The basis for the occurrence of intracranial hypertension is a number of reasons, conditionally divided into four categories:
- The occurrence of neoplasms (cyst, hematoma, abscess, aneurysm).
- Manifestation of edema (against a background of bruise, encephalitis, meningitis, hypoxia, bruise, stroke).
- Increase in blood volume (pathology of outflow or blood flow with hyperthermia, hypercapnia, encephalopathy and others).
- Violation of the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.
Indirect (implicit) causes of the disease are serious violations that occur in the body from the cardiovascular, circulatory and respiratory systems.
The reasons for the development of intracranial hypertension in children are severe congenital malformations, serious problems during pregnancy and childbirth, prematurity and infection.
Intracranial hypertension is an increased pressure in the cranium. Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the force with which intracerebral fluid is pressured on the brain.
Its increase, as a rule, is due to an increase in the volume of the contents of the cranial cavity (blood, cerebrospinal fluid, tissue fluid, foreign tissue). ICP can periodically increase or decrease due to changes in environmental conditions and the need for the body to adapt to them.
If its high values remain for a long time, the syndrome of intracranial hypertension is diagnosed.
The causes of the syndrome are various, most often these are congenital and acquired pathologies. Intracranial hypertension in children and adults develops with hypertension, cerebral edema, tumors, traumatic brain injuries, encephalitis, meningitis, hydrocephalus, hemorrhagic strokes, heart failure, hematomas, abscesses.
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- What it is?
- Basic Concepts
- Causes of
- Symptoms of increased and decreased intracranial pressure
- The manifestation of the disease in children
- Intracranial pressure: causes and principles of treatment
- Folk remedies
- Causes of
- Prognosis and prevention of intracranial hypertension
- Benign hypertension
- Intracranial hypertension syndrome in children and adults: signs, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
- Causes of appearance
- Diagnostic measures
- Methods of therapy
- The consequences of ICH
- Surgical procedures
- Treatment of intracranial pressure in adults – drugs and folk remedies at home
What it is?
Intracranial hypertension is a pathological condition in which pressure increases inside the skull. That is, in essence, this is nothing more than increased intracranial pressure.
Intracranial pressure is the difference in pressure in the cranial cavity and atmospheric. Normally, this indicator in adults is from 5 to 15 mmHg. The pathophysiology of intracranial pressure is subject to the Monroe-Kelly doctrine.
The basis of this concept is the dynamic balance of three components:
A change in the pressure level of one of the components should lead to a compensatory transformation of the others.
This is mainly due to the properties of blood and cerebrospinal fluid to maintain the constancy of acid-base balance, that is, to act as buffer systems.
In addition, the brain tissue and blood vessels have sufficient elasticity, which is an additional option to maintain such a balance. Due to such protective mechanisms, the normal pressure inside the cranium is maintained.
If any causes cause a breakdown in regulation (the so-called pressure conflict), intracranial hypertension (ICH) occurs.
In the absence of a focal reason for the development of the syndrome (for example, with moderate overproduction of cerebrospinal fluid or with slight venous discirculation), benign intracranial hypertension is formed.
Only this diagnosis is present in the international classification of diseases ICD 10 (code G93.2). There is a slightly different concept – “idiopathic intracranial hypertension.”
In this condition, the etiology of the syndrome cannot be established.
Most often, an increase in intracranial pressure occurs due to a violation of the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). This is possible with an increase in its production, a violation of its outflow, and a deterioration in its absorption.
Circulatory disorders cause a poor flow of arterial blood and its stagnation in the venous region, which increases the total volume of blood in the cranial cavity and also leads to an increase in intracranial pressure.
In general, the most common causes of intracranial hypertension may be:
- tumors of the cranial cavity, including metastases of tumors of a different localization;
- inflammatory processes (encephalitis, meningitis, abscess);
- congenital anomalies in the structure of the brain, blood vessels, the skull itself (contamination of the pathways of cerebrospinal flu >
This, of course, is far from all possible situations leading to the development of intracranial hypertension. I would also like to say about the existence of the so-called benign intracranial hypertension, when an increase in intracranial pressure arises as if for no reason.
In children, two types of pathology are distinguished:
- The syndrome slowly builds up in the first months of life when the fontanelles are not closed.
- The disease develops rapidly in children after a year when the seams and fontanelles are closed.
In children under one year of age, due to open cranial sutures and fontanelles, symptomatology is usually not pronounced. Compensation is due to the opening of sutures and fontanelles and an increase in head volume.
