Moderate dilation of the left atrium what is it

The author of the article: Victoria Stoyanova, category 2 doctor, head of the laboratory at the diagnostic and treatment center (2015–2016) From this article you will learn: what is dilatation of the left atrium, how dangerous is the pathology. The causes of dilatation, symptoms and possible complications. Treatment and prognosis: Dilatation of the left atrium is called an increase in the volume of the left atrium, while the thickness of the walls of the heart usually does not change.

Left atrial dilatation How does the atrial volume increase? For various reasons (disease, valve pathology, physical activity, congenital malformation), the blood circulation between the atrium and the ventricle is disturbed, the blood volume exceeds the permissible, as a result, the atrial chamber is stretched and increases in volume.

This complicates the work and disrupts the rhythm of the heart. Pathology is not considered an independent disease, more often it is a sign or consequence of the underlying disease (atrial fibrillation, heart defects). Moderate dilatation does not manifest itself in any way, it is often discovered by chance. But with a combination of factors (for example, a congenital increase in the left atrium and hypertension), the pathology becomes more pronounced and can cause a malfunction of the heart.

It cannot be ignored, since over time it develops to conditions that seriously threaten the patient’s performance and life (cardiovascular failure, arrhythmia, pulmonary artery thrombosis) .A complete recovery occurs if the cause of dilatation of the left atrium (abbreviated LP) is identified and eliminated in time.

All factors provoke an increase in blood pressure in the atrium (tonogenic sprain) or impaired myocardial contraction (myogenic expansion). Dilation can be a consequence and, at the same time, a cause of impaired heart function.

  • shortness of breath (with little effort, at rest);
  • disorders of the heart, arrhythmia;
  • cyanosis (cyanosis) of the nasolabial triangle;
  • swelling of the ankle joint and feet;
  • weakness, fatigue, impaired performance.

Progressive dilatation is dangerous for the development of complications (pulmonary artery thrombosis), greatly impairs the patient’s quality of life: the smallest effort causes severe weakness. In chronic heart failure with dilatation, any physical activity can lead to death as a result of sudden thrombosis or an arrhythmia attack.

Cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle

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Complications

A constantly progressing increase in the volume of LP can lead to the development of dilated cardiomyopathy (pathological changes in the heart muscle), as a result of a violation of the heart, the following complications develop:

  • atrial fibrillation (uncoordinated, non-synchronous contraction);
  • heart failure;
  • sudden attacks of arrhythmia;
  • mitral valve insufficiency;
  • thrombosis (the formation of blood clots that interfere with normal blood flow);
  • thromboembolism (clogging of blood vessels by a sudden tear-off blood clot);
  • myocardial infections.

Most of these complications are indications of severe limitations on any physical activity, installing a pacemaker, or a heart transplant.

Dilatation of the left atrium is corrected by surgical methods (installing a pacemaker or heart transplant), when drug therapy does not bring results or does not make sense. As with any pathologies of the heart, treatment is combined with a mandatory diet:

  • fatty, spicy, salty, fried foods should be excluded from the diet;
  • balance the daily amount of salt and liquid.

With moderate dilatation of the drug, a person can live his whole life without learning about the pathology, and with the timely elimination of the cause, a full recovery occurs. However, these are isolated cases, it is often impossible to identify or eliminate the cause in a timely manner, and with age a number of major diseases appear (for example, arterial hypertension), which become the trigger for an increase in the cavity of the left atrium and the occurrence of various complications.

After the development of symptoms of heart failure, patients are registered and take medications for life. The prognosis for a full recovery is rather unfavorable: after the development of dilated cardiomyopathy, the survival rate of patients, despite drug therapy or surgery, is from 15 to 30% over 10 years .

Within 5 years, more than 20% of patients with asymptomatic forms of dilatation die. After the development of chronic heart failure amid dilation, only 50% of patients live for more than 5 years. The prognosis of survival with a diagnosis of refractory heart failure during the first year becomes fatal for half of patients, thromboembolism threatens death of more than 20% of patients with a similar pathology.

Forms of the disease

Depending on the characteristics of pathogenesis, two forms of atrial dilatation are distinguished:

  • tonogenic – develops as a result of increased pressure in the atrial cavity due to an increase in their blood supply;
  • myogenic – develops under the influence of pathologies of the heart muscle.

The expansion of the left atrium is typified by a group of bases. Based on the origin of the pathological process, there are:

  • Congenital form. The proportion of this condition in the total number of recorded clinical situations is 35-40%, this is a minority. Pathological processes are diagnosed already at the developed stages, since a small patient is not able to formulate their complaints before they grow up, and parents interpret the objective manifestations incorrectly due to carelessness or lack of experience. The prospects for treatment in this regard are slightly worse.
  • Acquired form. It is caused by the course of a disease. An attentive patient can make a causal relationship between the transferred state and the development of the symptoms of dilatation, which is quite pronounced from the second stage.

How serious are the effects of dilation

If it is possible to eliminate the cause of dilatation of the atria, then their volume may gradually decrease and return to normal values. In all other cases, the chambers of the heart gradually increase in volume, which leads to increasing heart failure.

If it is possible to eliminate the cause of dilatation of the atria, then their volume may gradually decrease to normal values. In all other cases, the chambers of the heart gradually increase in volume, which leads to increasing heart failure.

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Education: graduated from the Tashkent State Medical Institute with a degree in medical care in 1991. Repeatedly took advanced training courses. Experience: anesthetist-resuscitator of the city maternity complex, resuscitator of the hemodialysis department. The information is generalized and is provided for educational purposes. See your doctor at the first sign of illness. Self-medication is dangerous to health!

Left ventricular dilatation (LV)

The main tactic for expanding the left heart is the therapeutic correction of diseases that lead to dilatation (IHD, myocarditis, defects, arrhythmia). Moderate dilatation is the reason for the appointment of metabolic drugs, the action of which is aimed at improving metabolic processes in the cells of the body.

The main reasons for the development of dilatation of the left ventricle include:

  • Ventricular overload with excess blood. From the left atrium, blood is pushed into the left ventricle and further into the aorta – the largest arterial vessel in the body. Thus, this chamber is a kind of pump that pumps blood over a large circle of blood circulation. With aortic stenosis or narrowing of the aortic valve, the ventricle hardly pushes blood and expands from overload.
  • The pathology of the muscle wall of the ventricle itself, as a result of which it becomes thinner and stretched.
  • Myocarditis (an inflammatory disease of the heart muscle), arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease (coronary heart disease). All these adversities thin the muscle wall of the left ventricle, make it flabby and lead to distension.

