If brown discharge appeared in the middle of the cycle (even without pain and smell), then this should alert and force attention to events preceding them. There are some situations in which such manifestations can be considered the norm.
The most common cause of non-pathological intermenstrual bleeding is ovulation. During the first phase of the cycle, follicle maturation occurs under the influence of pituitary hormones FSH (follicle-stimulating) and a little LH (luteinizing). In particular, the number of vessels that nourish it increases. They can braid the entire surface of the bubble like a network.
By 10-12 days of the cycle, estrogen secretion reaches a peak level. After 12 hours, there is a response peak release of luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones. This means that after 24-48 hours, ovulation and, accordingly, intermenstrual bleeding can be expected. It arises as a result of rupture of the follicle and damage to blood vessels, therefore it is called breakthrough.
The discharge is not abundant, in color – from light pink to dark. The daub lasts one or two days and does not require special laying (enough “daily”). Treatment in this case is not carried out.
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- Cycle formation
- What is intermenstrual bleeding?
- Diseases of the genitourinary system
- Cervical erosion
- When not to worry? Physiological causes of discharge
- Sexual intercourse
- Postpartum period
- Sexual intercourse
- Early symptom of pregnancy
- Oral contraceptives
- What factors can trigger spotting in the middle of a cycle?
- Diagnosis and treatment
- Cervical erosion
- Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
- Cervical erosion
- Tumor processes
- When is an urgent gynecologist consultation needed?
Dark “unplanned” discharge may indicate pregnancy. If a woman has a prolonged or not always regular menstrual cycle, she may miss the moment of ovulation. Usually the embryo passes from the ovaries to the uterine cavity in seven to ten days. Normally, implantation should occur at the peak of progesterone – this is the seventh day after ovulation. If a woman has early ovulation, then the moment of attachment to the uterus will also shift.
During implantation, the embryo secretes enzymes that melt the endometrium along with the vessels in it. The embryo is gradually immersed in the tissues and covered with them. A small amount of blood may be released from the molten vessels, which will exit through the vagina. The amount is meager, there is no smell, the color is usually dark.
Against the background of taking most combined oral contraceptives (COCs), spotting in the middle of the cycle may appear during the first three months. The reason is the lack of progestogens in the composition of the drug. The following factors also affect:
- unstable hormonal background;
- missed tablet;
- violation of the instructions for the drug;
- unsuitable type of COC;
- low doses of hormones;
- concomitant gynecological pathology.
If the bleeding did not disappear in the fourth month of using the drug, you need to finish the plate to the end and consult a doctor to select another remedy. With severe bleeding, the formation of jelly-like clots, an urgent examination by a gynecologist is necessary.
In adolescents, menstruation does not always become regular immediately after the onset of menarche. This takes up to a year. The concentration and rhythm of the secretion of LH and FSH in girls are often confused, so bleeding between menstruation can appear. If they are smearing, without pain and smell, then there is nothing to worry about. But with constantly repeating spotting, heavy bleeding, you need to urgently consult a doctor.
A spotting discharge occurs in lactating women, when the menstrual cycle only begins to recover after pregnancy.
What is intermenstrual bleeding?
Intermenstrual bleeding refers to moderate or profuse discharge of blood from the genital tract, which can occur in the first half or middle of the cycle. The menstrual cycle in a healthy woman usually has a duration of 28-30 days, but in individual cases, shifts up or down are possible.
Two types of intermenstrual bleeding are distinguished:
- metrorrhagia – dysfunctional uterine bleeding that occurs as a result of pathological disorders in the functioning of the organs of the reproductive system;
- physiological bleeding – bleeding resulting from physiological processes in a woman’s body and appearing strictly on day 10-16 of the cycle.
They may differ in the amount of blood secreted, concomitant signs, the duration of discharge and other symptoms by which an experienced doctor can immediately classify the pathology.
Intermenstrual bleeding is called secretion from the genitals, with impurities of blood, between menstruation.
Allocations can have a different nature of appearance:
- Physiological. It may be due to hormonal failure in the body. In this case, blood clotting is observed on days 11-16 and lasts no more than 72 hours. It usually proceeds without any particular symptoms. Allocations are scarce. When bleeding occurs for more than 3 months, this may mean the beginning of the development of the disease. In rare cases, it can be a short menstrual cycle. For an accurate diagnosis, you need to visit a gynecologist.
- Pathological. In this case, bleeding can occur randomly, on any day of the menstrual period. In this case, additional symptoms are often present. The volume and duration of discharge depends on the disease. It also changes the color and smell of secretion.
With hormonal malfunction or stress, a woman may have scanty discharge with blood when daily pads are sufficient. Moreover, additional symptoms are completely absent. The most common cause is an incomplete exit of menstrual flow during the prescribed period.
Diseases of the genitourinary system
Separated from the vagina can acquire not only a brown tint. Sometimes it all starts with the appearance of atypical whites: they are accompanied by itching, become curdled, thick, the sour smell intensifies. Most likely, this is a sign of thrush. If left untreated, the inflamed mucous membrane will begin to bleed a little, and pink impurities will appear.
But the reason may be a sexually transmitted infection. If the discharge is watery, profuse, and abdominal pain also appears, then this is an inflammatory process. A yellow tint usually indicates a nonspecific process, and a greenish one indicates Trichomonas.