The first signs are characteristic of the first type of pathology:
- vomiting occurs several times a day;
- baby sleeps little;
- cranial sutures diverge;
- the child often cries for a long time for no reason;
- fontanelles swell, the ripple in them is not heard;
- veins are clearly visible under the skin;
- children are lagging behind in development, later they begin to hold their heads and sit;
- the skull is not large in age;
- bones of the skull are formed disproportionately, the forehead protrudes unnaturally;
- when the child is looking down, between the iris and the upper eyelid a white strip of eyeball protein is visible.
Each of these signs individually does not indicate increased pressure inside the skull, but the presence of at least two of them is an occasion to examine the child.
When fontanelles and cranial sutures overgrow, manifestations of intracranial hypertension become pronounced. At this time, the child has the following symptoms:
- persistent vomiting;
- loss of consciousness.
In this case, you must definitely call an ambulance.
The syndrome can develop at an older age. In children from two years of age, the disease manifests itself as follows:
- disturbed functions of the senses due to the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid;
- vomiting occurs;
- in the mornings, upon awakening, bursting headaches appear that press on the eyes;
- when rising, the pain weakens or recedes due to the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid;
- the child is stunted, overweight.
Increased ICP in children leads to impaired brain development, so it is important to detect pathology as early as possible.
This is one of the varieties of ICP, which can be attributed to a temporary phenomenon, which is caused by a number of adverse factors. The condition of benign intracranial hypertension is reversible and does not pose a serious danger, since in this case the compression of the brain does not occur due to the influence of any foreign body.
The following factors can cause DVG:
- Disruptions in the menstrual cycle;
- Cancellation of certain drugs;
- An overdose of vitamin A, etc.
Benign intracranial hypertension is associated with impaired absorption or outflow of cerebrospinal fluid. Patients complain of headaches that are worse when moving, and sometimes even when sneezing or coughing.
The main difference between the disease and classical cerebral hypertension is that the patient does not show any signs of depression of consciousness, and the condition itself does not have any consequences and does not require special treatment.
The brain is a vulnerable organ. Prolonged compression leads to atrophy of the nervous tissue, which means that mental development, the ability to move, and vegetative disorders occur.
If you do not consult a specialist in time, squeezing will be observed. The brain can be forced into the occipital foramen or into the notch of the cerebellum. At the same time, the medulla oblongata is compressed, where the centers of respiration and blood circulation are located. This will lead to the death of a person.
Pressing the tenderloin into the tenderloin is accompanied by constant drowsiness, yawning, breathing becomes deep and rapid, the pupils are noticeably narrowed. There is wedging of the hippocampus hook, a symptom of which is the expansion of the pupil or the absence of a light reaction on the side of the lesion.
An increase in pressure will lead to the expansion of the second pupil, failure of the rhythm of breathing and coma.
High intracranial pressure is always accompanied by loss of vision due to compression of the optic nerve.
For diagnosis, the pressure inside the skull is measured by inserting a needle attached to the manometer into the spinal canal or into the fluid cavities of the skull.
For the statement, a number of signs are taken into account:
- It is established by poor outflow of venous blood from the skull.
- According to MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and CT (computed tomography).
- Judged by the degree of dilution of the edges of the ventricles of the brain and the expansion of fluid cavities.
- According to the degree of expansion and blood supply of the veins of the eyeball.
- According to the ultrasound of the brain vessels.
- According to the results of the encephalogram.
- If the eye veins are clearly visible and very full of blood (red eyes), then we can indirectly state an increase in pressure inside the skull.
In practice, in most cases, for a more accurate diagnosis and the degree of development of the disease, differentiation of the symptoms of the clinical manifestation of hypertension is used in combination with the results of a hardware study of the brain.
What is the treatment for increased intracranial pressure? If it is benign hypertension, a neurologist prescribes diuretics. As a rule, this alone is enough to alleviate the condition of the patient.
However, this traditional treatment is not always acceptable for the patient and cannot always be performed by him. During working hours, you can’t “sit” on diuretics.
- Bruises under the eyes
- Rapid pulse
- High blood pressure
- Low blood pressure
- Increased intracranial pressure
- Decrease in potency
- Head enlargement
- Swelling and fontanel stress
- Lack of ripple in the fontanelles
- Bad sucking
The increase in intracranial pressure is due to a number of reasons that can be divided into 4 main groups. The first is the presence of a volumetric formation in the cranial cavity (primary or metastatic brain tumor, cyst, hematoma, cerebral aneurysm, brain abscess). The second is cerebral edema of a diffuse or local nature, which develops against the background of encephalitis, brain contusion, hypoxia, hepatic encephalopathy, ischemic stroke, and toxic lesions. Edema is not actually brain tissue, but cerebral membranes with meningitis and arachnoiditis also leads to cerebrospinal fluid hypertension.