However, sometimes the disease begins for no reason. With this development, it is called dilated cardiomyopathy. This diagnosis is made after the exclusion of all possible causes of dilation.

How to treat?

As in the case of treatment of atrial dilatation, the expansion of the left ventricle is healed by eliminating the causes that caused it: coronary heart disease, malformation, hypertension. Sometimes irreversible sclerotic or cicatricial changes can occur in the heart muscle, treatment in this case is aimed at slowing down the development of the disease.

The treatment of moderate dilation may be based on metabolic therapy, which affects the processes of metabolism in cells and tissues, but severe cases still require a more serious approach.

The risk of LV enlargement may come from:

  1. Heart failure;
  2. Arrhythmias;
  3. Mitral insufficiency.

Not all forms of LV dilatation lend themselves to final healing, but timely detection of a problem and proper treatment stops the development of pathology and lengthens the patient’s life.

The human brain also has cavities called ventricles. They produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), derived through special channels. As a rule, the expansion of the ventricles is a sign that either the fluid is produced in excess, or it does not have time to exit normally, or there are some obstacles in its way.

Normally, the depth of the lateral ventricles of the brain is from 1 to 4 mm. At high rates, causing the disappearance of their lateral curvature, we are talking about dilatation. But it should be borne in mind that this is not a diagnosis, but a symptom of a disease that doctors must determine and eliminate.

  • One reason is valve failure. This may be a consequence of rheumatism, bacterial endocarditis, pulmonary hypertension. As a result, the right ventricle is overloaded.
  • Some patients have no pericardium since birth. This symptom can also be accompanied by a stretching of the muscle wall. Due to an atrial septal defect, the pulmonary artery expands. Increased pressure in this vessel indicates an increase in pressure in the chamber. As a result, stretching of the muscular walls of the pancreas.
  • A pathology such as pulmonary heart also leads to pancreatic insufficiency and dilation. The root cause of the disease is obstructive bronchopulmonary disease and its increasing hypoxia.
  • Enlargement of the pancreas is directly dependent on pulmonary hypertension.
  • The pressure in the pulmonary artery may increase due to congenital heart defects, while pathology of the right ventricle of a different etiology develops. Ventricular hypertrophy in this case can be severe, however, it does not lead to pancreatic insufficiency.
  • One of the causes of isolated dilatation of the right ventricle is arrhythmogenic dysplasia. The etiology of this disease is not exactly identified, it is congenital and is not accompanied by pulmonary hypertension, hypertrophy or pancreatic insufficiency. With this disease, the muscle layer of the pancreas is very thin. More common in male patients.

Dilation refers to the expansion of abdominal organs such as the heart, kidneys, stomach, intestines, etc. More often this concept is used to describe the pathology of the heart cavities. Depending on the location of the extension, dilation is distinguished:

  • the right atrium;
  • the left atrium;
  • right ventricle;
  • left ventricle.

Usually one of the heart chambers undergoes dilatation, less often there is an expansion of both atria or both ventricles. The danger of the condition lies in the subsequent development of arrhythmia, heart failure, thromboembolism and other diseases. There are two forms of pathology:

  • Tonogenic dilatation appears due to high blood pressure and, as a result, the amount of excess blood in the heart chambers. Tonogenic dilatation precedes or is combined with myocardial hypertrophy.
  • Myogenic dilatation develops against a background of heart disease and leads to a weakening of the myocardial contractility. Changes in the cavities of the heart are irreversible.

If the diagnosis is made, but the pathology does not bring tangible inconvenience, does not manifest itself in any way, and there are no violations in the work of other organs and systems of the body, then in this case there is no need for special therapeutic measures. The patient is simply registered with a cardiologist with a mandatory medical control once a year.

In the event that the causes leading to dysfunction of the heart, and in particular its left side, are discovered, measures are taken to eliminate or correct them. The disease that caused the formation of dilatation affects the determination and selection of the treatment regimen. Often prescribed such groups of drugs:

antiarrhythmic (metoprolol, prazosin, adenosine);

  • drugs for the treatment of heart failure (Korglikon, Digoxin, Celanide, Medilazide);
  • antianginal (Sustak, Molsidomin);
  • drugs that prevent blood coagulation (Curantil, Warfarin);
  • pressure-reducing (Captopril, Enalapril);
  • diuretics (Furosemide, Hypothiazide).
  • If drug therapy does not give results, as well as in the case of serious noticeable changes in the patient’s condition, surgical treatment is indicated – the installation of a pacemaker or, in some cases, even a heart transplant. In itself, DLP does not present a very serious problem. Patients with mild symptoms can live with her all her life or achieve complete recovery by starting treatment on time. But this is only in cases where the cause is identified and eliminated in a timely manner.

    However, unfortunately, very often the pathology is diagnosed too late, the disease acquires a chronic form, heart failure develops, blood clots form – this sooner or later leads to death. That is why it is advisable for absolutely all categories of the population and age groups to regularly undergo a medical examination and conduct diagnostics, namely, an ECG.

    It is very important to remember that our heart, like any other organ, requires a careful attitude to ourselves, especially if we already have a pathological condition. A healthy lifestyle, avoiding unnecessary physical exertion, and avoiding overeating will help to avoid problems in the future and improve our situation. and eating heavy food, frequent outdoor activities, healthy sleep and, of course, following the doctor’s recommendations.

    Varieties and Causes

    Stretching of each of the chambers of the heart, as a rule, is preceded by its own causes. So, dilatation of the right atrium is caused by increased pressure in the pulmonary circulation. This is due to:

    • myocardial infectious diseases;
    • obstructive diseases of the bronchi and lungs;
    • pulmonary hypertension;
    • heart defects;
    • tricuspid stenosis.