Pathological bleeding can be suspected when the following symptoms appear:
- copious discharge;
- the appearance of blood clots;
- sharp abdominal pain;
- temperature increase;
- unpleasant odor;
- prolonged metrorrhagia;
- scanty menstruation.
Pathological growth of the endometrium in atypical places leads to hormonal failure. This tissue has its own hormonal activity and is able to change the general background. In turn, an excessively high level of estrogen leads to endometrial hyperplasia. It can be diffuse and local, in the form of a polyp on the leg.
Sometimes emptying of the endometrioid foci in the uterine cavity occurs, which can grow into the depths of the muscles. They are emptied without a clear connection with the menstrual cycle, while the blood is almost black.
The growth of muscle and fibrous tissue leads to the appearance of foci, which, if large or located under the mucous membrane, can disrupt endometrial rejection. This happens regardless of the day of the cycle. It also manifests itself in the form of prolonged menstruation, which first went into decline, and then intensified.
Myoma can lead to heavy intermenstrual bleeding, a woman develops anemia. The only treatment in this situation is removal of the uterus.
The allocation of blood from the cervix during erosion is often of a contact nature. It appears after intercourse, a doctor’s examination. Sometimes brown discharge is a consequence of cauterization of erosion: ten days after the procedure, the scab begins to depart.
Bleeding in itself is not dangerous. But you need to undergo examination and treat erosion. Signs of cellular atypia indicate a risk of pathology becoming cancer.
Oncological diseases are increasingly common at a young age, and in women in premenopause and during menopause are one of the most common causes of bleeding. The tumor can be located on the cervix, in the uterine cavity. Sometimes the discharge becomes extremely unpleasant odor (decaying flesh). Only timely diagnosis and radical treatment will help get rid of the disease in time and increase the chances of survival.
Drawing pains in the lower abdomen and blood discharge in the middle of the cycle can be a consequence of an interrupted ectopic pregnancy. This condition is accompanied by internal bleeding, and the blood poured out is only a small part. The severity of the condition will gradually increase, blood pressure will drop, tachycardia and signs of vascular collapse will appear. This situation requires an immediate response.
When a fetal egg is attached to the cervix, bleeding also occurs – first at the time of implantation, and then in a new cycle as the embryo grows. It is life threatening for a woman.
In premenopausal patients, pink leucorrhoea results from atrophic processes on the mucosa. Not enough lubrication already stands out. Therefore, after sex there are microcracks, because of which the discharge is stained.
A number of procedures are required to diagnose the cause of bleeding.
Initially, an anamnesis is collected:
- when the discharge appeared:
- how long do they last;
- amount of discharge;
- the presence of temperature and pain;
- color and smell of discharge;
- what preceded the bleeding;
- the presence of gynecological diseases.
When examined on a chair by a gynecologist, a smear is immediately taken for the presence of infection and to identify the inflammatory process. Feeling the size and condition of the uterus and ovaries. For a more complete examination, a blood test (general, AIDS and hormones) and urine is prescribed.
To approve diseases, a woman must undergo procedures prescribed by a specialist:
- colposcopy (checking the state of the uterus using a special device), can be performed during an initial examination on a chair;
- Ultrasound With its help, the state of the reproductive organs is determined and an ectopic pregnancy is excluded / confirmed;
- Collection of material from the uterus and cervical canal by curettage.
Sometimes, an MRI and an x-ray can be prescribed to more accurately locate the inflammatory process or tumor.
Spotting in the middle of the cycle, recurring regularly even without characteristic symptoms, is the reason for going to the gynecologist. The sooner the provoking factor is identified, the less harm the complications will cause the disease.
Article author: Svetlana Kotlyachkova
Article Design: Oleg Lozinsky
- The implantation course is bleeding, which indicates that the fertilized egg has fixed in the uterine cavity for further development. In the process of fixing small vessels are injured.
- Aggressive intercourse injures the vagina. The girl notices blood after intercourse. Refrain from sexual intercourse for a few days and the discharge stops.
- During the installation of the intrauterine device, the vaginal mucosa is injured. Wait a few days – the bleeding will stop. But the body may not accept a foreign body. If blood does not pass for more than a week, contact your gynecologist. Have to change the method of contraception.
Bleeding is often a sign of illness. Most often, blood comes along with various symptoms: headache, dizziness, fever, fever. Diagnosis by ultrasound allows you to establish whether there are problems in the body.
When the endometrium grows to such an extent that it extends beyond the uterus, endometriosis begins. Tissues pass to the ovaries and to the abdominal organs.
The cause of the disease is hormonal failure. The girl receives it as a result of:
- emotional overstrain;
- excessive physical exertion;
- a sharp change in climate;
- taking hormonal drugs and oral contraceptives.
By these signs, you will understand that you have endometriosis:
- pain during bowel movements;
- pain when urinating;
- lower abdominal pain;
- bloody or brown discharge.
In the muscle layer of the uterus – myometrium – smooth muscle fibers are intertwined, forming nodes. They are small in size – a couple of millimeters, and sometimes grow to several tens of centimeters.