The next group is the vascular nature of the causes that cause increased blood supply to the brain. Excessive blood volume inside the skull can be associated with an increase in its inflow (with hyperthermia, hypercapnia) or difficulty in its outflow from the cranial cavity (with discirculatory encephalopathy with impaired venous outflow). A fourth group of causes is cerebrospinal fluid disorders, which in turn are caused by an increase in cerebrospinal fluid production, impaired cerebrospinal fluid circulation, or decreased absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). In such cases, we are talking about hydrocephalus – an excessive accumulation of fluid in the cranium.
The causes of benign intracranial hypertension are not entirely clear. More often it develops in women and in many cases is associated with weight gain. In this regard, there is an assumption about a significant role in its formation of the endocrine rearrangement of the body. Experience has shown that the development of idiopathic intracranial hypertension can lead to excessive intake of vitamin A in the body, the use of certain pharmaceuticals, and the abolition of corticosteroids after a long period of their use.
Since the cranial cavity is a limited space, any increase in the size of the structures inside it entails a rise in intracranial pressure. The result is compression of the brain, expressed to varying degrees, leading to dysmetabolic changes in its neurons. A significant increase in intracranial pressure is dangerous by the displacement of cerebral structures (dislocation syndrome) with the engagement of the tonsils of the cerebellum into the large occipital foramen. In this case, a compression of the brain stem occurs, which entails a disruption of vital functions, since the respiratory and cardiovascular nerve centers are localized in the trunk.
In children, etiofactors of intracranial hypertension can be abnormalities in the development of the brain (microcephaly, congenital hydrocephalus, arteriovenous malformations of the brain), intracranial birth injury, previous intrauterine infection, fetal hypoxia, asphyxia of the newborn. In young children, the bones of the skull are softer, and the seams between them are elastic and supple. Such features contribute to significant compensation of intracranial hypertension, which sometimes provides for a long subclinical course.
Symptoms of increased and decreased intracranial pressure
The syndrome of intracranial hypertension manifests itself in different ways, depending on the location of the pathology, which causes increased intracranial pressure, as well as on the stage of the disease and the rate of its development.
Moderate intracranial hypertension manifests itself in the form of:
- bouts of nausea and vomiting;
- blurred consciousness;
Signs of intracranial hypertension as pathology develops are often expressed by visual impairment. With severely increased intracranial pressure, loss of consciousness, hearing impairment, speech, smell, etc. can be observed.
Depending on the nature of the displacement of the brain lobes, arterial hypertension, respiratory failure and normal heart function can be observed. In women of reproductive age, intracranial hypertension syndrome can develop with menstrual irregularities, during pregnancy, with obesity, or as a result of taking certain medications. Pathology can develop against the background of infectious diseases, in particular, syphilis.
In children, idiopathic intracranial hypertension (benign) is often diagnosed after taking the tetracycline antibiotic, large doses of vitamin A or corticosteroids. There is no connection between increased intracranial pressure and the development of any disease.
Intracranial hypertension in newborns can occur for several reasons:
- as a result of injuries at the time of delivery;
- due to an infectious disease of the mother during pregnancy;
- due to congenital hydrocephalus (dropsy) of the brain, that is, an increase in ventricular volume.
In young children, intracranial hypertension has symptoms in the form of impaired development, rolling of the eyeballs, forehead bulge, lack of reaction in the child to a harsh light.
In older children, intracranial hypertension is manifested by headaches, drowsiness, visual impairment, strabismus.
Intracranial hypertension is a syndromological diagnosis, often found in both adult and pediatric neurology. This is an increase in intracranial (intracranial) pressure. Since the level of the latter directly affects pressure in the cerebrospinal fluid system, intracranial hypertension is also called cerebrospinal fluid hypertension syndrome or cerebrospinal fluid hypertension syndrome. In most cases, intracranial hypertension is secondary and develops as a result of head injuries or various pathological processes inside the skull.
