Myocardial infarction causes and methods of first aid

Myocardial infarction is a focus in which tissue necrosis of the heart muscle happens due to ischemic conditions. Due to circulatory conditions and severe blood hunger of the heart, some of the muscle cells pass away off, and necrosis happens.

If the client does not get prompt treatment, the threat of death is high. In case of health problem, emergency situation hospitalization in the extensive care system is suggested, which has the required devices to remedy the condition of a client with heart pathologies.

Distribution of the illness by sex and age

Until the age of 60, males more frequently experience the illness, which is related to an earlier procedure of advancement of vascular atherosclerosis in them. After 60 years, the threat of cardiac arrest is the exact same for both sexes.

The death rate from infraction, even with prompt arrangement of medical help, is 35%. It is since of myocardial damage that 20% of unexpected deaths take place.

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Causes of pathology

According to data, the pathology is related to ischemic illness, which, at the time of a severe infarction, results in tissue necrosis. In 98% of cases, the cause of the illness in clients is the existence of a severe type of atherosclerosis of the venous arteries.

There are likewise regular cases when arterial apoplexy is contributed to this condition. Uncommon, however a cardiovascular disease can likewise take place due to convulsion of the artery and its branches, due to which the supply of blood that feeds the heart muscle is greatly decreased.

The list below elements incline to the incident of a necrosis focus in the heart muscle:

  • smoking cigarettes,
  • alcoholic abuse, even weak,
  • weight problems,
  • extreme tension,
  • overwork,
  • absence of sleep
  • diabetes,
  • high blood pressure,
  • neuropsychiatric tension,
  • high cholesterol levels,
  • hypodynamia,
  • undesirable environmental scenario in the location of ​​house,
  • operate in harmful production.

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In the existence of elements that increase the threat of pathology, control of the state of the heart ought to be specifically cautious. The threat of heart muscle damage is specifically high since an individual currently has coronary artery illness.

Classification of the illness

Doctors have actually established numerous methods to categorize the illness. First of all, the types of cardiac arrest are divided into large-focal and small-focal. The 2nd type represent about 20% of sores of the heart muscle.

Heart sores are likewise categorized according to how deeply the organ is impacted by necrosis.

With this department, 4 types of illness are identified.

  • Transmural – with this sore, the whole density of the heart wall is impacted by necrosis, generally the phenomenon is observed with a large-focal infarction.
  • Intramural – a lethal procedure impacts the density of the muscles of the heart wall.
  • Subendocardial – a lethal procedure is observed just in the location where the myocardium is nearby to the endocardium.
  • Subepicardial – the location of contact of the myocardium with the epicardium is impacted.

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Depending on the location in which tissue death happens, infarction of the ideal or left ventricle, anterior, lateral or posterior wall, in addition to the interventricular septum is detected. The type of the illness is possible complex and straightforward.

Symptoms of the illness

Symptoms of the illness take place primarily from the start of a severe cardiac arrest, when tissue necrotization happens. Prior to this, at the preliminary phase of infractions, clients might disappoint the first indications, or they are unimportant, and they do not take note of them. The course of the severe duration is common and irregular, depending upon what signs take place.

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Atypical type

With a cardiovascular disease of an irregular type, the client generally has the following signs of pathology:

  • excessive really sticky cold sweat,
  • sharp pallor
  • pronounced stress and anxiety
  • the pressure is at first increased, and quickly it totally stabilizes or drops greatly to vital levels,
  • arrhythmia.

Painful experiences in this case appear weak or totally missing. Such a course of the severe duration of the illness frequently occurs face to faces experiencing diabetes, due to modifications in the work of nerve endings. In such a circumstance, it is practically difficult to figure out a cardiovascular disease by wellness.

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Classic painting

This type has vibrant symptoms, and it is possible to acknowledge it without a medical professional.