    Dilatation of the left atrium is the most common type of expansion of the chambers of the heart. The reason is a pathological narrowing of the valve through which blood flows from the left atrium into the left ventricle. Also, blood from the left ventricle, which is also deformed, enters the left atrium in reverse. As a result of this overload, the pressure in the large circle of blood circulation is constantly increasing, and it becomes harder for the heart to pump blood. Dilatation of the left atrium develops due to the following conditions:

    • heavy physical exertion;
    • atrial fibrillation (can be both the cause and the consequence of the expansion of the left atrium);
    • atrial fibrillation or flutter;
    • cardiomyopathy;
    • mitral valve insufficiency.

    The left ventricle is the chamber of the heart that receives blood from the left atrium and delivers it to the aorta, which nourishes the entire body. Dilation of the left ventricle occurs due to narrowing of the aorta or aortic valve. Previous violations include:

    • some heart defects;
    • aortic stenosis;
    • heart ischemia;
    • myocarditis;
    • hypertonic disease.

    dilataciya levogo predserdiya 1 - Moderate dilation of the left atrium what is it

    Another condition should be noted – dilated cardiomyopathy. Such a diagnosis is made when the expansion of the left ventricle occurs for no apparent reason, and possible diseases are excluded. The main cause of dilatation of the right ventricle is stenosis or insufficiency of the pulmonary valve. Various diseases cause pathology:

    • bacterial endocarditis;
    • rheumatism;
    • pulmonary heart;
    • some malformations (lack of pericardium, arrhythmogenic dysplasia);
    • pulmonary hypertension.

    Common causes causing an increase in both right and left cameras include:

    • complications after infectious diseases (scarlet fever, tonsillitis);
    • fungal and viral diseases;
    • parasite infection;
    • intoxication;
    • malignant and benign tumors;
    • pathologies of the thyroid gland;
    • some autoimmune diseases;
    • side effects of medications.

    As a rule, moderate dilation does not entail any symptoms. Marked expansion of the chambers, especially dilatation of the left atrium, leads to a deterioration in the pumping function of the heart and the appearance of such phenomena:

    • shortness of breath;
    • arrhythmias;
    • weakness;
    • swelling of the extremities;
    • fatigue.

    Possible complications and treatment

    The expansion of the chambers of the heart leads to serious consequences: over time, dilated hypertrophy occurs – stretching and thickening of the walls of the heart. The condition provokes the development of:

    • chronic heart failure;
    • chronic infectious heart disease;
    • mitral insufficiency;
    • valve ring expansion;
    • thrombosis, thromboembolism;
    • atrial and ventricular fibrillation.

    These complications affect the quality of life of the patient, and in severe cases lead to death. Therefore, treatment should be prescribed and monitored by a cardiologist. The goal of therapy is to eliminate or correct the primary disease that led to the stretching of the chambers. Depending on the underlying pathology, the following can be prescribed:

    • antibiotics;
    • glucocorticosteroids;
    • anti-ischemic drugs;
    • antiarrhythmic drugs;
    • cardiac glycosides;
    • beta-blockers;
    • ACE inhibitors;
    • antihypertensive agents;
    • antiplatelet agents;
    • diuretics.

    If drug therapy fails, surgical methods are used, mainly the installation of a pacemaker. The device controls heart contractions. Supportive and preventive methods are an integral part of therapy, without which success is almost impossible. Improving blood circulation, strengthening the heart muscle, increasing immunity, alleviating the load on the heart increases quality and prolongs life expectancy. To do this, you need:

    • make the right diet based on plant foods, lean meat, various varieties of fish, seafood, dairy products, nuts and cereals;
    • play sports or just move more, walk, do exercises;
    • get rid of bad habits.
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    What is dangerous pathology?

    The disease at an early stage does not have its own symptoms. It can be diagnosed with a preventive examination by a cardiologist. At a late stage, the disease manifests itself with various signs that are similar to symptoms of heart failure.

  • Edema.
  • High fatigue.
  • Violation of the heart rate.
  • Heartache.
  • Extreme pallor of the skin.
  • Dyspnea.

    Important: Signs of the disease may appear after exercise. In this case, they are temporary, but can also occur due to the expansion of the wall of the left atrium. Moderate dilatation is observed in athletes of high growth, their body is subjected to physical exertion constantly, so a slight expansion is considered quite normal.

    The condition threatens the development of a group of complications, among which:

    • Myocardial inflammation. Formed as a result of stagnation of blood, muscle nutrition disorders.
    • Atrial fibrillation and then ventricular fibrillation. It characterizes severe arrhythmia, the work of cardiac structures is disrupted. The parallel course of the two processes determines the increased risks of death.
    • The formation of blood clots, blockage of large vessels with a blood clot. A typical consequence of dilatation, since blood stasis contributes to its thickening.
    • Congestive heart failure. In fact, this is a dysfunction of a muscle organ of varying severity. It is determined by a group of species that differ in clinical manifestations and prognoses, prospects for recovery.
    • Heart attack. Acute malnutrition of cardiac structures and, as a result of tissue necrosis, the replacement of functionally active myocyte cells capable of contracting and conducting an electrical impulse with rough scars. In fact, it is a dead tissue. The more it is, the worse the heart works.
    • Paroxysmal arrhythmia. Usually by type of tachycardia (acceleration of the activity of cardiac structures).
    • Mitral insufficiency. It suggests possible regurgitation (reverse flow of blood from the ventricles to the atria), impaired functional activity of the organ and blood flow, and a drop in hemodynamics. Death is a matter of time.
    • Cardiogenic shock. Acute, emergency condition. It requires urgent help, but the chances of a patient returning are almost illusory. Even with luck, death will come in the years to come. Exceptions can be counted on the fingers for all the solid practice of doctors on the planet.
    • Heart failure.

    Prevention of complications is one of the goals of treatment at any stage. It is best solved at an early stage. Factors are always pathological. Some of them are brought to life by the patient himself.

    They lead to the formation of the so-called athlete’s heart. This is a combination of the dilatation of several chambers with the increase in muscle mass. Truncated options are possible. Both professionals and outdoor enthusiasts suffer. In principle, this is a relatively normal condition. The body adapts to changes, but more often gross asymmetry occurs, because physical activity, its mode is chosen incorrectly. Inadequate exercise results in dysfunction.

    Accompanied by reverse blood reflux (regurgitation of MK). Usually these are congenital malformations of the anatomical structure: prolapse, stenosis.

    Slightly less often, the condition turns out to be secondary, acquired as a result of the course of inflammatory pathologies, rheumatism and other similar conditions associated with gross destruction of tissues for a long or short period of time (heart attack).

