The most common symptoms of intracranial hypertension (ICH) are headache and loss of vision, including in the form of blind spots, poor peripheral (lateral) vision, double vision and short-term episodes of blindness.
In some cases, patients may experience permanent vision loss.
Other symptoms include throbbing tinnitus and pain in the neck and shoulder joint.
Intracranial hypertension can be acute or chronic. In chronic ICH, increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure can cause edema and damage to the optic nerve – a condition called “optic nerve disc edema”.
Chronic ICH can be caused by many factors, including some medications, such as tetracycline, a blood clot in the brain, excessive intake of vitamin A, or a brain tumor.
The disease can begin without an established cause – the so-called idiopathic ICH.
Because the symptoms of a disease may resemble those of a brain tumor, this disease is also known as pseudotumor hypertension, or pseudotumor.
The brain has extremely sensitive tissue, and in particular this sensitivity is noted during mechanical action. It is for this reason that nature itself intended to place the brain not only in the bone box, which is the skull, but also in a special liquid medium that provides its protection (liquid subarachnoid spaces act as such a medium) in combination with liquid cavities also located in the bone box. The latter, as you may know, are the ventricles.
As a result, the statement of the fact that the brain is in suspension in the cerebrospinal fluid (or cerebrospinal fluid) will be true. This fluid is located directly in the cranial cavity, under a certain pressure. That is, the pressure exerted by the cerebrospinal fluid is the intracranial pressure that interests us.
You probably will not be surprised that normal indicators of this pressure are extremely important for the general well-being of a person. If an increase in intracranial pressure occurs, then the reason for this is not an exacerbation or development of this factor as the main independent disease, but only a consequence of one or another type of neurological disease, that is, intracranial hypertension in this case is itself a symptom of any of the diseases .
The ventricles and fluid spaces existing in the brain are interconnected by ducts, while the cerebrospinal fluid is in constant circulation. So, its isolation occurs in some brain departments, after which it flows through the cerebrospinal ducts to other brain departments and it is here that they are absorbed directly into the bloodstream. It is noteworthy that the cerebrospinal fluid is completely updated, and this happens about seven times a day.
With an excess of cerebrospinal fluid accumulation, accordingly, an increase in pressure from its side occurs, which specifically affects the substance of the brain. Here, as we have already noted, we are talking about increased intracranial pressure. Most often, among the factors leading to an increase in intracranial pressure, the following are distinguished:
- excessive allocation of cerebrospinal fluid;
- insufficient degree of absorption of cerebrospinal fluid;
- violation of patency in the circulation paths of cerebrospinal fluid.
Directly among the reasons that provoke, in fact, intracranial hypertension, the following factors of influence are determined:
- craniocerebral injuries (and even in cases where it can be called long-standing, including birth injuries of this type, as well as bruises and concussions);
- encephalitis, meningitis;
- poisoning (especially when it comes to their alcoholic and medicinal varieties);
- congenital features relevant to the structure of the central nervous system (intracranial idiopathic hypertension, Arnold-Chiari anomaly, etc.);
- disorders in the vessels of the blood circulation brain (which in particular can occur under the influence of factors such as osteochondrosis, encephalopathy, ischemia, etc.);
- volumetric intracranial processes (cerebral hemorrhages, tumors, intracranial hematomas, etc.).
Intracranial hypertension is a medical term by which the pathological process of increasing pressure in the vessels directly supplying brain tissue is hidden. Such a violation can be both acute and chronic. An increase in intracranial pressure is a serious danger, since such a deviation can provoke the development of life-threatening complications, including ruptures of the walls of blood vessels, accompanied by hemorrhages in the tissue.
What is intracranial hypertension is familiar even to those people who do not suffer from severe pathologies. Often, such a violation is observed with physical stress or colds. It is accompanied by a severe headache. Most often, intracranial hypertension is observed in adults.
The skull box is an extremely limited space in which not only brain tissue is constantly located, but also a certain amount of cerebrospinal fluid and blood. A change in the existing physiological balance inevitably leads to an increase in intracranial pressure. It is worth noting that even physical overload can provoke a short-term change in intracranial pressure.
At the same time, it should be borne in mind that increased intracranial pressure is a companion of many pathologies. All causes of hypertension can be divided into 4 large groups. The first group of factors contributing to an increase in intracranial pressure include various volume formations that form in the cranial cavity, for example:
- primary and metastatic tumors;
- aneurysms of the vessel.