Primary, idiopathic, intracranial hypertension, classified by the ICD-10 as benign, is also widespread. It is a diagnosis of exclusion, that is, it is established only after all other reasons for increasing intracranial pressure have not been confirmed. In addition, acute and chronic intracranial hypertension is isolated. The first, as a rule, accompanies craniocerebral injuries and infectious processes, the second – vascular disorders, slowly growing intracerebral tumors, brain cysts. Chronic intracranial hypertension often acts as a residual consequence of acute intracranial processes (injuries, infections, strokes, toxic encephalopathies), as well as brain operations.
The main clinical substrate of cerebrospinal fluid syndrome is headache. Acute intracranial hypertension is accompanied by increasing intense headache, chronic – periodically increasing or constant. The localization of pain in the frontoparietal areas, its symmetry and the accompanying sensation of pressure on the eyeballs are characteristic. In some cases, patients describe a headache as “bursting”, “pressing on the eyes from the inside.” Often, along with a headache, there is a feeling of nausea, soreness with eye movements. With a significant increase in intracranial pressure, nausea with vomiting is possible.
Rapidly increasing acute intracranial hypertension, as a rule, leads to severe disorders of consciousness up to a coma. Chronic intracranial hypertension usually leads to a deterioration in the general condition of the patient – irritability, sleep disturbances, mental and physical fatigue, and increased meteosensitivity. It can occur with cerebrospinal fluid hypertension crises – sharp rises in intracranial pressure, clinically manifested by severe headache, nausea and vomiting, sometimes – short-term loss of consciousness.
Idiopathic cerebrospinal fluid hypertension in most cases is accompanied by transient visual disturbances in the form of blurring, blurred images, double vision. A decrease in visual acuity is observed in approximately 30% of patients. Secondary intracranial hypertension is accompanied by symptoms of the underlying disease (general infection, intoxication, cerebral, focal).
Liquor hypertension in children under one year of age manifests itself in behavioral changes (anxiety, tearfulness, moodiness, abandonment of the chest), frequent spitting up with a “fountain”, oculomotor disturbances, and fontanel swelling. Chronic intracranial hypertension in children can cause mental retardation with the formation of oligophrenia.
Intracranial pressure is a dangerous pathological condition in which intracranial fluid exerts excessive pressure on the cerebral cortex.
This condition is often accompanied by symptoms that worsen well-being and reduce performance.
What tablets for intracranial pressure should be taken, and with what can the medical treatment of such a disease be replaced and supplemented?
It is well known that the brain is the most complex biological construct currently known. Like any complex structure, the brain is very fragile, it is easy enough to damage it with fatal consequences for life processes.
That is why this body is reliably protected from external influences. In addition to a strong skull, cerebrospinal fluid, a special cerebrospinal fluid, protects it from tremors. Liquor moves with a certain speed, constantly updated. A full circle of circulation usually takes seven days.
But sometimes, due to various pathologies, the course of the cerebrospinal fluid is disturbed, and the fluid accumulates in a certain section of the cranium. As a result, the pressure, which under normal conditions is 10 to 17 mm Hg, rises. The brain suffers significantly from this effect, which can manifest itself in the form of various symptoms.
The main types of symptomatic manifestations are two. First of all, intracranial pressure is indicated by a headache that usually occurs in the morning, as well as with coughing, sneezing, and sharp turns of the head. Sometimes, pain in the neck and in the ridge may be added to it.
The second symptom is a temporary visual disturbance, sometimes very significant.
As a result of edema of the optic nerve, peripheral vision and the reaction of the eyes to the stimulus first worsen.
Then begins a decrease in the level of central vision, double vision, swelling of the eyelids.
How justified is the immediate use of drugs that reduce intracranial pressure? After all, any pharmaceutical agent affects not only organs and systems requiring intervention, but also the whole organism.
First of all, it is necessary to find out the cause of the increase in cranial pressure. After all, cerebrospinal fluid can accumulate both for fairly quickly eliminated reasons, and as a result of the development of dangerous diseases.
Pathologies leading to increased pressure include:
- various tumors;
- encephalitis – inflammation of the brain;
- hydrocephalus (mainly observed in a child);
- brain stroke.
In addition, causes of increased ICP can be meningitis, traumatic brain damage, oxygen starvation, poisoning with certain toxins, as well as excessive intake of vitamin A and even migraine.
Excess weight can also cause abnormal intracranial pressure.
In the case of concomitant diseases, the main efforts of physicians will be aimed at curing them. At the same time, a nonspecific increase in pressure, especially accompanied by migraines, requires symptomatic treatment, for which diet, healthy sleep, exercises that strengthen physical education and moderate intake of drugs are suitable.