    A predisposition to cardiac pathologies is transmitted. The more relatives suffering from diseases of the cardiovascular system present in history, the higher the likelihood. At the same time, no one guarantees pathology.

    93a474b0adc9aea2bea8d3c231eae0cc - Moderate dilation of the left atrium what is it

    They are formed even at the moment of laying cardiac structures. The latter are often characterized by generalized disorders on the part of many organs and systems. Restoration is very difficult, in some cases it is completely impossible.

    It provokes an increase in the load on the heart and blood vessels, leads to a decrease in tissue elasticity and gross organic defects. Classical anatomical changes in the cardiac structures are left ventricular hypertrophy (overgrowth of the muscle layer without increased activity), as well as dilatation of the corresponding atrium.

    The guarantee of the prevention of such an outcome is determined by the early treatment of the underlying disease with the use of antihypertensives and protectors.

    A relatively rare, but possible phenomenon. More often, tumors of this localization turn out to be benign, but a similar characteristic is very arbitrary: compression is observed, a decrease in the intensity of the cardiac structures. The expansion of the left atrial chamber is a relatively late complication.

    From fibrillation to atrial extrasystole. The development of the pathological process is associated not with the violation of the frequency of contractions, but with organic tissue defects.

    Aortic narrowing

    Congenital forms of deviation or an acquired process are possible. It is characterized by insufficient release of blood into the main artery of the body. Hence, congestion in the ventricle. With the stage of the process started, the liquid connective tissue becomes so much that it presses on the atrial valve and eventually flows back into the previous chamber, stretching and increasing it in volume. This is a chain process that needs to be stopped at an early stage.

    Usually affect the myocardium, less commonly other structures. They have an infectious origin, a little less autoimmune. Both options are dangerous, require inpatient treatment.

    The “bonus” is the pathological factors of a subjective, controlled kind: smoking, alcohol consumption, coffee, excessive stress for a long time, drug abuse, improper treatment with some drugs. The causes of dilated left atrium are eliminated by preventive methods: curing the underlying disease or eliminating addiction is a priority.

    • General weakness, decreased working capacity, inability to adequately fulfill current duties at home and in general in general.
    • Dyspnea. Violation of normal gas exchange. First, in a state of intense or moderate physical activity, then in complete rest. This affects the quality of life and productivity in various fields.
    • Swelling of the lower extremities. As a result of a violation of the functional (filtering) activity of the kidneys. The volume of circulating blood increases, the liquid is poorly evacuated from the body. The intensity of the symptom depends on the stage of the pathological process.
    • Arrhythmias. Subjectively, it makes itself felt as an acceleration of the heart rate, missed strokes, fluttering in the chest with the feeling that cardiac activity is now stopping.
    • Pale skin.
    • Cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle. It always develops, does not characterize the degree of pathological activity.

    At the first or second stage, generalized disorders are not observed, because there are no symptoms at all or they are scarce (the moderate phase gives a chance to recognize the condition). The patient becomes a hostage to the situation. Even at stage 2, physical activity can cause death as a result of cardiac arrest. Signs of dilatation are not specific enough: they are characterized by manifestations from the side of the muscular organ, nervous system and excretory tract.

    The condition threatens the development of a group of complications, among which:

    • Myocardial inflammation. Formed as a result of stagnation of blood, muscle nutrition disorders.
    • Atrial fibrillation and then ventricular fibrillation. It characterizes severe arrhythmia, the work of cardiac structures is disrupted. The parallel course of the two processes determines the increased risks of death.
    • The formation of blood clots, blockage of large vessels with a blood clot. A typical consequence of dilatation, since blood stasis contributes to its thickening.

    Prevention of complications is one of the goals of treatment at any stage. It is best solved at an early stage.

    The normal diastolic volume of the right atrium at 18–25 years old is about 105 cm 3. The left atrium is 90–135 cm 3. By the age of sixty, it increases by 5–10 cm 3. In women, it usually is 3–6 cm 3 more. With contraction, the cavities are almost halved. Any volumes above the norm are defined as dilatation of the atria.

    Blood flows from the vena cava, coronary sinus of the heart and many small veins into the right atrium, and from the lungs into the left atrium. In the places where the pulmonary and vena cava enter, there are no valves. The reverse blood flow stops due to the reduction of annular muscle masses.

    Overstretching of the chambers is caused by the difficulty in the passage of blood flow through the atrioventricular openings located between the ventricles and atria. A mechanical obstacle can cause dilatation due to disrupted valve apparatus, endocardial diseases.

    Myocytes are responsible for the ability to contract in the atria. The contractility process is provided by the mechanism of joining of actin and myosin fibers with the participation of electrolytes and energy production. Any heart disease associated with myocardial damage is necessarily reflected in supraventricular formations.

    Causes

    Dilatation of the left atrium develops for several reasons:

    • constant overload of the body;
    • immoderate nutrition;
    • alcohol abuse;
    • atrial and other types of arrhythmia;
    • cicatricial changes in the heart;
    • narrowing of the valve.
  • Diabetes mellitus.
  • Other heart diseases.
  • Automine pathologies.
  • Violations of the human endocrine system.

    Dilation (expansion) of the right departments, that is, the right atrium and ventricle, can occur against the background of lung diseases, such as bronchial asthma, pulmonary failure. If addiction to alcohol is considered the cause of the pathology, then in this case, against the background of drug treatment, it is required to completely abandon the use of alcoholic beverages.

    Methods of therapy

    If the disease appeared against a background of another pathology, then therapy aimed at eliminating the underlying disease. Treatment is carried out under the supervision of several specialists, while the patient must constantly be monitored by a cardiologist. The doctor controls the process of changing the wall of the left atrium.

    If the cause of the appearance of dilatation is cicatricial changes in the heart, then it is worthwhile to carefully monitor the patient’s condition and monitor the process of tissue scarring. Taking medications is aimed at reducing the intensity of the process. Surgical intervention is more often performed with expansion of the right cavity and the chambers of the heart (ventricle and atrium).

    The operation is performed if there is evidence, if the disease is accompanied by acute symptoms, then heart transplantation is required. Dilation does not always require treatment, in some cases it is enough to monitor the patient and monitor the process of expansion of the atrial muscle wall.