Myoma, like endometriosis, is caused by hormonal disruption or bad habits. The main factor is genetic predisposition. If the mother had a myoma, then the daughter will have 100%. Another cause of the disease is anovulation. The egg in the follicles does not ripen and does not come out of them.
The disease may not manifest itself. But sometimes by these signs you will realize that you have a fibroid:
Inside the uterus, growths are formed that look like balls on the “legs”. These are polyps. The cause of the disease is an imbalance between hormones. Polyps occur against the background of endometriosis. After childbirth, the body is very weak, so bacteria actively use it.
The disease almost never manifests itself. In rare cases, the only symptom of polyps is small bleeding in the middle of the female cycle. An accurate diagnosis can only be made after an ultrasound scan.
This is a defect in the external mucous membrane of the uterus. The organ becomes very sensitive to diseases when the epithelium, the outer layer, is “erased” from it. Microbes actively use this and begin to live on the surface of the uterus.
Symptoms of this disease:
- odorless white discharge;
- blood after intercourse.
The causes of the disease are different: damaged walls of the vagina after intercourse, abortion, childbirth. Cause erosion and infections.
Cervicitis is an inflammation of the cervix. Symptoms of the disease:
- purulent vaginal discharge;
- intermenstrual bleeding;
- genital itching and burning;
- contact bleeding (blood begins to go after touching the tampon to the uterus, after intercourse).
The disease in most cases is asymptomatic. Sometimes inflammation occurs against a background of vaginitis or trichomoniasis.
When not to worry? Physiological causes of discharge
If the woman’s cycle is irregular, bleeding 7-10 days before the expected date of menstruation may be menstrual bleeding. There are many factors that can provoke the onset of menstruation ahead of schedule. These include:
- taking certain medications;
- severe stress;
- intense physical activity;
- emotional stress;
- hormonal failures.
Severe stress can cause uterine bleeding in the middle of the cycle
Even nutritional errors can cause early menstruation. For example, the abundant consumption of snacks, crackers, spices, spicy and fatty foods, alcohol negatively affects the state of all organs of the female body, including the reproductive system. If a woman is abusing harmful products, she is more likely to experience a violation of the cyclicity between menstruation and diseases of the female genital area.
The use of harmful products leads to cyclic disorders between menstruation and diseases of the female genital area
Moderate blood flow during ovulation and the next 2-3 days is also considered normal. This symptom indicates that a mature egg is ready for fertilization. Bloody discharge in this case occurs due to the rupture of the dominant follicle, which “releases” the mature egg into the fallopian tube, where it can connect to the sperm and form a zygote.
Phases of the menstrual cycle
Bleeding caused by a physiological cause does not pose a risk to a woman’s health. Treatment may be required in rare cases. Usually the symptom goes away on its own. The main factors in the appearance of blood between menstruation are the reasons discussed below.
Mid-cycle blood can signal pregnancy. Ultrasound and hCG test do not always give a positive result at this time. A fertilized egg, for the full development of the embryo, attaches to the uterus.
There is a slight damage to the endometrial cells (the inner layer of the uterus), sometimes vessels may be affected. This is the reason for the appearance of small, dark red discharge. They can be present once, and occur in the middle of the menstrual cycle.
To determine the beginning of pregnancy, without a test and examination by a gynecologist, a woman can, if additional symptoms are detected:
- soreness and swelling of the mammary glands;
- nausea, which is more present in the morning hours;
- slight increase in urination;
- sleepy throughout the day;
- increased distraction and forgetfulness;
- dizziness for no reason.
Mid-cycle blood may indicate an early pregnancy.
In some cases, a woman during this period rises to 37,2 degrees. For accurate confirmation of pregnancy, it is necessary to do a test during the period of the alleged onset of menstruation and undergo examination by a gynecologist.
Oral contraceptives taken to prevent pregnancy affect the hormonal background of a woman. The restructuring of the body occurs with blood secretions in the middle of the menstrual cycle.
This is considered the norm only for 4 months, from the beginning of taking a new drug. If the discharge lasts more than 5 months, an examination by a gynecologist and a replacement of the drug are necessary.
When a woman stops taking hormones before the course (it lasts 21 days). Then it can cause a malfunction in the body and severe bleeding. Preparations for emergency protection (postinor, escapel, gynepristone) are also accompanied by copious blood discharge after administration.
Bleeding when using hormonal drugs can sometimes be accompanied by pulling pains in the lower abdomen and in the lower back. Gynecologists do not recommend picking birth control hormones on their own.
After maturation, the egg leaves the follicle (in which it developed), with a slight release of blood that leaves the vagina along with the mucus. During this period, a woman can observe small reddish spots on her underwear.
Bleeding during ovulation can also be caused by hormonal changes. Under the influence of estrogens, a small amount of blood can be released from the uterus (it is prepared for the adoption of a fertilized egg). Regular discharge during ovulation already signals the development of diseases that are associated with hormonal imbalance.
Blood in the middle of the cycle can occur with inaccurate sexual intercourse (violence, the use of inappropriate items for masturbation or active sex). In this case, damage to the vessels of the vagina occurs, which causes the appearance of blood. A woman may feel discomfort and burning sensation when urinating and walking, itching in the vaginal area.
In rare cases, vascular damage is caused by the release of a small amount of lubricant. If the damage was not severe, then bleeding stops during the day. With longer discharge, you need to contact a gynecologist. Severe damage is possible, requiring surgical intervention.