Hypertension or other hypertension significantly increases the likelihood of a stroke, heart attack, vascular disease and chronic kidney disease. Due to morbidity, mortality and costs to society, the prevention and treatment of hypertension is an important public health problem.
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- Development mechanisms
- Causes of the disease
- Causes of intracranial hypertension in adults
- Classification and main symptoms
- Intracranial hypertension in children: symptoms
- РЎРёРјРїС‚РѕРјС ‹Сѓ РІР · СЂРѕСЃР» С ‹С…
- Signs of intracranial hypertension
- Classification and main symptoms
- How to identify
- Treatment of intracranial hypertension
- Complications of the disease
Why hypertension occurs is still unclear. The mechanism of its development has many factors and is very complex. It involves various chemicals, vascular reactivity and tone, blood viscosity, the work of the heart and nervous system. A genetic predisposition to the development of hypertension is assumed.
One of the modern hypotheses is the idea of immune disorders in the body. Immune cells impregnate target organs (vessels, kidneys) and cause a permanent violation of their work. This was noted, in particular, in people with HIV infection and in patients who took drugs for a long time to suppress immunity.
In the beginning, labile arterial hypertension is usually formed. It is accompanied by instability of pressure figures, enhanced heart function, increased vascular tone. This is the first stage of the disease. At this time, diastolic hypertension is often recorded – an increase in only the lower pressure figure. This is especially common in young women who are overweight and are associated with edema of the vascular wall and increased peripheral resistance.
Subsequently, the increase in pressure becomes constant, the aorta, heart, kidneys, retina and brain are affected. The second stage of the disease begins. The third stage is characterized by the development of complications from the affected organs – myocardial infarction, renal failure, impaired vision, stroke and other serious conditions. Therefore, even labile arterial hypertension requires timely detection and treatment.
Progression of hypertension usually looks like this:
- transient arterial hypertension (temporary, only with stress or hormonal disruptions) in people 10-30 years old, accompanied by an increase in cardiac output;
- early, often labile arterial hypertension in people under 40 years of age who already have an increase in resistance to the blood flow of small vessels;
- disease with target organ damage in people 30-50 years old;
- complications in the elderly; at this time, after a heart attack, the heart muscle weakens, heart function and cardiac output decrease, and blood pressure often decreases – this condition is called “headless hypertension” and is a sign of heart failure.
The development of the disease is closely associated with hormonal disorders in the body, especially in the “renin – angiotensin – aldosterone” system, which is responsible for the amount of water in the body and vascular tone.
Causes of the disease
Causes of intracranial hypertension in adults
The change in pressure is the result of various adverse effects. Violation of the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid provoke the following etiological factors:
- The formation of a tumor in the cranial cavity. Neoplasms are able to compress both the brain itself and the vessels and lymphatic pathways that feed it. Such changes disrupt the process of fluid outflow, which leads to the occurrence of intracranial hypertension syndrome.
- A common cause of pressure changes is damage to arteries and veins. A stroke is a dangerous condition accompanied by the development of ischemic processes in the tissues of the brain. Intracranial hypertension may result from a hemorrhagic type of disease.
- The formation of hematomas as a result of injuries. In case of damage to large vessels or bones, compression of structures located in the cranial cavity is recorded. In addition, as a result of traffic accidents, accidents or injuries sustained in the army during the hostilities, disturbances in the work of other organs are often noted, which only aggravates the manifestations of the lesion and increases bleeding.
- Inflammatory diseases of the brain and its membranes are encephalitis and meningitis. Viral and bacterial agents provoke inflammation of the cerebral structures, which leads to an increase in their volume. Such changes disrupt the normal flow of fluid through the vessels in the cranial cavity, which leads to increased intracranial pressure.
- Heart failure, as well as terminal stages of damage to kidney function. These structures control the overall level of pressure throughout the body. If their work is disturbed, patients often suffer from hypertension, including the brain. Common consequences of such chronic problems are cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension.
- Obstructive pulmonary disease provokes hemodynamic changes in the pulmonary circulation. This leads to a gradual increase in hypertension, which affects not only the respiratory system, but also the function of all other organs. The brain also suffers. The situation is aggravated by an increase in hypoxia due to a decrease in the ability of the lungs to enrich blood with oxygen.