    Treatment of dilatation is necessary only in those cases when the disease makes itself felt characteristic symptoms. If there are no manifestations of the pathology, and as a result of the diagnosis, no violations in the cardiovascular system and other parts of the body were detected, then regular examination and consultation with a doctor is sufficient – more such patients do not need anything.

    When the interpretation of the diagnostic data showed the presence of diseases that affect the occurrence of dilatation, it means that they need to be eliminated, only in this way can an improvement in the human condition be achieved. Sometimes atrial expansion occurs due to infectious diseases, leading to inflammatory processes in the muscle tissue of the organ and provoking a change in its chambers.

    In these situations, an anti-infection type of treatment is needed, and the doctor also decides on the advisability of replacing the valve. When high blood pressure has become the culprit in the development of dilatation, hypotensive therapy is necessary. Endocrine disorders require the use of drugs that normalize hormone levels.

      dilataciya levogo predserdiya 5 - Moderate dilation of the left atrium what is it

  • diuretics;
  • beta blockers;
  • antiarrhythmic drugs;
  • ACE inhibitors;
  • cardiac glycosides;
  • antiplatelet agents.
  • The actions of doctors should be aimed not only at eliminating the causes of the illness, but also at reducing the risk of complications, which can be many. Sometimes the use of drugs is not enough, in this situation, doctors decide to install a pacemaker. Using this device, it is possible to increase the systolic function of the ventricles, as well as to increase the processes of hemodynamics in the organ.

    When the expansion of the atrial cavity does not stop, this leads to serious consequences, in particular, dilated cardiomyopathy, which is characterized by pathological disorders in the muscle tissue of the myocardium.

    What complications can be:

    • arrhythmias that occur abruptly;
    • insufficiency of the main organ;
    • atrial fibrillation;
    • infectious processes in the fibers of the heart muscle;
    • blood clots form in the lumen of the arteries, which prevents blood flow;
    • mitral valve insufficiency;
    • thromboembolism (closure of the lumen of the vessel by a detached blood clot).

    The main number of such consequences becomes the reason for installing a pacemaker on the organ. In rare cases, it is required to completely transplant the donor heart to the patient – only in this way will it be possible to save his life.

    Definition

    The human heart, like a hollow muscular organ, has its own margin of safety. It consists of two atria and ventricles, through which blood is pumped throughout the body. Sometimes it happens that its quantity falling into the cavity exceeds the permissible volume. Thus, the walls are subjected to increased loads, which over time becomes the cause of their stretching (dilatation).

    Most often, dilatation of the left atrium occurs. A change in its size occurs against a background of impaired outflow of blood. An increase in volumes on the left can lead to diseases of the right heart, if you do not resort to timely treatment. This condition is dangerous because it does not appear in the first stages of development.

    For a complete diagnosis of this pathology, a number of studies are assigned to the patient. During their conduct, concomitant diseases are often found, which are the cause of the impaired heart function. It can be tachycardia, stenosis or measuring arrhythmia.

    It should be understood that early diagnosis will avoid irreversible consequences, which is why it is important to consult a doctor at the slightest ailment.

    The human heart, like a hollow muscular organ, has its own margin of safety. It consists of two atria and ventricles, through which blood is pumped throughout the body. Sometimes it happens that its quantity falling into the cavity exceeds the permissible volume. Thus, the walls are subjected to increased loads, which over time becomes the cause of their stretching (dilatation).

    Most often, dilatation of the left atrium occurs. A change in its size occurs against a background of impaired outflow of blood. An increase in volumes on the left can lead to diseases of the right heart, if you do not resort to timely treatment. This condition is dangerous because it does not appear in the first stages of development.

    For a complete diagnosis of this pathology, a number of studies are assigned to the patient. During their conduct, concomitant diseases are often found, which are the cause of the impaired heart function. This may be tachycardia, stenosis, or measuring arrhythmia. It should be understood that early diagnosis will avoid irreversible consequences, which is why it is important to consult a doctor at the slightest ailment.

    Classification and features

    There are two types of atrial dilation:

    1. Tonogenic. It arises as a result of high pressure and the presence of a large volume of liquid in the chamber. Most often, this form is accompanied by myocardial hypertrophy.
    2. Myogenic. This type of change occurs due to a variety of heart diseases and leads to a weakening of the contractile function of the myocardium. Such deviations in the cavities are irreversible.

    Most often, only one cardiac chamber undergoes an increase. The danger of this condition is the risk of developing arrhythmia or chronic heart failure.

    The main function of the left atrium is the delivery of oxygen-enriched blood to the left ventricle. After that, it is pumped into the aorta and transported throughout the body. Between these departments there is a valve. If his work is disrupted, then dilatation of the cavity of the left atrium develops. As a result of this, the blood passes heavily through the narrowed opening, which causes the heart wall to be overloaded and stretched.

    dilatatsiyalevogopredserdiyachtoetotakoe 1E2BDD55 - Moderate dilation of the left atrium what is it

    There are no specific symptoms with such changes. An important fact is that this disease is usually accompanied by other abnormalities in the work of the heart. Most often, patients complain of the occurrence of symptoms of arrhythmia and stenosis. They are manifested by shortness of breath, cyanosis or pallor of the skin.

    Changes in the right atrium can occur with increased pressure in the blood vessels of the small (pulmonary) circle of blood circulation. Similar problems can also occur due to myocardial infection and pulmonary hypertension. Some heart defects can also lead to an increase in the volume of the right atrium.

    To effectively treat this phenomenon, first of all, it is necessary to establish the cause and stop it. If this is not done on time, then hypertrophy and heart failure occur in the future.

    The most common treatment is surgery. To achieve a positive result, medical correction of the underlying disease is required.

    High blood pressure often occurs in old age in both sexes, this leads to a disease of the cardiovascular system, which is called hypertension. Normal blood pressure (BP) occurs during the contraction of the heart, more precisely its left ventricle, the blood from it enters the aorta, and then moves through the smaller arteries. The level of pressure, the amount of blood in the small arteries and their tone affect the level of pressure.

    It has another name – arterial hypertension. Its presence can be confirmed or refuted by tests and body diagnostics under the supervision of a doctor. Three consecutive control measurements, which are carried out using a tonometer, can speak of an increase in pressure.