At the onset of menopause (premenopause), a woman has a hormonal imbalance, this is the reason for the appearance of bloody discharge during the menstrual period. Due to a malfunction, the endometrium may be partially rejected sooner or later than the set time. Allocations are scarce and are accompanied by increased secretion of sweat and increased fatigue.
It may also be associated with the use of hormones prescribed by a gynecologist to stabilize the condition during this period. During menopause and postmenopause, even the slightest discharge signals the development of pathologies.
At birth, the body experiences severe stress. And also after delivery, a surge of hormones occurs. The first menstrual flow after childbirth can become, as in adolescents, irregular and with daubs between menstruation. Additional symptoms are absent.
The menstrual cycle is leveled after normalization of the hormonal background. Sometimes this process can take 12 months.
Bleeding, after the installation of the spiral, may occur in the middle of the cycle. The cause of the discharge may be improper installation. Also, a contraceptive, for the first time, can injure the mucous membrane of the uterus and blood vessels, while in the mucus from the vagina a woman will note a small amount of blood.
The spiral for the body is a foreign body, so bleeding can be a normal reaction of the body.
Gynecologists say that the rejection of secretions containing blood in the middle of the cycle does not always indicate the presence of pathological processes affecting the genital organs. Depending on the external factors affecting the body and the physiological characteristics of the woman, this phenomenon can be quite normal and does not require medical intervention. Gynecology distinguishes a number of conditions in which a brown daub, secreted in the middle of the cycle, does not pose a threat to health.
Find out why spotting occurs a week before your period.
The onset of the first menstruation – menarche, indicates the puberty of the girl and the final stage in the process of formation of the organs of the reproductive system. This period is characterized by the absence of a clearly defined, monthly cycle of critical days.
Gynecologists argue that the process of forming a temporary periodization can last up to six months. In this interval, the appearance of red discharge in the middle of the proposed cycle is a physiological norm and does not require a specialist. But the observation of uncharacteristic discharge with an admixture of blood longer than the established period indicates the need to consult a specialist.
The root cause of juvenile bleeding may lie in the imbalance of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones.
Ovulation refers to the period of the female cycle, during which the formed egg leaves the follicle. In this case, intermenstrual spotting can be caused by several reasons:
- A sharp hormonal jump. A similar phenomenon does not indicate the presence of pathology. Experts say that increasing estrogen levels during ovulation is a physiological norm. The hormonal background stabilizes on its own several days after the end of this period of the menstrual cycle.
- Injury to the endometrium during the movement of the ovum or its attachment to the surface of the uterus.
These phenomena lie in the plane of the physiological norm only in the absence of concomitant discomfort and stability during the periodization of the calendar cycle.
Doctors say that normal secretion during ovulation should be different:
- Scarcity. Discharge in this period of the menstrual cycle should be barely noticeable and have a smearing character.
- The absence of an unpleasant odor. Please note that ovulation secretion should not have a pungent nauseating smell. The mucous liquid secreted during this period has a slight, slightly perceptible smell of iron.
- The lack of discomfort. During ovulation, rejection of bloody secretion should not be accompanied by girdle pain, involving the lower abdomen and lower back, burning during urination or itching in the inguinal region.
If the described spotting during ovulation is intense or accompanied by acute pain, you should immediately consult a doctor!
Such symptoms may indicate a violation in the work of the genital organs or the onset of uterine bleeding.
If a woman has regular prolonged menstrual bleeding, the doctor will direct her to undergo a series of studies. The following diagnostic methods are commonly used:
- blood test – general clinical, for HIV, for hormones, Wasserman reaction;
- a smear from the vagina on the microflora;
- gynecological examination with the help of mirrors;
- examination of the cervix using a colposcope;
- curettage of the uterus with a further direction of the obtained material for histological examination;
- smear from the cervix for a cytological examination;
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs.
Based on the data received, further treatment will be prescribed. In some situations, the patient can be redirected to more narrow-profile specialists.
Therapy depends on the root cause, which caused the appearance of secretions between menstruation. If infectious or inflammatory diseases have led to this, conservative treatments are usually used. In rare cases, surgical intervention is possible.
If there is a place to be hormonal disorders, the doctor will prescribe drugs that allow you to adjust the balance and establish functioning in the female reproductive system. If such a situation arose against the background of a metabolic problem or in the presence of excess weight, a woman is necessarily referred to an endocrinologist and nutrition correction is performed.
If a sexual infection is detected, antibiotic therapy is used. Additionally, immunostimulants and anti-inflammatory drugs are used. For treatment to be effective, not only a woman, but her sexual partner should take part in it.
If neoplasms are found in the uterine cavity, the treatment depends on their variety and size. In some cases, the patient may be left under close supervision without taking any other action. In some situations, an operation is prescribed. Additionally, chemotherapy can be performed. Complex, lengthy treatment may be required to combat neoplasms.
To establish the causes of the pathology, the following diagnostic methods are used:
- swab from the vagina;
- PAP test;
- general blood analysis;
- hormonal profile;
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs.
Other examination methods are used according to indications, depending on the primary results.