In the treatment of intracranial hypertension, the same groups of drugs are used as for the correction of blood pressure. This is due to similar mechanisms of regulation of blood pressure and cerebrospinal fluid used by the body. Modern pharmacology has not developed specialized tools that could affect precisely the pressure created by the cerebrospinal fluid.
Such groups of drugs are used as diuretic agents that remove excess fluid, β-adrenergic blocking agents acting on adrenaline receptors, as well as ACE inhibitors that level the agotensin-converting enzyme.
In addition, additional drugs are widely used that do not directly affect the pressure, but are necessary in accordance with the general indicators of the patient’s body. It can be painkillers, barbiturates, glucocorticosteroids, plasma substitutes, and so on. To ensure normal health of patients, sedatives are prescribed.
Usually based on natural ingredients.
Most medicines are in the form of tablets and drops.
If the examination reveals the occurrence of inflammatory processes in the patient’s body, the introduction of antibiotic drugs is mandatory. Usually they are administered intravenously, drip.
The most common in the treatment of drugs, there are about a dozen. Unfortunately, all of them have side effects of a greater or lesser degree of severity, which must be taken into account in the treatment process.
From the group of diuretics, Diakarb and Glycerol are used, as well as vasoactive drugs – magnesium sulfate. These drugs act quite effectively, but differ in relative soreness of use.
The manifestation of the disease in children
Depending on the causes, a liquid pathology is classified according to the following criteria:
- Sharp. It appears suddenly due to a stroke, brain injury or a rapidly growing neoplasm. Most often fatal.
- Moderate. It occurs against the background of the development of vegetovascular dystonia or hypersensitivity to weather conditions. Moderate intracranial hypertension makes itself felt periodically, often due to a sharp change in weather.
- Venous It is the result of blood flow disorders due to compression of the veins. It often develops against the background of osteochondrosis, thrombosis, or the formation of a tumor.
- Idiopathic or benign. There are no obvious reasons for the origin. Since this form of hypertension is very insidious, we will talk about it a little lower.
Now let’s find out the main symptoms of the manifestation of the disease.
In newborns and preschool children, the development of intracranial hypertension is accompanied by a serious brain pathology, therefore this disease must be detected as soon as possible and consult a doctor as soon as possible.
In children, the course of the disease passes in two stages:
- Slow progression of the disease in the first six months of life (while fontanelles are not closed yet).
- The rapid development of the disease after a year (at a time when the fontanels have already closed).
The first type of intracranial hypertension is accompanied by such symptoms:
- frequent, prolonged crying for no reason;
- fontanel swelling, non-listening to ripple;
- divergence of cranial sutures;
- enlargement of the skull;
- disproportionate formation of the bones of the skull (the frontal part can strongly protrude forward);
- unnatural protrusion of veins;
- frequent vomiting;
- short anxious sleep;
- developmental lag.
If the baby has two or more signs from this list, you should immediately contact a pediatrician.
The second type of brain pathology is accompanied by intensively expressed indicators. First of all, it is:
- continuous vomiting
- panic anxiety;
- loss of consciousness.
If this is observed in the well-being of the child, you should definitely call an ambulance!
This disease can develop in later childhood. In this case, it is necessary to pay attention to such signs:
- headache in the morning;
- Pain in the eyes;
- emetic urges;
Intracranial pressure: causes and principles of treatment
Intracranial hypotension in some cases tends to regress on its own. Therefore, the management strategy for such patients is conservative. Treatment of intracranial hypotension is reduced in most cases to massive hydration of the patient’s body and caffeine intake against the background of bed rest and limitation of any loads.
However, with spontaneous intracranial hypotension resistant to conservative treatment, they resort to such manipulations as plasty of the dura mater or the introduction of a small amount of the patient’s own blood into the epidural space (the so-called blood patch). These medical manipulations are designed to eliminate the defect of the dura mater, which is the source of the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid.
Intracranial pressure (symptoms in adults with an idiopathic form of pathology regress under the influence of conservative therapy, which is reduced to taking diuretics) requires cautious treatment, in which it is necessary to take into account the serious effect of drugs on metabolic processes.