In rare cases, intracranial hypertension can also form in the absence of damaging factors. A similar phenomenon occurs in children and adults, cases have been recorded in pregnant women. The condition is characterized by a relatively mild course and passes on its own when the exposure to negative factors ceases. This process is called “benign intracranial hypertension.”
This syndrome does not always have obvious reasons for the appearance, therefore, before treating it, the doctor should carefully examine his patient to understand what caused such disorders and what measures should be taken to eliminate them.
Cerebral hypertension can occur due to various reasons. It arises due to the formation of a tumor or hematoma in the cranium, for example, due to hemorrhagic stroke. In this case, hypertension is understandable. A tumor or hematoma has its own volume. Increasing, one or the other begins to put pressure on the surrounding tissue, which in this case is the brain tissue.
Hypertension also occurs as a result of hydrocephalus (dropsy of the brain), diseases such as encephalitis or meningitis, with violations of the water-electrolyte balance, any traumatic brain injuries. In general, we can say that this syndrome appears as a result of those diseases that contribute to the development of cerebral edema.
Sometimes there is intracranial hypertension in a child. The reason for this may be:
- Any congenital malformations.
- Adverse pregnancy or childbirth in the mother of the baby.
- Prolonged oxygen starvation.
- Intrauterine infections or neuroinfections.
Often, a headache can be caused by a cold, lack of sleep, and overwork. It appears due to increased intracranial pressure. If headaches acquire a constant pronounced character – this is a signal for contacting the Yusupov hospital.
Benign intracranial hypertension is an increase in pressure inside the cranium that is not associated with the occurrence of any pathological process in the body. Headaches appear due to certain medications or due to obesity.
In a healthy person, the volume of the brain consists of certain proportions of the volumes of its fluids and tissues – cerebrospinal fluid, blood and interstitial fluid. When the volume of one of these components increases, the blood pressure in the cranium increases.
In case of violation of the outflow from the skull of the cerebrospinal fluid, the volume of cerebrospinal fluid increases and the pressure rises. An increase in the total volume of brain fluids leads to hemorrhages with the formation of hematomas.
The difference in fluid pressure can lead to a displacement of brain structures relative to each other. Such a pathology leads to a partial or complete disruption of the normal functioning of the nervous system.
With cerebral edema, an increase in the volume of brain structures occurs and intracranial hypertension is diagnosed.
Classification and main symptoms
The separation of pathology into types is used to select the tactics for treating an ailment. At the same time, several characteristics of the disease are used to differentiate. The main are two classifications of intracranial hypertension:
- With the course, acute and chronic forms of the problem are distinguished. The first occurs due to a sharp disruption of the cerebrospinal fluid or blood flow in the cranial cavity. Similar changes form on the background of injuries, can also be a consequence of hemorrhagic stroke. The chronic form of the disease is diagnosed when taking certain drugs, for example, with prolonged use of hormonal drugs. The terminal stages of heart and kidney failure, pulmonary emphysema also lead to problems.
- By the nature of pathogenesis, four types of disease are differentiated. The first form is venous, resulting from a violation of the function of the corresponding vessels. A similar condition is observed with thrombosis, compression of the circulatory network by tumor masses, and is also formed in severe respiratory diseases. Liquor hypertension is noted in violation of the outflow of fluid, as well as with an increase in its formation. The cause of these problems are most often oncological processes. This type is common in children with congenital defects in the structure of the skull and brain. In a separate diagnosis, benign or idiopathic hypertension is made. This condition is associated with the most favorable prognosis. It occurs when various factors act, for example, during malnutrition or hormonal disruptions, and when the cause is eliminated, it passes on its own and does not require treatment.
The main symptoms of intracranial hypertension include:
- Dizziness and pain in the temple and neck, which can also give off to the neck and eyes. Unpleasant sensations arise due to compression of the nerve structures, can form suddenly and have a long-lasting character.
- Patients complain of aggravation of general health. Patients become irritable, quickly get tired, it is difficult for them to concentrate. Often diagnosed with sleep disorders, which only exacerbate the situation.
- A characteristic sign of intracranial hypertension is nausea and vomiting, which are not accompanied by an improvement in a person’s condition.