Early symptom of pregnancy
Brown spotting may be a sign of pregnancy. In this case, they are usually accompanied by pain in the lower abdomen, where the uterus is located, and other common symptoms, which include:
- poor appetite;
- nausea after waking up (some women may feel sick all day);
- weakness and drowsiness;
- breast swelling.
To check whether a woman is pregnant or not, you can use the test to determine the level of hCG in morning urine or make an ultrasound transvaginal sensor (but it should be borne in mind that such an ultrasound may be uninformative for very short periods).
From the first menstruation, the following are important:
- daily regime;
- proper nutrition;
- sufficient rest;
- physical activity;
- protection against STIs;
- immunity strengthening.
And for patients of reproductive age, doctors additionally advise the following:
- regular sex life;
- the right contraceptives;
- lack of abortion.
Women who have given birth to more than one child are less susceptible to the development of fibroids, endometriosis. And with regular use of oral contraceptives, the risk of developing uterine cancer is significantly reduced.
Oral contraceptives are contraceptives for women in the form of tablets or capsules (for oral administration) containing hormones. Most often, women are prescribed drugs based on estrogen or progesterone. It can be:
The mechanism of action of hormonal contraceptives
Drugs of this group can be used to protect against unwanted pregnancy or to treat gynecological diseases, for example, uterine endometriosis. With uterine bleeding, women can also be prescribed elevated doses of hormones, but this method of stopping bleeding cannot be used independently, especially if a woman has a benign or malignant history.
It is necessary to start taking oral contraceptives from the 1st day of the cycle (in some cases, the doctor may prescribe an intake from 3-5 days from the beginning of menstruation). If a woman stops taking the drug before the end of the course (21 days), “withdrawal bleeding” may begin. This is a profuse, breakthrough uterine bleeding, which in most cases can only be stopped using the curettage procedure or vacuum aspiration.
Oral contraceptives can cause bleeding in the middle of a cycle.
What factors can trigger spotting in the middle of a cycle?
Very often, women who have an intrauterine device – a hormone of local action that prevents fertilization, complain of mucous discharge with streaks of blood. A spiral (like rings) must be changed after a certain period of time. If this is not done, an inflammatory process may begin, accompanied by an increase in temperature and moderate blood secretion. Improper installation of the spiral can also cause injury to the mucous membranes and mild bleeding.
Inflammation of the uterus and fallopian tubes cause blood secretion
Other factors that can trigger bleeding in the middle of the cycle are:
- chronic stress (with divorce, hard work, scandalous environment at home);
- lifting heavy objects (moving furniture, lifting heavy bags up the stairs);
- genital and vaginal injuries (for example, when using sex toys);
- lack of vitamins C, A and E involved in the hematopoietic system;
- active or hard intercourse.
Bleeding in the middle of the cycle is observed in almost 30% of women. The result is brown or dark red discharge. Usually they are not plentiful. Discharges appear 10-16 days after menstruation. They are barely noticeable bleeding. It lasts for 12-72 hours. Then the discharge should disappear. If this does not happen, it is necessary to undergo a diagnosis and identify the cause of what happened.
Spotting in the middle of the cycle may be a normal physiological phenomenon or may result from the development of pathology. The physiological causes of treatment do not require, while the pathological are eliminated by conducting individual selected therapy.
Endometrium refers to the internal mucous membrane of the uterus. Spotting can develop against a background of diseases. So, the occurrence of polyps is possible. This name was given to a benign neoplasm on the leg. They are penetrated by blood vessels. Many experts believe that the occurrence of polyps is one of the manifestations of hyperplasia.
Another pathology is endometriosis. Most often, the disease occurs in women of reproductive age. Usually it appears as a result of hormonal disorders. This leads to excessive production of estrogen, a high level of which is maintained in 1 half of the menstrual cycle. Moreover, the amount of progesterone produced is not enough. It is under the influence of estrogen that menstrual bleeding is possible. Sometimes they are very plentiful.
According to statistics, most often, non-abundant spotting from the vagina that occurs in the middle of the cycle is associated with hormonal fluctuations. They, in turn, occur at the beginning of ovulation. During this period of time, a large amount of estrogen is produced in the woman’s body. This name was given to sex hormone, which affects the mucous membrane of the walls of the uterus. This is the reason for the appearance of secretions, in which blood impurities are observed.
Ovulatory discharge is smearing. Their duration cannot be longer than 72 hours. The highlight color in this case is brown or pinkish. If the discharge appeared due to hormonal fluctuations as a result of ovulation, the use of drugs is not required. However, if the bleeding does not disappear after 3 days, this should alert the woman.
Leucorrhoea may become pinkish or brown as a result of accidental damage to small blood vessels located in the genitals. The risk of such a situation is present when performing the following medical procedures:
- Curettage of the uterus or biopsy.
- Gynecological examination using a colposcope, mirrors or an ultrasound sensor. Such studies are usually performed in the first phase of the cycle. This is done so that possible microtraumas have time to heal, and by the beginning of the next cycle of damage there is no more.
- A smear is taken from the cervix and vagina. In this case, the doctor scrapes a small layer of the mucous membrane. This leads to microdamage. The discharge retains a reddish tint for several hours after the procedure.