    Normal pressure can change its value to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the condition of the person, especially stressful situations and an incorrect lifestyle affect him. In ordinary life, it rises during physical exertion, and during sleep decreases, but normalizes during the day.

    A systematic increase in pressure refers to grade 1 hypertension. This is the easiest form, with it there is still no serious effect on the internal organs (heart, blood vessels and kidneys). The second degree is much more complicated, and the third is the most difficult, with it there is a destruction of vital organs.

    The first degree of the disease is treatable if you turn to a specialist in time and pass the necessary tests. The prerequisites for its diagnosis is the condition of the patient, who can feel the below-described deviations in the body.

    With it, an increase in pressure occurs periodically and itself returns to normal. The attack is accompanied by:

    • Blurred eyes;
    • Short dizziness;
    • Headache in the back of the head;
    • Quiet tinnitus;
    • Heart palpitations;
    • A breakdown;
    • Heaviness in the limbs;
    • Excessive sweating;
    • Swelling of the hands and feet;
    • Memory impairment.

    If such symptoms began to appear with enviable regularity, then you need to immediately begin to systematically measure your blood pressure, twice a day. For the first time in the morning, without even getting out of bed, in the evening put a tonometer near you, and wake up immediately to take his measurements.

    The second measurement should be done in the afternoon from 16 to 17 hours. If the pressure is constantly high throughout the week, then you need to contact a specialist.

    This disease is insidious in that at the initial stage it proceeds practically without any obvious symptoms. This leads to the fact that people are late seeking medical help and have to treat it in a fluffy form.

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    She meanwhile leads:

    • To heart failure, which is expressed in edema and tachycardia, shortness of breath appears with it.
    • Malfunctions in the kidneys, which do not have time to process the products that enter them, and accumulate fluid in themselves, therefore, malfunctions with urination occur. In neglected forms, this is expressed in intoxication of the body with products formed after the decay of urea.
    • Changes in the state of blood vessels, accompanied by intolerable and persistent headaches.

    Risks 1, 2, 3 and 4

    In addition to monitoring pressure, there is another important factor, by accurately determining the indication of which it is possible to draw up the correct treatment for the patient, and it is called risk.

    Its value consists of a summation of blood pressure readings, as well as aggravating factors, such as:

    • Bad habits;
    • Excess weight;
    • Glucose level;
    • Heredity;
    • Age;
    • Blood cholesterol;
    • Concomitant diseases.

    Risks are of four degrees, they are diagnosed when there is a certain percentage of the likelihood of complications affecting the vessels and heart.

    Degree of riskThe likelihood of complications in the next 10 years,%
    First15
    The second15 – 20
    The third20 – 30
    The fourthmore 30

    For hypertension of the 1st degree, symptoms and treatment in most cases corresponds to risk 1 and 2. Subsequent levels of risk come with aggravating factors that are rare in the initial stages. If a patient with hypertension drinks alcohol excessively, then it complicates the course of the disease.

    Pathological abnormalities in the activity of the heart can cause various factors, and their dangerous combination. The reasons for the pressure surges are:

    • Bad habits. Smoking provokes narrowing of blood vessels. Improper nutrition.
    • Physical passivity or vice versa excessive stress.
    • Age: for women (over 50), for men (over 65). Although in recent years there has been a significant “rejuvenation” of this disease.
    • Hereditary predisposition. The more relatives suffer from this ailment, the greater the likelihood of its occurrence.
    • Pregnancy. At this wonderful time, mom experiences exorbitant physical exertion, hormonal failure and body restructuring, and cases of nervous breakdowns are not uncommon. A mixture of these hazards translates into increased pressure.
    • Taking medications that cause side effects in the form of increased pressure. It can be dietary supplements or oral contraceptives.
    • Stress and constant psychological experiences lead to heart failure, in which adrenaline is released, and it narrows the vessels.
    • The presence of the following diseases: diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis (the formation of plaques on the inside of the vessels), kidney and hypothalamus disease, pyelonephritis.
    • Deviation in the thyroid gland and adrenal glands.
    • A sharp change in climatic conditions.
    • Excess salt. An ordinary food product, without which not a single dish can do, can cause arterial spasm during its overabundance and cause accumulation of fluid in the body.
    • Chronic fatigue and lack of sleep.

    All these reasons can provoke the appearance of arterial hypertension of the 1st degree.

    Diagnostics

    People who have already experienced high blood pressure should be examined annually, the same applies to those who first showed signs of hypertension. To confirm a previously made diagnosis by a doctor, you need to undergo a hardware examination.

    Instrumental examinationFeatures of
    With a tonometerIt can be performed in hospital and at home, if at home there is a device for measuring pressure. Some are very worried when going to the hospital, so for them the best way would be to take blood pressure measurements at home. This should be done in a calm environment, before going to the doctor it is better to do this three times a day at regular intervals to make an accurate picture.
    Ultrasound of the kidneys and adrenal glandsThis study will allow timely detection of deviations in the functioning of the kidneys and to check whether there are any neoplasms on the adrenal glands. If the pressure has been increased for a long time, then useful cells can die in the kidneys – nephritis, designed to filter the blood, due to their lack of fluid, these organs may linger.
    EchocardiogramA compulsory study that helps to accurately determine the degree of damage to the heart, to determine the size of its chambers and their actual volume. Evaluate the work of the left heart ventricle.
    MRI of the brainDetermines whether there is a connection between hypertension and vascular pathology of nerve tissues.
    With a phonendoscopeA physical diagnosis is carried out to check the violation of the heart rhythm and the accompanying noises. Based on the evidence from this study, it is concluded that ECG is necessary.
    ECGAn electrocardiogram produces a more detailed assessment of the activity of the heart muscle. She analyzes her work for a certain period of time.
    DopplerographyThis is an ultrasound examination that allows you to detect the movement of blood through the vessels.
    ArteriographyRefers to x-ray methods in which the state of the walls of the arteries is assessed, their defects and the presence of plaques are detected.

    In addition to these studies, you need to visit an ophthalmologist who will check the fundus. The eyes, like the heart, are most often affected by hypertension. The expansion of the veins located in the retina of the eye can be irreversible, this change must be stopped if the vessels are normal in time.