- Common manifestations of an increase in intracranial pressure are also considered to be violations of the analyzers, that is, a decrease in visual acuity, the occurrence of tinnitus.
Intracranial hypertension in children: symptoms
The syndrome of intracranial hypertension manifests itself in different ways, depending on the location of the pathology, which causes increased intracranial pressure, as well as on the stage of the disease and the rate of its development.
Moderate intracranial hypertension manifests itself in the form of:
- bouts of nausea and vomiting;
- blurred consciousness;
Signs of intracranial hypertension as pathology develops are often expressed by visual impairment. With severely increased intracranial pressure, loss of consciousness, hearing impairment, speech, smell, etc. can be observed.
Depending on the nature of the displacement of the brain lobes, arterial hypertension, respiratory failure and normal heart function can be observed. In women of reproductive age, intracranial hypertension syndrome can develop with menstrual irregularities, during pregnancy, with obesity, or as a result of taking certain medications. Pathology can develop against the background of infectious diseases, in particular, syphilis.
In children, idiopathic intracranial hypertension (benign) is often diagnosed after taking the tetracycline antibiotic, large doses of vitamin A or corticosteroids. There is no connection between increased intracranial pressure and the development of any disease.
Intracranial hypertension in newborns can occur for several reasons:
- as a result of injuries at the time of delivery;
- due to an infectious disease of the mother during pregnancy;
- due to congenital hydrocephalus (dropsy) of the brain, that is, an increase in ventricular volume.
In young children, intracranial hypertension has symptoms in the form of impaired development, rolling of the eyeballs, forehead bulge, lack of reaction in the child to a harsh light.
In older children, intracranial hypertension is manifested by headaches, drowsiness, visual impairment, strabismus.
Among the causes of the occurrence of hypertension-hydrocephalic syndrome in children, which is determined by the disease that we consider in the general case, are the following factors:
- pregnancy / childbirth with an unfavorable course;
- deep degree of prematurity;
- brain damage hypoxic-ischemic scale;
- intrauterine infections;
- congenital malformations of the brain, etc.
Due to fontanelles and open cranial sutures in children, the course of the disease we are considering is characterized by the erasure of clinical manifestations. The increase in the volume of the head circumference during this period is affected by the opening of fontanelles and sutures, due to which the brain has the ability to compensate for a certain time in the absence of the inherent hypertension of the clinic.
Among the manifestations characteristic of intracranial hypertension, the following options are distinguished:
- poor sucking;
- the progression noted when considering an increase in head circumference (of the order of 60cm);
- piercing crying;
- tension of fontanelles and their bulging, as well as the lack of ripple in them;
- expansion of veins located from the scalp;
- divergence of cranial sutures;
- the appearance of the “setting sun” symptom, in which the baby’s eyes look down while the lower part of the iris is simultaneously covered and the visible part appears from above a wide strip of sclera);
- increased muscle tone;
- atrophy of the optic nerves.
Children whose age exceeds 1 year with closed sutures and fontanelles often have signs characteristic of intracranial hypertension with its fairly rapid development (about several days). As for its manifestations, they consist of long and sufficiently strong paroxysmal headaches, whose amplification is especially noted in the morning. In addition, headaches are accompanied by vomiting, which does not bring proper relief.
Behavior of children also changes. So, initially the children are restless, a little later they become more lethargic and inactive. In some cases, the head is in a fixed position with simultaneous tension, the expression on the child’s face becomes painful.
The fundus indicates the presence of congestive disks in the optic nerves, and they are characterized by a different degree of severity. With a current decrease in visual acuity, the correction applied to it does not bring any results. In a complex, the manifestations of the disease require immediate hospitalization, because they can indicate the beginning of the formation of hydrocephalus.
It is noteworthy that none of the listed symptoms, considered separately, is the basis for the approval of such a diagnosis as intracranial hypertension in a child. Even if there are several symptoms, it is important to immediately seek medical help.
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Patients with ICH usually have symptoms associated with increased VD and swelling of the optic nerve head.
Symptoms of elevated VD may include:
- throbbing ringing in the ears;
- headaches, as a rule, are nonspecific and varying in type, location and frequency;
- visual insufficiency (as a rule, loss of visual field, but rarely loss of its acuity);
- radicular pain caused by compression of the roots of the spinal nerves – usually in the arms and shoulders (a rare symptom);
- diplopia (double vision), usually in a horizontal position (due to non-localized paralysis of the sixth nerve), and rarely in the vertical.