If a woman takes oral contraceptives for less than 3 consecutive months, spotting in the middle of the cycle is considered normal. Usually the pain in this case is quite scarce. They do not cause discomfort. Very soon, spotting in the middle of the cycle goes away.
A similar situation may arise if a woman has used emergency contraception drugs. The phenomenon is observed when protecting against unwanted pregnancy using an intrauterine device.
The appearance of blood in the middle of the cycle may indicate the onset of pregnancy. If conception has occurred, within the next few days, the fertilized egg moves into the uterine cavity and attaches to the wall. During the procedure, there is a violation of the integrity of the endometrium. The capillaries located in it are damaged.
As a result, a woman has scanty pink discharge. They usually occur a week before the expected menstruation. If implantation is unsuccessful, the fetal egg exfoliates and the pregnancy terminates. A similar situation is possible if, for example, the embryo is attached too close to the neck. After this, menstruation begins. However, it comes with a slight delay.
Sexually transmitted infections are also capable of provoking such phenomena. Pathology is accompanied by fever and severe pain in the lower abdomen. In order for the discharge to stop, the root cause of the condition must be correctly identified, and then competent treatment is given. If the bleeding is not strong, it is not specifically fought with it.
Bloody discharge between menstruation can cause inflammatory processes that develop in:
Blood appears as a result of damage to the mucous membranes and blood vessels. A similar phenomenon is observed if the functioning of the ovaries fails.
Blood is observed as a result of infectious diseases of the genitals. If tissue damage occurs, brown discharge appears between periods. They have an unpleasant odor. In this case, the consistency of the discharge is usually liquid foamy.
The appearance of a neoplasm can lead to the development of bleeding. So, if a myoma forms in the uterus, tumor growth leads to damage to the endometrium and destruction of blood vessels. In the middle of the cycle, the mucosa swells. As a result, there is a discharge with blood. Additionally, there is an increase in the volume of menstrual flow.
Uterine cancer also causes similar symptoms. In the initial stages, the disease may not manifest itself in any way. However, subsequent discharge may be observed with traces of blood that occur between menstruation. Especially often this phenomenon occurs in women older than 45 years. Usually, the discharge resembles meat slops. They contain dark clots.
With the age of a woman, the hormonal background undergoes significant changes. This can affect the menstrual cycle. So, spotting in adolescents between menstruation is considered normal if they occur during the first two years from puberty. Other cycle disturbances characteristic of this period may occur. The situation arises due to hormonal shift. Its cause is the immaturity of the ovaries.
Bloody leucorrhoea can also appear with the onset of menopause. A similar situation also occurs due to hormonal failure. However, here the cause of its onset is the aging of the body and the cessation of ovarian function. The cycle becomes irregular. A discharge in the middle may occur during postmenopausal women. It precedes the complete disappearance of menstruation.
However, do not confuse the discharge resulting from hormonal failure with bleeding caused by pathology. The risk of disease after 45 years is increased. For this reason, it is recommended to undergo a routine examination once a year.
Diagnosis and treatment
After the woman found out why the blood comes from the vagina, she should start therapy. If the cause of this symptom lies in hormonal failure, the doctor prescribes the patient drugs with progesterone or estrogen. With ectopic pregnancy, the only way to save a woman’s life is through abortion. Inflammatory diseases of the reproductive system are treated with antibiotics. If malignant changes in the endometrium are observed, then an operation is performed.
Blood discharge between menstruation does not always lie in the plane of the physiological norm. A significant role in establishing the root causes of what is happening is played by the symptoms associated with rejection and the nature of the secretion throughout the entire menstrual cycle.
Gynecologists claim that there are a number of signs, in combination with any of which the appearance of blood blotches is considered as a symptom of a pathology. These include:
- bloody or brown dark discharge with an unpleasant odor;
- inguinal itching;
- burning sensation while urinating;
- constant pulling pain in the lower abdomen;
- acute pain in the “inguinal triangle”;
- spasmodic indicators in analyzes on the level of hormones;
- increased body temperature;
- the appearance of reddish blisters in the groin area;
- shifts in the menstrual cycle.
A number of pathologies can cause intermenstrual bleeding, aggravated by the above symptoms. Let’s consider them in more detail.
This disease is characterized by a strong inflammatory process in the tissues of the endometrium. Experts say that a similar phenomenon may appear due to complications from an abortion. At an early stage, the symptoms of the disease include a sharp increase in body temperature and a constant pulling pain in the lower abdomen.
The chronic stage of endometritis is manifested by intermenstrual bleeding. Sometimes they are indicated in the middle of the cycle, but more often smearing secretions with a smell in women are observed after menstruation.
Very often, the cause of bloody discharge between menstruation is infectious diseases that are transmitted from partner to partner during intercourse. Regardless of the bacteriological type of infection, brown secretion throughout the cycle is accompanied by characteristic uncomfortable sensations. These include:
- The presence of a tear-off substance has a characteristic nauseating smell associated by many women with the smell of rotten fish.
- The appearance of severe itching in the groin.
- The presence of blisters or acne on the labia.
- The presence of yellow or putrefactive green clots in the excreted secretions;
- Increased body temperature.
- Discharge with blood after intercourse.
- Burning during urination.