Special precautions are required when combining diuretic therapy with physiotherapeutic methods, since such a combination can increase fluid loss. To effectively remove excess fluid from the body, it is most often recommended to take hydrochlorothiazide or diacarb.
|Mechanism of action||It blocks the reverse absorption of chlorine and sodium ions in the proximal renal tubules.||Inhibits the activity of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which leads to the following effects:|
|Application mode||The initial dose ranges from 25 to 100 mg per day daily or 1 time in two days.|
Supportive – 25-50 mg per day every day or every other day.
|To achieve maximum diuretic effect, administration is carried out according to 1 of the following schemes:|
The daily dose is 250-375 mg.
Intracranial pressure (symptoms in adults can disrupt performance) has a very negative effect on the state of the nervous tissue. In order to prevent negative consequences and eliminate already trophic disturbances, it is recommended to use metabolic preparations, as well as nootropic drugs.
In order to improve microcirculation in the brain tissue, the following drugs are used:
- Cavinton (Vinpocetine);
- Trental (pentoxifylline);
When choosing a drug and treatment regimen, it is necessary to take into account the presence or absence of contraindications to the use of vasodilator drugs in the patient, as well as possible side effects.
|Application mode||Single dose of 5-10 mg; the frequency of administration 2-3 times a day for 1-2 months.||400 mg 2-3 times a day (depending on the clinical situation) for 1-2 months.||75 mg 2-3 times a day (admission should be carried out under the control of coagulation indicators)|
Intracranial pressure (symptoms in adults require differentiation with other diseases) can be a manifestation of other more serious conditions. In this case, the main focus of therapy is etiotropic treatment – a set of measures aimed at the cause of the pathology.
If a bacterial process is detected, antibiotic therapy is prescribed; in case of viral damage – massive infusion therapy under the control of intracranial and blood pressure. If the cause of the disease is a violation of cerebral circulation, vasoactive therapy becomes the main one – means aimed at preventing ischemic lesions of the brain tissue.
Drug therapy of intracranial hypotension is reduced to the introduction of an isotonic sodium chloride solution (from 1000 to 1500 ml) intravenously and subcutaneous administration of a 1% caffeine solution. In some cases, a decision is made about the injection into the subarachnoid space of an isotonic sodium chloride solution in an amount of 10-120 ml.
Therapeutic regimens for intracranial hypertension are most effective against the background of an optimal drinking regimen. The amount of fluid consumed for an adult is set within 1,5 liters per day.
The diagnosed decrease in intracranial pressure requires the introduction of a large amount of fluid into the diet – about 3 liters per day. The patient is recommended to drink plenty of water throughout the day.
In the treatment of intracranial hypertension, the following physiotherapeutic methods may be effective:
- magnetotherapy on the collar area;
- electrophoresis, which promotes the introduction of drugs into the body;
- light massage of the cervical-collar zone and the cervical spine;
- circular shower.
The acupuncture method is also applicable.
Intracranial pressure is better corrected with the help of complex therapy against the background of a health regimen. In particular, swimming and, in the absence of contraindications, a simple set of gymnastic exercises contribute to the overall strengthening of the body and increase its resistance to provoking factors.
Surgical intervention for intracranial hypertension is necessary when an increase in intracranial pressure is a symptom of a volumetric process localized in the cranial box:
- with tumors of the brain and its membranes;
- with extensive hematoma (for example, due to rupture of a vascular aneurysm);
- to remove a foreign body.
With idiopathic intracranial hypertension, shunting or decompression of the membranes of the optic nerve is performed. Such treatment leads to stabilization of visual functions, but it has a rather high frequency of postoperative complications in the form of infection and focal brain lesions.
The remedies recommended by traditional medicine are mainly applicable for idiopathic intracranial hypertension and are auxiliary in nature.
An example of such a tool is the following recipe:
- Mix in equal proportions leaves of a string and nettles.
- Boil 3 tablespoons of the obtained medicinal raw material for 10 minutes in 1 liter of water.
- Cool the resulting broth.
There are indications of the effectiveness of a simpler recipe: pour 3 tablespoons of dry crushed plantain leaf with boiling water in a volume of 500 ml and insist for half an hour. A single dose of the decoction is 50 ml; frequency of admission – 3 times a day. You can prepare a folk remedy in the form of tincture.
To do this, you will need:
- valerian root;
- motherwort leaves;
- green eucalyptus;
- peppermint greens.
These components must be mixed in the same proportions and a full tablespoon of the obtained plant-based medicinal raw materials should be filled with 500 ml of vodka or alcohol. Insist means at room temperature in complete darkness for 7 days. After this period, take 1 ml 3 times a day. The course of taking such a tincture is 1 month.