Visual symptoms including swelling of the optic disc include:
- transient visual clouding, mainly or uniformly orthostatic;
- blurring and distortion (metamorphopsia) of central vision due to macular edema or optical neuropathy;
- sudden loss of vision, for example, with lightning-fast development of intracranial hypertension;
- progressive loss of peripheral vision in one or both eyes associated with defects in the layer of nerve fibers and an increase in the blind spot.
Non-specific symptoms may include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, photopsy, and retrobulbar pain.
The most significant physical symptom of the disease is bilateral edema of the optic disc, secondary to increased VD.
Rarely and in more severe cases, macula involvement may be present followed by edema and a decrease in central visual acuity.
Due to the effect on the brain substance of high pressure, possible disorders of the central nervous system become possible, which also determines the corresponding symptoms:
- headaches, heaviness in the head, in particular, manifested in the morning and at night (second half of the night);
- vegetative-vascular dystonia, which, in turn, manifests itself in the form of high / low blood pressure, sweating, tachycardia, in fainting conditions, etc .;
- nausea, vomiting in the morning (noted, as a rule, in the severe course of the processes characteristic of the disease);
- “Bruises” appearing under the eyes (when pulling under the eyes of the skin, you can notice veins that underwent a characteristic expansion);
- decreased potency, sexual desire;
- the adoption of a horizontal position by the body leads to a more intense allocation of cerebrospinal fluid with its slower absorption, which determines the causes of the peak of symptoms in the morning and at night;
- the lower the atmospheric pressure, the higher the intracranial pressure becomes, accordingly, a change in weather can provoke a deterioration in the general condition of the patient.
Signs of intracranial hypertension
Symptoms of high pressure are not so difficult to distinguish. However, the signs that are not always manifested are confirmed for such a diagnosis. The device of the central nervous system is such that with various disorders the symptoms will be duplicated. So, with vegetovascular dystonia and hypertension, the head can equally hurt, the mood or complexion changes during an attack.
- change in sleep mode, biorhythm failure;
- periodic tremor of limbs, chin;
- nose bleed.
The spectrum of such signs is extensive, the central nervous system can give any symptom. But even provided that these are symptoms in adults and not intracranial hypertension, specialist advice is necessary.
The increased pressure in the cranial box in each person manifests itself in different ways, so the signs of intracranial hypertension are too diverse. These include:
- Nausea and vomiting, which usually occur in the morning.
- Increased nervousness.
- Permanent bruising under the eyes, with a normal lifestyle and adequate sleep. If you stretch the skin on such a bruise, you can see the dilated vessels.
- Frequent headaches and, in general, heaviness in the head. Pain can be a symptom of intracranial hypertension if they appear in the morning or at night. This is understandable, since when a person lies, he actively produces brain flu />
- Constant fatigue that appears even after small exertion, both mental and physical.
- Frequent jumps in blood pressure, periodically occurring fainting conditions, sweating and a strong palpitations felt by the patient.
- Hypersensitivity to weather changes. Such a person becomes ill with a decrease in atmospheric pressure. But this phenomenon is quite common.
- Decreased libido.
Some of these signs in themselves already indicate that the patient may have intracranial hypertension syndrome, while the rest can also be observed with other diseases. However, if a person has noticed at least some of the symptoms listed above, he needs to see a doctor for a serious examination until complications of the disease appear.
Classification and main symptoms
The symptomatic picture of “adult” intracranial hypertension is built by specialists in a certain algorithm of events. Based on the observations, the doctor displays a set of symptoms that appear with pathology. And when the patient voices his complaints, the specialist at the initial appointment correlates them with the “cheat sheet”.
Most often, patients complain of persistent headaches. Additionally, several manifestations may bother:
- pain in the eyeballs;
- nausea and vomiting without relief;
- psycho-emotional imbalance;
- pain resistance;
- redness of the skin of the face, neck;
- clear weather dependence.
At an external examination, a specialist assesses the condition of the eyelids. The bottom line is that the skin on the eyelids is especially thin, normally a venous network is not visible under it. But with increasing pressure, it appears clearly and creates an imitation of bruises. Retouching with creams such “bruises” is impossible.