    When the question arises, is it possible to cure hypertension of the 1st degree, then the answer is yes, if all the necessary studies have been completed and analyzes have been passed, which include:

    • Urinalysis;
    • General and biochemical blood analysis;
    • Hormone tests for women.

    Left atrial dilatation: causes and degrees, symptoms and treatment

    Dilatation of the left atrium is a special case of cardiomyopathy; it is an abnormal expansion of the organ chamber of the same name with complete or predominant absence of changes in the muscle layer. It often has an acquired character, is caused by various cardiac conditions, less often of the endocrine, neurogenic kind. Total recovery is impossible. Treatment aims to prevent progression, stabilize the general condition and prolong life.

    Progressive dilatation is dangerous for the development of complications (pulmonary artery thrombosis), greatly impairs the patient’s quality of life: the smallest effort causes severe weakness. In chronic heart failure with dilatation, any physical activity can lead to death as a result of sudden thrombosis or an arrhythmia attack.

    Cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle

    Complications

    A constantly progressing increase in the volume of LP can lead to the development of dilated cardiomyopathy (pathological changes in the heart muscle), as a result of a violation of the heart, the following complications develop:

    • atrial fibrillation (uncoordinated, non-synchronous contraction);
    • heart failure;
    • sudden attacks of arrhythmia;
    • mitral valve insufficiency;
    • thrombosis (the formation of blood clots that interfere with normal blood flow);
    • thromboembolism (clogging of blood vessels by a sudden tear-off blood clot);
    • myocardial infections.

    Dilatation of the left atrium may not occur at all, so often a person does not immediately find out what it is. People who are professionally engaged in sports activities are distinguished by the fact that their atrial expansion is a variant of the norm, doctors do not consider them as patients and characterize their condition as a “trained heart”. Another group of patients, even after revealing a similar ailment in them, do not attach special importance to it, since there is no symptomatology.

    Dilation can be very dangerous, therefore it requires careful diagnosis and therapy. When the margin of safety of an organ that has limits ends, cardiac circulation failure and, as a result, clinical manifestations will occur.

    • rhythm disorders and the sequence of contractions of the main organ (arrhythmia);
    • blue skin, especially in the area of ​​the nasolabial triangle (cyanosis);
    • severe weakness, breakdown;
    • difficulty breathing, the appearance of shortness of breath even at rest;
    • swelling of tissues in the ankle joint and the feet themselves;
    • dry cough, sometimes with blood;
    • pain behind the sternum, often aching or constricting;
    • excessive sweating;
    • changes in blood pressure.

    The most common manifestation is heart rhythm disturbances, which a person feels in the form of increased work of the organ or its fading. If the disease progresses, treatment is absent, then the lesion passes to the right heart, expanding them. Dilation of both atria threatens severe circulatory failure.

    What is mitral regurgitation?

    The mitral valve is represented by cusps that separate the left atrium from the left ventricle. Reducing, the left atrium pushes blood into the left ventricle, and after the contraction of the latter, it appears in the aorta. Mitral regurgitation is characterized by a reverse flow, in which the direction of blood movement changes dramatically.

    • Causes and degrees of the disease
    • Symptoms
    • Diagnosis and treatment

    The formation of a gap between the left ventricle and the left atrium leads to the development of such a pathology. In this case, the cusps of the mitral valve sag into the region of the left atrium, which provokes the risk of prolapse. I must say that the term “regurgitation” is applicable to all four valves present in the heart.

    Mitral has already been said, but the tricuspid is already affected a second time with the existing pathology of the left heart. Valves of the aorta and pulmonary artery are equipped with three valves and are localized at the confluence of these vessels with cardiac cavities.

    The aortic valve stands in the way of the flow of blood moving from the left ventricle to the aorta, the arteries of the lung – from the right ventricle to the trunk of the lung. Provided that the valvular apparatus and myocardium are in a normal state, with the contraction of certain parts of the heart, the valves close tightly, preventing the reverse flow of blood. But if there are various defeats, then this process is violated.

    This pathology to a small extent occurs in absolutely healthy people. But expressed, ranging from moderate to severe, is already a rare phenomenon and is provoked by the following reasons:

    • congenital and acquired defects of the main “motor” of the body;
    • mitral valve prolapse;
    • endocarditis of an infectious nature;
    • myocardial infarction;
    • injuries.

    In this case, several degrees of valvular pathology are distinguished. Mitral regurgitation of the first degree, in which the reverse flow has the appearance of a turbulence on the valve. In medicine, it is considered almost the norm and does not require correction with medications, but only observation.

    In pathology of the second degree, the flow penetrates into the atrium at a distance not exceeding half its length. In the third degree, this distance increases by more than half, and in the fourth, the flow reaches the back wall, penetrates the ear or into the veins of the lung.

    In addition, mitral regurgitation can be acute and chronic. Acute leads to dysfunction of the papillary muscles or their rupture, acute rheumatic fever, etc. Chronic illness develops for the same reasons. Less commonly, it causes myxoma of the atrium, calcification of the mitral ring, characteristic of older women, etc.

    Symptoms

    Most patients with this pathology do not feel any discomfort or discomfort, but gradually, as the volume of the left atrium increases, pulmonary pressure increases, as well as remodeling of the left ventricle. The patient begins to suffer from shortness of breath and fatigue, increased heart rate, that is, signs of heart failure manifest themselves.

    Mitral regurgitation of the 1st degree does not have such signs, but with a moderate and severe form, palpation reveals an increase in the left atrium. The left ventricle is hypertrophied. In addition, noise is heard when listening.

    The latter increase with squats and handshakes. That is, we are talking about a complication of mitral regurgitation associated with the above symptoms of heart failure and atrial fibrillation.

    The degree of this pathology is determined by Doppler echocardiography. In addition, the doctor may additionally recommend to undergo Holter monitoring, take an X-ray, donate blood for analysis and undergo a stress test, for example, undergo a procedure such as bicycle ergometry. Only after this, the doctor decides on reasonable therapy.

    In acute mitral regurgitation, emergency mitral valve repair or replacement is performed. Surgeons cannot determine the ideal time for the operation, but if it is done before the development of ventricular decompensation, including in children, the chances of preventing deterioration of the left ventricle are increased.

    I must say that the pathology of the first and second degree is not a contraindication to pregnancy and childbirth, but in more severe cases it is necessary to first assess all the risks and only then make a decision.