The classical photo of myocardial tissue infarction is divided into 3 phases:

  • Preinfarction state, which can be utilized to figure out the state of an approaching cardiac arrest. The client has regular particular attacks of angina pectoris. Duration from numerous hours to 6 weeks. At this phase, with correct treatment, necrosis can be avoided. This is the first indication of a serious heart condition.
  • The most severe duration. At such a minute, versus the background of impaired blood flow, the death of heart tissues happens, and vibrant scientific symptoms develop. The discomfort syndrome is specifically strong and records the retrosternal area. The discomfort likewise radiates to the left arm, shoulder blade, shoulder and half of the jaw. The period of the discomfort attack depends on 3 hours. The client has a severe sense of approaching death. Also at this moment, queasiness to throwing up, lightheadedness and fever might establish. Most clients have shortness of breath.
  • Acute duration. It lasts approximately 10 days after tissue necrosis has actually taken place. At this time, the necrosis zone is totally laid out, and the procedure of its scarring starts. Symptoms of the condition, as a guideline, are fever, queasiness to throwing up, headaches.

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Interesting! In the subacute and postinfarction state, the signs vanish.


Complications of a cardiovascular disease are divided into early and late, depending upon the time of their look after the advancement of tissue necrosis of the heart muscle.

The early repercussions of a cardiovascular disease consist of:

  • cardiogenic shock – specifically harmful and frequently results in the death of the client,
  • severe cardiac arrest
  • rupture of the septum in between the ventricles of the heart,
  • mitral deficiency
  • thromboembolism of the arteries,
  • lung edema,
  • lung infarction,
  • ascites,
  • pericarditis,
  • arrhythmia,
  • aneurysm of the left ventricle in severe type.

Late repercussions that take place no earlier than a month after the health problem consist of:

  • pericarditis – with late start frequently takes the type of an autoimmune illness,
  • swelling of the lungs or pleura,
  • parietal thromboendocarditis,
  • persistent cardiac arrest,
  • persistent aneurysm,
  • duplicated cardiac arrest,
  • reduced contractility of the heart.

With correct treatment of the illness and compliance by the client after discharge of all medical suggestions, the threat of issues reduces.

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Diagnosis of a cardiovascular disease today is simple. To make a medical diagnosis, anamnesis is gathered, in addition to an ECG. The existence of a number of enzymes in the blood serum likewise assists to figure out the cause of heart issues. If required, extra contemporary diagnostic methods can be utilized.

First aid

A client with a cardiovascular disease needs instant first aid. If it is not offered, the threat of death from the illness increases substantially.

Having urgently called an ambulance, if you think a cardiovascular disease, you ought to do the following (the actions are suggested in the right series):

  • to seat the client and supply him with the optimum circulation of air,
  • determine the pressure – if it is high, then it is required to provide the client a Clonidine tablet,
  • soothe the individual down, and with strong arousal provide valerian,
  • if the client has currently had a cardiovascular disease, then he needs to be provided medications that were recommended by a medical professional.

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The capability to conserve life frequently depends upon the speed of first aid. In the occasion that the client has actually passed out, it is much better not to move him up until the arrival of the physicians, considering that moving can even more hinder blood flow in the heart.

Important! If somebody who is beside the client does not understand what to do, it is much better to simply wait on the medical professional.


Even in the existence of small suspicions of the advancement of pathology, immediate hospitalization of the client in extensive care and emergency situation care is suggested. On the first day after the cardiac arrest has actually happened, treatment is performed focused on bring back regular blood flow in the heart muscle. For this, funds are utilized that aid liquify the thrombus.

Further utilized to deal with the client, indicates to avoid the development of duplicated embolism and speed up the healing of the heart muscle.

Important! If conservative treatment is inefficient, a surgery is carried out.


To avoid the start of pathology, it is required to stick to the right way of life and supply adequate exercise. Controlling cholesterol levels will be valuable.

The state of myocardial infarction presents a direct danger to the client’s life and needs immediate medical intervention. The earlier the client gets treatment, the greater their opportunities of making it through and going back to regular life.

Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.