With severe lesions, there is a decrease in sexual desire on both sides. But men who have such symptoms provoke a psychosomatic disorder against the background of sexual weakness suffer harder. In these cases, the range of symptoms expands. Added irritability, aggression, followed by complete apathy.
Often patients complain of a feeling of heaviness and a rush of blood to the head, especially true for the night phase. Liquor at this moment is actively produced, but the absorption process is reduced. The amount of cerebrospinal fluid is growing, creating pressure and such an unpleasant sensation.
If intracranial hypertension symptomatically manifests symptoms, and the urgency of treatment is obvious, it is necessary to conduct a full examination to establish the root cause of the condition.
How to identify
First of all, you need to understand that this pathology can be congenital and simply not manifest itself until adulthood. But most often in babies it manifests itself in childhood, while in adults the disease develops under the influence of a number of provoking factors. Symptoms will also depend directly on the causes.
It must be understood that increased pressure inside the skull is associated with excessive production of cerebral fluid. That is why headaches and other symptoms become more noticeable at night or at rest – in the supine position, cerebral fluid is produced more actively, and is absorbed more slowly. It is its significant accumulation in the cranial cavity that exerts excessive pressure.
It is often difficult to establish the true cause of this problem right away. This requires a thorough examination of the patient, as well as serious examinations. But still, the occurrence of this unpleasant phenomenon often has the following reasons:
- a brain tumor;
- hematoma. May be caused by traumatic brain injury or hemorrhagic stroke;
- encephalitis, meningitis;
- dropsy of the brain.
Simply put, this problem is often caused by the appearance of some neoplasm (or fluid) in the cranium that has its own volume and compression of brain tissue occurs because the neoplasm also begins to occupy a certain area there.
Also, causes may include congestive heart failure, lung problems, impaired blood flow through the veins. In any case, it is necessary to establish the cause as soon as possible and eliminate it. This is the only way to deal with the problem. Without resolving the problem, any therapy will be ineffective.
Intracranial hypertension in adults has a variety of symptoms. It can manifest itself as you like, depending on the stage of the disease, the nature of its course, as well as the individual characteristics of the patient’s body.
It is customary to distinguish the following main manifestations, which are most often found with this disease:
- nausea, vomiting. Most often seen in the morning;
- increased nervousness, anxiety, fatigue;
- bruises under the eyes. They persist even with the right lifestyle and adequate sleep. If the skin on the bruise is slightly tightened, then the dilated vessels are clearly visible there;
- headache. They occur at night or in the morning and can have different intensities. At the same time appear almost every day;
- frequent changes in blood pressure. Moreover, such conditions are accompanied by a strong heartbeat;
- decreased libido;
- highly dependent on the weather. With a decrease in atmospheric pressure, such people begin to feel much worse.
The problem is that these symptoms can be characteristic of a number of other diseases, so making an accurate diagnosis is often quite problematic.
Types of diagnosis of pathology are:
- measuring intracranial pressure by introducing a needle into the fluid cavities of the skull or spinal canal with a pressure gauge attached to it.
- tracking the degree of blood supply and expansion of the veins of the eyeball. If the patient has red eyes, that is, the eye veins are abundantly filled with blood and are clearly visible, we can talk about increased intracranial pressure;
- ultrasound examination of cerebral vessels;
- magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography: explores the expansion of fluid cavities of the brain, as well as the degree of rarefaction of the edges of the ventricle;
- conducting an encephalogram.
Treatment of intracranial hypertension
Treatment of intracranial hypertension should be started at the moment of detection of the first signs. Uncontrolled and chaotic pressure can degrade the patient’s quality of life. The main step is to identify the primary source that caused the pathology. The treatment regimen and prognosis depend on this.
If hypertension begins to stop in a timely manner, then there is a chance to do without prescribing medications. At the initial stage, while the disease is only forming, it is necessary to conduct a correction of lifestyle. It is important to achieve a combination of several components:
- normalization of rest and work;
- nutritional balance;
- refusal of destructive habits;
- occupational gymnastics.
With a high value of cerebrospinal fluid, diuretics can be prescribed. They are necessary to improve the outflow and stabilize the condition, especially true if there is a history of swelling. Medicines are prescribed to maintain pressure at acceptable values. The basis of therapy is to reduce the activity of cerebrospinal fluid production and restore normal absorption rate.