Lemon juice and honey. To prepare a folk remedy, you will need the juice of 1 lemon, half a glass of water and 2 tablespoons of honey. Mix all components and drink. The duration of treatment is 20 days.
One of them is intracranial hypertension. Therefore, everyone should know what it is, what are the symptoms of pathology in adults, and how to get rid of this kind of trouble.
Late detection of the disease can lead to severe forms of the disease, and even fatal consequences.
Cerebral hypertension is a persistent disease caused by an increase in cerebrospinal fluid pressure. At the same time, a person has stable venous pressure within 160/140 mm Hg. pillar and higher. All attempts to reduce indicators end in failure, so people go to the clinic, where professional doctors make this diagnosis.
The brain is susceptible to external influences. In addition to the bones of the skull, the inside of the skull contains fluid – cerebrospinal fluid, which also has its own pressure.
In a healthy person, cerebrospinal fluid pressure is stable, so he does not feel pain or discomfort, however, with an increase in intracranial parameters, various symptoms appear, requiring immediate medical advice.
Conservative therapy of cerebrospinal fluid hypertension is carried out with its residual or chronic nature without marked progression, in acute cases – with a slow increase in ICP, lack of data for dislocation syndrome and serious disorders of consciousness. The basis of treatment is diuretic pharmaceuticals. The choice of drug is dictated by the level of ICP. In acute and severe cases, mannitol and other osmodiuretics are used, in other situations, furosemide, spironolactone, acetazolamide, hydrochlorothiazide are the drugs of choice. Most diuretics should be used against the background of the introduction of potassium preparations (potassium asparaginate, potassium chloride).
In parallel, a causal pathology is being treated. For infectious and inflammatory brain lesions, etiotropic therapy (antiviral drugs, antibiotics) is prescribed, for toxic ones – detoxification, for vascular – vasoactive therapy (aminophylline, vinpocetine, nifedipine), for venous congestion – venotonic (dihydroergocristine, horseradish chestnut extract) etc. To maintain the functioning of nerve cells in conditions of intracranial hypertension, neurometabolic agents (gamma-aminobutyric acid, piracetam, glycine) are used in complex therapy n, hydrolyzed pig brain, etc.). In order to improve venous outflow, cranial manual therapy can be used. In the acute period, the patient should avoid emotional overload, exclude working at the computer and listening to audio recordings in headphones, sharply limit watching movies and reading books, as well as other types of activity with an eye strain.
Surgical treatment of intracranial hypertension is applied urgently and plannedly. In the first case, the goal is an urgent reduction in ICP in order to avoid the development of a dislocation syndrome. In such situations, neurosurgeons often perform decompression trepanation of the skull, according to indications – external ventricular drainage. Planned intervention is aimed at eliminating the causes of increased ICP. It may consist in the removal of intracranial volumetric formation, correction of congenital anomaly, elimination of hydrocephalus with cerebral bypass grafting (cystoperitoneal, ventriculoperitoneal).
Prognosis and prevention of intracranial hypertension
The outcome of the cerebrospinal fluid hypertension syndrome depends on the underlying pathology, the rate of increase in ICP, the timeliness of therapy, and the compensatory abilities of the brain. With the development of a dislocation syndrome, a fatal outcome is possible. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension has a benign course and usually responds well to treatment. Prolonged cerebrospinal fluid hypertension in children can lead to a delay in neuropsychic development with the formation of debility or imbecility.
Prevention of the development of intracranial hypertension allows the prevention of intracranial pathology, timely treatment of neuroinfections, discirculatory and cerebrospinal fluid disorders. Preventive measures include compliance with the normal regime of the day, rationing of labor; avoidance of mental overload; adequate management of pregnancy and childbirth.
This type of ailment can be observed in both adults and babies. In accordance with the age of the patient, various symptoms and signs of the disease are manifested. So, benign intracranial hypertension in adults. What it is?
This type of disease is characterized by milder symptoms and is best amenable to therapeutic treatment. Most often, women suffer from them during a change in the menstrual cycle and overweight girls.
Idiopathic hypertension of the brain is accompanied by a severe headache, which is easily eliminated by painkillers or can go away on its own. The disease does not provoke fainting and depression of the state, however, a constant headache can cause unwanted consequences of a negative nature.
In some cases, the disease process may end spontaneously. If this does not happen, a course of medication is prescribed, based on two principles – reducing body weight and improving fluid outflow.
Benign intracranial hypertension in children is manifested in severe headaches, decreased attention and academic performance. In newborns, it is caused by difficult birth and birth injuries, in older children – by improper metabolism and overweight.