    The prognosis is largely determined by the functions of the left ventricle, the degree and duration of this pathology, its severity and causes. As soon as the disease manifests itself at first with minimal, and then with pronounced symptoms, then every year about 10% of patients are hospitalized with clinical manifestations of mitral regurgitation. About 10% of patients with chronic pathology require surgical intervention.

    Causes of expansion of the right ventricle (pancreas)

    The left heart consists of the left atrium and ventricle, between them there is a valve with 2 wings, which is called mitral. With sufficient pressure in the atrium, it opens and passes blood into the left ventricle. From it, it goes to the aorta and then to the large circle of blood circulation, saturating the whole organism with oxygen.

    Left atrial expansion

    With a narrowing or insufficiency of the mitral valve, the atrium does not have enough effort to drive the same amount of blood through the narrowed opening, because of this part of the blood accumulates in it. There is a compensatory thickening of the muscular wall of the atrium. If the narrowing is not eliminated, blood will continue to accumulate, since compensation cannot be long-term. Dilation of the left atrium occurs due to the accumulation of blood, which it is not able to push into the ventricle.

    Another reason for the expansion of the left atrium is atrial fibrillation or fibrillation, atrial flutter. Very often, arrhythmia occurs against the background of dilatation. In a child, the causes of pathology are similar.

    Regardless of the etiology of enlargement of the left atrium, it is recommended to undergo a full diagnostic examination by a cardiologist and begin the prescribed treatment.

    Among these symptoms are shortness of breath, severe pallor and cyanosis of the skin, hemoptysis, a feeling of pain behind the sternum and palpitations.

    Very often people who live to be 50 years old do not notice any problems, and only after an ultrasound examination they will find out their diagnosis. Such cases require additional examination of the patient in order to find the cause. It is recommended to be registered with a cardiologist who monitors changes in the heart.

    Classification, causes and treatment of cardiac arrhythmias

    How to treat?

    2 What does a patient with dilation of the left atrium experience?

    Dilatation of the left atrium may not manifest itself clinically. Among people involved in professional sports, heavy physical exertion, this condition is considered physiological and does not require treatment, the so-called “trained heart”. It happens that the chambers of the heart are enlarged, patients learn only at a professional examination and do not give proper attention to this, because they feel good.

    dilatatsiyapredserdiypriznakilecheniepri 06D89610 - Moderate dilation of the left atrium what is it

    But in vain! It is worth thinking about health, because if the heart is already experiencing increased physical exertion and suffers from it, then depletion of its reserve capabilities, development of circulatory failure and soon clinical symptoms are possible.

    When dilation of the left atrium occurs, at a certain stage, insufficiency develops in the pulmonary circulation. In this case, the patient complains of shortness of breath, at first with physical activity, then with its minimum degree, and after all shortness of breath may appear at rest. In addition to shortness of breath, a dry cough occurs, it may be with streaks of blood – hemoptysis, chest pain of a pressing, aching or constricting nature, general weakness, sweating, jumps in blood pressure.

    A common symptom is rhythm disturbances, which the patient feels like bouts of a rapid heartbeat, interruptions in the work of the heart, and a feeling of “freezing” of the heart. With the progression of the disease, not only the left, but also the right departments of the heart expand: the left ventricle is dilated first, and then the right atrium is dilated. In this case, severe circulatory failure develops, which is characterized by the attachment of swelling of the legs, enlarged liver, ascites.

    The patient’s condition becomes extremely serious and requires treatment in an inpatient setting. In order to prevent this condition, it is necessary to diagnose heart pathology in time, in particular the expansion of its cavities.

    How to recognize a disease?

    To determine the disease, the doctor must conduct a thorough diagnosis of the patient’s cardiovascular system. Only after studying the results of the examination, the specialist can announce the final verdict. Having learned what atrial dilation is, patients are interested in how the diagnosis will affect their future lifestyle.

    1. Chest x-ray. When studying a picture, the doctor can see the atrial bulge on the left, his abdomen. In addition, the pattern of arteries will be strengthened, and the trunk of the left bronchus will shift slightly.
    2. Electrocardiogram (ECG). The technique will show an increase in the volume of the atrium on the left by the P wave, it looks wide and high. There are other signs of such a violation, which can be seen on the tape of the cardiograph.
    3. Echocardiography (echocardiography). It is the most informative way to diagnose dilatation, as it can be used to distinguish the valve apparatus, its condition, as well as the thickness of the muscle fibers of the myocardium and the size of the heart chambers. Echocardiography with Doppler more accurately assesses this situation.

    After studying all the data obtained as a result of the survey, sometimes it is necessary to apply additional measures. Blood tests are prescribed to determine the level of hormones or blood sugar. The attending physician decides this individually in each case.

    1. Chest x-ray. When studying a picture, the doctor can see the atrial bulge on the left, his abdomen. In addition, the pattern of arteries will be strengthened, and the trunk of the left bronchus will shift slightly upward.
    2. Electrocardiogram (ECG). The technique will show an increase in the volume of the atrium on the left by the P wave, it looks wide and high. There are other signs of such a violation, which can be seen on the tape of the cardiograph.
    3. Echocardiography (echocardiography). It is the most informative way to diagnose dilatation, as it can be used to distinguish the valve apparatus, its condition, as well as the thickness of the muscle fibers of the myocardium and the size of the heart chambers. Echocardiography with Doppler more accurately assesses this situation.

    Connection with arrhythmias

    An important component in pathology is a violation of the correct formation of rhythm. The fact is that the main node (pacemaker), which sets the correct rhythm for heart contractions, is in the right atrium. And in the interatrial septum is the supraventricular part of the second most important – the atrioventricular node.

    Changes such as dilatation of the right atrium or dilatation of the left atrium contribute to the loss of muscle mass, the replacement of small foci of fibrosis, which leads to the appearance of ectopic foci of excitability

    dilatatsiyalevogopredserdiyachtoetotakoe F44098B6 - Moderate dilation of the left atrium what is it

    Arrhythmia is expressed in extrasystolic contractions, attacks of paroxysmal tachycardia.

    An increase in the volume of the atria is most often not an independent disease, but reflects a general lesion of the heart, its congenital or acquired pathology.

    Svetlana Borszavich

    General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
    Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
    The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
    The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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