The course of treatment, very often, includes two stages. The first is an antibiotic effect, and the second is maintenance therapy. After the appointment of a course of treatment, it is necessary to strictly follow the doctor’s instructions and be observed by a specialist throughout the entire period of therapy. The transition of infectious diseases to the chronic stage is fraught not only with acquired infertility, but also with a fatal outcome.
This disease is characterized by the appearance of cicatricial and ulcerative formations in the cavities of the organs of the reproductive system. Experts say that erosion is a disease with mild symptoms.
In the early stages, a woman can only find out about the presence of an ailment during an examination on a gynecological chair. Moreover, the development of erosion is quite slow and the disease may not manifest itself for many years.
Undetected erosion, which passed into the chronic stage, can cause the appearance of brown discharge between menstruation. One of the complications that accompany this ailment is the development of acquired infertility.
A positive test, informing about the onset of pregnancy, brings not only a lot of positive emotions, but also a lot of anxieties and fears associated with worries about the health of the fetus and woman in childbirth. In the next nine months, it is necessary to carefully monitor the health of the woman and the secretions that signal the condition of the fetus and reproductive system.
An alarming symptom indicating abnormalities during pregnancy is mucous discharge with an admixture of blood that appears in the calendar cycle. Their reasons can be varied. Gynecologists admit the presence of blood secretion in the usual cycle at an early stage of the gestation period.
This phenomenon may indicate the attachment of a fertilized egg to the uterine wall or hormonal changes characteristic of the perinatal period.
Systematic mucous rejections with blood, which can be constantly released for several days, depending on the period, are symptoms of a missed pregnancy, premature detachment of the placenta or miscarriage. Learn the characteristics of vaginal discharge after a miscarriage by reference.
Experts recommend timely screening and taking supportive therapy so that the fetus develops organically.
Blood discharge between menstruation and malfunctions in the calendar menstrual cycle may indicate the presence of tumors in the organs of the female reproductive system.
Based on statistical data, experts argue that the most common causes of neoplasms are hormonal imbalances during menopause or complications from an abortion.
One of the most common types of tumors are polyps. Diagnosing an ailment at an early stage is very simple, just a series of examinations is enough.
Read the article on the link how to avoid surgery and whether the polyp can go out with menstruation.
The situation is complicated by the fact that the tumors do not have pronounced symptoms at an early stage. Women who have encountered this pathology can highlight several signs indicating the presence of a tumor:
- Constant feeling of tiredness.
- Discomfort during emptying of the stomach.
- Blood secretion in any period of the cycle.
- Low hemoglobin.
- Change in the cycle of calendar menstruation.
The causes of intermenstrual spotting spotting may lie in the hormonal imbalance that occurs against the background of thyroid gland dysfunction or a violation in the work of the adrenal glands. In this case, the spotting secretion may be bleeding in the middle of the cycle or a “shift” in the calendar menstruation.
Women who have encountered this disease, argue that if the hormonal background is disturbed, menstruation can go at any time, but always before the onset of critical days, the lower abdomen begins to ache strongly.
The reasons that trigger the processes leading to hormonal disorders are extremely diverse. But, from the total mass, a number of the most common are distinguished:
- Eating Disorders.
- Physical exercise.
- Change of climatic zones.
- The presence of stressful situations.
- Lack of daily routine.
Hormonal malfunctions occur “spontaneously”, but without proper treatment, such a pathology can cause irreparable harm to the female body. To control the level of hormones, it is necessary to take appropriate tests at least once every few months.
Intermenstrual mucous spotting, in most cases, is a physiological norm. But, the presence of aggravating symptoms may indicate a possible pathological process that affected the reproductive system. To diagnose the disease, you must immediately contact a specialist and pass a series of tests that help to draw up the correct history and find out the root cause of what is happening!
Spotting in the menstrual cycle can also occur for pathological reasons.
In contrast to physiological factors, they require medical treatment and are accompanied by symptoms:
- The discharge is accompanied by an unpleasant odor.
- Secretion can be pink, brown and yellow-green (in the presence of pus).
- Itching and burning during urination.
- An increase in temperature that does not subside without taking medications.
- Changes in the menstrual cycle. Delays may occur and the amount of discharge may change.
- Accompanied by pain in the lower abdomen, which are regular in nature.
If the listed symptoms accompany bleeding, a woman should consult a gynecologist for examination. Self-medication is unacceptable, as it can cause infertility, and also, untimely and incorrect treatment can harm other organs.
Endometritis, or inflammation of the inner layer of the uterus, can occur in acute and chronic form. The disease can be caused by a hormonal disorder or the ingestion of a virus, fungus or bacteria.
|Acute form||Chronic form|
|Causes||More often has an infectious nature. The causative agent can get in the process of prolonged childbirth, abortion.||It can develop if there was no proper treatment for the acute form of the disease, or with hormonal disorders.|
|Symptoms||Secretion by color can be red, brown and yellow-green (if pus is present in the secretions). In this case, bleeding is accompanied by an unpleasant and pungent odor. Additionally, there are symptoms:||Violation of the menstrual cycle and a change in the volume of secretions. In the intermenstrual period, scarce bleeding with the presence of an unpleasant odor is possible. Pain in the lower abdomen is constantly present, but not very pronounced. Strengthening occurs during menstruation and with intimacy.|
|Treatment||Occurs in a hospital in compliance with diet, rest and drinking regimen. Medicines are also prescribed:||Hormone therapy, physiotherapy (magnetotherapy, electrophoresis) and antibiotics (similar to those for the treatment of the acute form) are prescribed. To restore immunity, it is necessary to take immunomodulating drugs (ascorbic acid, vitamin E).|
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
Damage to the genital organs with an infection transmitted from the sexual partner can be accompanied by spotting. The secretion color (brown, greenish) will be determined by the type of pathogen and be accompanied by a smell similar to the aroma of spoiled fish.
