coronary disease and arterial hypertension (persistent increase in pressure) or diabetes, the prognosis for him is unfavorable, because treatment of coronary heart disease will only slow down the course of the disease, but will not stop it.

Patients with painless ischemia should not expect a completely favorable prognosis. If left untreated, disability is ensured, as is sudden coronary death.

Statistics say that this pathology leads to the development of arrhythmia and chronic heart failure at least 2 times, and fatal outcome 6 times. This leads to the fact that cardiologists pay maximum attention to problems, because timely detection of the disease gives a good chance of preserving a person’s life, and prevention helps to eliminate it.

Pathology is no less dangerous than its pain relative, since the coronary bed is disturbed in both cases. But the secretive course leads to the insidiousness of pathology and a sad outcome in the future. The patient does not even realize the problem, which significantly delays the treatment. This threatens development:

  • angina pectoris;
  • severe arrhythmias;
  • heart failure;
  • sudden death.
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Prophylaxis

The sooner the pathology is detected, the higher the patient’s chances of life. Therefore, the best prevention of the disease is regular examination by a cardiologist, especially after 45 years. If an ischemic episode is detected at an early stage, then the therapy will reduce the heart rate and the catastrophe to which it can lead.

Give up bad habits, lead a healthy lifestyle and eat balanced, this will help in the prevention of painless ischemia. Children with heart pathologies should be subject to strict medical records, because they are at risk, as are people of age. Parents have a heavy burden because their children should have a normal life.

It is important not only to know what it is – myocardial ischemia, and how treatment is carried out, but also how to prevent the occurrence of the disease. The main preventive measures include such as:

  • refusal of bad habits that lead to narrowing of blood vessels;
  • dietary cholesterol restriction;
  • treatment of concomitant diseases (diabetes, hypertension, obesity);
  • adequate physical activity;
  • restoration of mineral balance;
  • blood thinning for the prevention of thrombosis.

The amount of physical exertion must be selected taking into account the weight of the patient and blood pressure indicators. Sometimes sports are strictly contraindicated for people with obesity.

In order not to bring the cardiovascular system to such a dangerous state, it is necessary:

  • Stop smoking and drinking alcohol.
  • Spend more time in the fresh air and enrich yourself with oxygen.
  • Limit fatty foods.
  • Visit a cardiologist if you experience suspicious chest pain. Your doctor may prescribe lipid-lowering drugs or statins for prevention. They normalize lipid metabolism and cholesterol.
  • Move more. Motor activity is always relevant for the prevention of various diseases, especially the cardiovascular system.
  • Try to avoid stress.
  • Control body weight. The weight of an adult healthy person is always at about the same level with slight fluctuations. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor body weight, its sharp increase or decrease may indicate diseases.
  • Fight Hypertension. Normalize high blood pressure.
  • Reduce excessive physical exertion.
  • Get rid of excess weight.
  • Eat more seafood (except those that contain a lot of cholesterol), fresh vegetables and fruits.

In order not to cause complications of coronary heart disease, it is necessary:

  • Adhere to all points of primary prevention.
  • Eliminate vasospasm with medication.
  • Perform surgery if necessary.

Everyone with a condition such as coronary heart disease should have nitroglycerin in their medicine cabinet. It immediately eliminates pain.

Prevention of coronary heart disease includes the following recommendations:

  • Refuse unhealthy and junk food, or at least minimize its use;
  • Try in your diet, give preference to the use of foods enriched with vitamins and minerals – fresh vegetables and fruits;
  • Give up alcohol, smoking;
  • Move more; when seated, do exercises in the workplace;
  • Do not leave to chance the diseases of the cardiovascular system so that they do not develop into a chronic form;
  • Watch your weight;
  • Avoid working with increased emotional stress, especially if you are very worried about various difficult situations, – if necessary, change your job;
  • Try to have peace with the people around you, especially in the family.
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It is important not only to know what it is – myocardial ischemia, and how treatment is carried out, but also how to prevent the occurrence of the disease. The main preventive measures include such as:

  • refusal of bad habits that lead to narrowing of blood vessels;
  • dietary cholesterol restriction;
  • treatment of concomitant diseases (diabetes, hypertension, obesity);
  • adequate physical activity;
  • restoration of mineral balance;
  • blood thinning for the prevention of thrombosis.

IHD Risk Factors

The root cause of coronary heart disease is:

  • coronary atherosclerosis (cholesterol plaques deposited on the walls of blood vessels);
  • spasm of the coronary vessels;
  • hypertension (a manifestation of high blood pressure);
  • strong blood coagulability.

There are risk factors that can trigger a state of coronary heart disease. Separated by controlled factors (depending on the person) and uncontrollable (occur against the will, they can not be changed), causing coronary heart disease.

Uncontrolled risk factors for coronary heart disease are:

  • male gender;
  • age (for men – from 45 years old, for women – from 55);
  • heredity;
  • race (among the negroid race, the disease is less common).

Managed risk factors for CHD include:

  • obesity;
  • hypothyroidism (lack of thyroid hormones);
  • hyperlipidemia (high levels of fat in the blood);
  • malnutrition;
  • smoking;
  • alcoholism;
  • sedentary lifestyle;
  • long-term use of hormonal drugs;
  • excessive exercise;
  • increased blood clotting;
  • prolonged stress;
  • diabetes mellitus (IHD is observed in people with diabetes for more than 10 years).

Risk factors for CHD are the same as for atherosclerosis in general. These include arterial hypertension (persistent increase in blood pressure above 140/90), diabetes mellitus, smoking, heredity (myocardial infarction or sudden death of one or both parents under the age of 55), sedentary lifestyle, obesity, excessive blood cholesterol . The most important part of the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease is the impact on risk factors.

Angina pectoris

Angina pectoris is also called stable angina pectoris. Angina pectoris is considered stable if its severity remains constant for several weeks. The severity of stable angina may vary slightly depending on the level of activity of the patient, on the ambient temperature.

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The first occurrence is called angina pectoris, which occurred several weeks ago. This is a borderline state between stable and unstable angina.

The severity of angina pectoris characterizes its functional class: from the first (the lightest), when seizures occur only against the background of performing heavy physical work, to the fourth, most severe (seizures with slight physical exertion and even at rest).

These two life-threatening conditions are caused by the fact that at some point the atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary artery becomes unstable (its membrane is broken, it ulcerates). Unstable angina pectoris and myocardial infarction make up the so-called acute coronary syndrome, it requires immediate hospitalization. In almost half of cases, acute coronary syndrome is not preceded by angina pectoris, that is, it develops against the background of visible health.

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Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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