At the same time, drugs are prescribed that reduce the severity of the pain threshold. More often it is Antimigrin or its analogues. If necessary, anti-inflammatory non-steroid drugs are included in the treatment regimen.
The specific treatment regimen and course depend on the underlying disease. If tumors are detected, it is first required to remove it and only then select therapy. In malignant formations, when therapy is useless, a puncture is prescribed. The procedure is carried out only for acute indications and only in specialized clinics.
In intracranial hypertension, treatment can be multifaceted and difficult, especially in severe cases. However, it is necessary to achieve remission and adjust the current treatment regimen.
The doctor chooses the tactics of combating the disease on the basis of the diagnosis. In an acute problem, the patient may need emergency care, that is, hospitalization in intensive care. For chronic problems, treatment of intracranial hypertension is performed on an outpatient basis. Both medications and surgical techniques are used. With the permission of the doctor, folk remedies made at home are also used.
When the patient is in a stable condition, they resort to conservative methods of treatment. If a person enters a medical facility with an injury or stroke, more drastic measures may be required. Two traditional methods of combating pathology are common:
- Therapy of intracranial hypertension is based on the use of medicines of various groups. Diuretics are prescribed, for example, Mannit, Diakarb and Furosemide, which help to remove excess fluid from the body. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used in many diseases, as they have an analgesic effect. Means such as Diclofenac and Ketonal are also used to reduce the severity of swelling of cerebral structures. If the patient is diagnosed with a hematoma due to rupture of large vessels, hemostatic agents are prescribed, for example, Ethamsylate. In the period of recovery after a disease, nootropic medicines are widely used, a popular representative of which is Piracetam. When an infection is detected, antibacterial drugs are prescribed. Vasodilators, such as Magnesium Sulfate, are used with caution.
- Surgical techniques are used in the absence of the proper effect of conservative therapy. The operation is performed to eliminate the effects of injuries, lowering the hematoma and suturing damaged vessels. When a large amount of fluid accumulates in the cavity of the ventricles of the brain, shunting is performed. This technique allows you to create a drainage system that will facilitate the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid, which greatly improves the patient’s condition.
Several basic surgical approaches are used that are aimed at combating the cause of the problem or eliminating its consequences:
- Resection of intracranial masses leading to increased pressure. Tumors that compress cerebral structures should be removed. Acute conditions requiring emergency surgery include hematomas, especially epidurals, since this bleeding is associated with blood pressure. Such operations include a procedure for removing an abscess of the brain, as well as correction of the formed pneumocephalus, if it leads to hypertension.
- As an auxiliary method, a drainage installation or shunting is used. Even the creation of a slight outflow of cerebrospinal fluid significantly improves the patient’s condition.
- Decompressive craniotomy is one of the radical measures for ICH. The procedure involves the creation of a kind of window in the cranial vault, which helps to reduce the level of pressure. It is worth considering that such an operation is used to obtain a temporary result in order to stabilize the patient. After the intervention, patients are placed in the intensive care unit, and also introduced into an artificial coma.
To reduce the level of intracranial pressure, various recipes are used. The most effective of them are decoctions.
- A decoction of nettle leaves and a string helps a person feel better. The ingredients are taken in equal proportions. Three tablespoons of the mixture is poured with a liter of water and boiled for 10 minutes. After the solution is cooled, filtered and taken in 50 ml before meals.
- Hop cones are widely used in folk medicine. To prepare the medicine, you need two tablespoons of the ingredient. They are poured with a glass of water, boiled for 10 minutes, after which they are left to infuse for half an hour. The finished product is taken in half a glass in the morning before meals.
- Mulberry broth fights headache well. 20 g of plant branches are taken, which are poured with a liter of water. The solution is cooked for half an hour, after which it cools and filtered. The tool is taken in a glass before meals.
Anton, 28 years old, Moscow
I had an accident, got a head injury. I was taken to a hospital, put in intensive care. Did analyzes, X-ray and MRI. Diagnosed with intracranial hypertension. I spent a week under the droppers. Pricked diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antibiotics. After my condition stabilized, I was discharged home.
Marina, 33 years old, Saratov
During pregnancy, my head hurt, she was constantly sick. At first, it was associated with toxicosis. But it didn’t get better for me, so I decided to see a doctor. Doctors have revealed benign intracranial hypertension. They say it arose due to hormonal changes. I was treated with folk remedies – decoctions of mulberry, nettle and lemon balm. After the birth of the baby, the symptoms disappeared.