Additionally, the following symptoms are present:
- itching in the groin area;
- the appearance of redness and acne in the intimate area;
- discomfort when urinating;
- the temperature rises to 37,5 degrees;
- the lymph nodes in the inguinal region are in an enlarged state;
- menstrual flow accompanied by severe pain.
- sexual intercourse is accompanied by pain and small spotting.
Sexually transmitted diseases can be cured by destroying the infection with antibiotics (penicillin, tetracycline, amoxicillin) and conducting maintenance therapy (taking vitamins and a set of physiotherapy procedures).
Both partners must undergo treatment, otherwise the treatment will be inappropriate. In the advanced stage, the disease threatens a woman with infertility and death.
This disease is characterized by damage to the skin of the cervix. With erosion, bleeding in the middle of the cycle can be caused by incomplete discharge of secretions during menstruation or after intimacy.
The disease proceeds without additional symptoms. The presence of minor pain during sex is sometimes possible. They occur due to dryness in the vagina. More often, erosion is detected during a gynecological examination by a specialist.
To eliminate erosion, a gynecologist appoints procedures that are performed immediately after the end of menstruation:
- laser or chemical moxibustion;
- exposure to radio waves;
- electric cauterization.
Treatment with folk remedies (douching with herbs) in the treatment is impractical. Without medical intervention, the disease cannot be cured. But if the disease is not started and the woman is about to give birth in the near future, then erosion can pass on her own after the birth.
If bleeding from the genital tract, which began in the middle of the menstrual cycle, is profuse, is accompanied by other pathological symptoms, pains, deterioration of well-being, it is necessary to be examined by a gynecologist to exclude possible diseases of the genitourinary and reproductive system.
The most common cause of spotting on the 10-14th day of the cycle is the pathology of the mucous membrane of the uterus (endometrium). Profuse, breakthrough uterine bleeding is often observed with excessive proliferation of the epithelial layer – endometrial hyperplasia. The disease is caused by an excess of sex hormones – progesterone and estrogen – and requires correction using hormonal drugs.
Other common endometrial pathologies are endometriosis and endometritis. Endometriosis is the pathological proliferation of tissues of the mucous membrane beyond this layer. If inflammation joins the process, the woman is diagnosed with endometritis. All disorders in the functioning of the endometrium are accompanied by characteristic symptoms, among which:
- pulling sensations in the lower back and lower abdomen;
- violation of the menstrual cycle;
- bloody daub between menstruation;
- problems with conception;
- soreness during intercourse;
- insufficient production of vaginal secretions (lubrication).
With various types of tumors, bleeding is chronic and appears in almost every cycle. Allocations can have a red or brown color (less often a light pink shade), are not accompanied by painful sensations, and usually have moderate intensity.
Types of tumors in the uterus, ovaries and other organs of the reproductive system
|Type of education||Picture||What it is?||Characterization of intermenstrual bleeding with this type of tumor|
|Myoma||Benign tumor of the myometrium – the muscle layer of the uterine wall||Jet, heavy bleeding. Blood tremors and blood clots may occur. It is difficult to stop using medical methods – in most cases, surgical intervention is required (if it is a diffuse form)|
|Polyp||The growth of the epithelial layer (its glandular structure) against the background of inflammatory processes in the organs of the genitourinary system. 94% of polyps are benign tumors||Rare, mild blood discharge (a few drops) in the middle or second half of the cycle. Not accompanied by any other symptoms|
|Fibroma||Benign nodular tumor of the muscle layer of the uterus||Breakthrough bleeding accompanied by pain in the lower abdomen, nausea, headache, dizziness, and other symptoms of poor health|
|Sarcoma||Malignant tumor that can occur in the muscle layer, connective fibers, embryonic primordia||Bleeding can take any form, but most often it is brown spotting from 10 to 18 days of the cycle|
Intermenstrual bleeding in most cases is a variant of the norm, but sometimes disturbances in the work of the most important organs of the reproductive system and even malignant processes can cause similar symptoms. Only the doctor can accurately determine the cause of the pathology after examination, collecting an anamnesis and studying the results of the examination.
When is an urgent gynecologist consultation needed?
In some cases, blood in the intermenstrual period requires emergency medical attention (ectopic pregnancy, acute stage of development of pathologies).
If you find the following symptoms, you must immediately call for emergency care:
- painkillers do not relieve a pain symptom;
- heavy bleeding, pads last for 60 minutes;
- bleeding in the presence of pregnancy;
- temperature of 40 degrees and does not go astray.
If the symptoms are not very pronounced, but last more than 3 days. You need to consult a gynecologist to find out the cause and subsequent treatment. Self-medication or ignoring signs, for fear of going to the hospital, can be fatal.
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