Increased intracranial pressure can lead to a decrease in the intellectual abilities of the patient, impaired normal functioning of the internal organs. Therefore, this pathology requires the immediate start of treatment aimed at reducing intracranial pressure.
Treatment can be carried out only with the correct diagnosis of the causes of pathology. For example, if intracranial hypertension has arisen due to the development of a tumor or hematoma of the brain, then surgical intervention is required. Removal of a hematoma or neoplasm leads to normalization of intracranial pressure.
When increased intracranial pressure is a consequence of inflammatory processes in the body (meningitis, encephalitis, etc.), then the only effective method of therapy is massive antibiotic therapy. In this case, antibacterial drugs can be injected into the subarachnoid space in combination with the extraction of part of the cerebrospinal fluid.
Therapy is aimed at reducing the allocation of CSF volume with a simultaneous increase in its absorption. For this purpose, patients are prescribed diuretics.
Quite often, treatment does not require any medication. A complex of gymnastic exercises is developed for the patient, the implementation of which leads to a decrease in intracranial pressure. Also, adjustments are made to the diet and individually develop a drinking regime.
In postoperative, congenital cerebrospinal fluid block or other severe cases, surgical treatment is indicated. The most common type of surgical intervention is bypass surgery, that is, the introduction of a special tube at one end into the abdominal cavity or cavity of the heart, and the other into the cerebrospinal fluid. Thus, an excess volume of cerebrospinal fluid is constantly removed from the skull, leading to a decrease in pressure.
When intracranial pressure rises at a very high speed and there is a threat to the patient’s life, urgent measures are required to save the patient. In this case, the patient is injected with a hyperosmolar solution intravenously, artificial ventilation of the lungs is carried out, the patient is injected into the drug coma and an excess of cerebrospinal fluid is removed by puncture.
The most aggressive treatment that is resorted to in the most difficult cases is decompressive craniotomy. At the time of surgery, a skull defect is created on one or both sides, so that the brain does not rest against the bones of the skull.
Intracranial hypertension can be completely eliminated provided that the causes that caused it (tumor, poor blood outflow, etc.) are eliminated.
Intracranial hypertension is a pathological condition caused by diseases of the brain and not only. Pathology requires mandatory treatment in order to avoid the development of numerous and irreversible consequences. Do not postpone going to the doctor for any manifestations of increased intracranial pressure.
|Name of service||Cost|
|Cardiologist consultation||Price: 3600 rubles|
|ECG recording and decoding||Price: 1550 rubles|
|ECHO cardiography||Price: 6200 rubles|
|Treadmill Test||Price: 8250 rubles|
|Daily monitoring||Price: 3700 rubles|
Complications of the disease
If untreated, the disease leads to fatal consequences. The patient has severe neurological disorders. Sensitivity changes, disorders of coordination of movements, convulsions are recorded. The disease can be complicated by a decrease in visual acuity, up to its complete loss.
The outcome of the disease depends on the root cause of the problem, the rate of increase in pressure, as well as the timeliness of the treatment.
The brain is a very important organ. If he is in a compressed state, he simply loses his ability to function normally. The brain substance itself can atrophy in this case, which entails a decrease in the human intellectual abilities, and then malfunctions of the nervous regulation in the internal organs.
If at this time the patient does not seek help, compression of the brain often leads to its displacement and even wedging into the openings of the skull, which very quickly leads to death of a person. When squeezed and displaced, the brain is able to wedge itself into the large occipital foramen or into the notch of the cerebellum. At the same time, the vital centers of the brain stem are squeezed, and this ends in a fatal outcome. For example, death from respiratory arrest.
Wedging of the hook of the temporal lobe may also occur. In this case, the patient has an expansion of the pupil precisely on the side on which the wedging occurred, and the complete absence of its reaction to light. With increasing pressure, the second pupil will expand, there will be respiratory failure and a coma will follow.
When worms are wedged into the tenderloin, the patient is stunned, severe drowsiness and yawning, deep breaths made by him very often, narrowing of the pupils, which can then expand. The patient has a noticeable respiratory rhythm disturbance.
Also, high intracranial pressure entails a rapid loss of vision, because with this disease, atrophy of the optic nerve occurs.
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