If you suspect that your child has increased intracranial pressure, you should immediately consult a doctor.
Cerebral hypertension occurs in acute or chronic form. The acute form is expressed in sharp changes in intracranial pressure, which can lead to death. In this case, emergency surgery is required – craniotomy. During the operation, the surgeon removes the affected areas, pressing on the substance of the brain.
The chronic course of pathology is accompanied by neurological disorders. Usually this form occurs due to the use of drugs, a prolonged illness, or after an injury.
Intracranial hypertension can be cerebrospinal, venous, benign.
It develops as a result of the production of a large volume of spinal fluid, which leads to an increase in pressure. Liquor hypertension is accompanied by swelling of the optic nerves, in which the stagnant disc swells. Visual acuity decreases. Neurological disorders are absent.
Appears due to a slowdown in the outflow of venous blood from the brain. Venous hypertension is diagnosed with thrombosis, tumor neoplasms, emphysema.
Another name for the form is idiopathic. This species is not a disease, but refers to temporary disorders. It is formed as a result of exposure to negative factors: hypovitaminosis, obesity, menstrual irregularities, pregnancy, an excess of vitamin A, and cessation of medication.
A feature of the idiopathic form is the reversibility of symptoms, a mild course. Initially, the disease is expressed in the development of moderate headache, which is eliminated by taking an analgesic. The treatment of hypertensive patients with a benign form consists in adjusting the lifestyle and diet.
Intracranial hypertension syndrome in children and adults: signs, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
To determine intracranial pressure, it is necessary to perform a CT and MRI, take a series of blood tests, undergo a study of cerebrospinal fluid, measure cerebrospinal fluid pressure, and correctly differentiate the diagnosis. High intracranial pressure is accompanied by other symptoms that reduce the patient’s quality of life.
Doctors at any age of the patient take note of the UDF value, especially if its value does not meet the permissible limits. The rate of intracranial pressure is determined by the age category, so its level in the older generation and children is markedly different. If we talk about the adult body, the acceptable limit in medicine is 5-7 mm Hg. Art.
Before proceeding to intensive care, it is important to find out why a characteristic disease occurs in the body. With UHD, doctors do not rule out such dangerous diseases as vascular aneurysm, hydrocephalus, stroke, benign tumors in the head, malignant tumor, craniocerebral trauma, hematomas and other causes of impaired blood circulation.
It is required to treat intracranial pressure in a complex, to begin with the elimination of the provoking factor.
Effective drugs and their daily dosages are prescribed to the patient purely individually, since other hematopoietic pathologies may be present.
Additionally, a therapeutic diet is prescribed with the obligatory removal of salt, fatty and fried foods, and an excessive amount of liquid from the daily menu.
If frequent attacks occur, they can lead the patient to immediate hospitalization with the need for resuscitation. It is difficult to cure the pathology, so the treatment of intracranial pressure in adults is aimed at ensuring a period of remission, its extension for an indefinite period. The list of effective tablets for intracranial pressure is presented below:
- Nootropic drugs to improve memory, blood outflow: Nootropil, Piracetam, Pantogam.
- Preparations for stimulating cerebral circulation: Sermion, Cinnarizine, Cavinton.
- Hormonal drugs in relatively small doses: Dexamethasone, Dexamed, Dexazone.
- Diuretic drugs to remove excess fluid: Diacarb, Diamox, Diuremide.
- Osmodiuretics to reduce the volume of cerebrospinal fluid with its increased volume: Mannitol, Glycerol.
- Anti-glaucoma drugs to prevent complications associated with impaired cerebral circulation: Azopt, Trusopt.
- Hypertensive agents for controlling blood pressure, keeping its mark at an acceptable level: Dopamine, Epinephrine, Angiotensinamide.
- A complex of vitamins to increase the elasticity of the vascular walls: Ketonal Duo, Neurovitan, Neurobion, B-50, the use of herbs.
- Ventricular puncture for measuring and reducing the volume of cerebrospinal fluid in the skull in complicated clinical pictures.
- Manual therapy, hyperbaric oxygenation, and hyperventilation are introduced as auxiliary methods of treating intracranial pressure.
- Alternative medicine methods, for example, alternative treatment for hawthorn, acupuncture.
If the attacks become permanent, and the person suffers from severe headaches and signs of dyspepsia with existing therapy, it is urgent to change the treatment of intracranial pressure in adults.
It is important to choose drugs that are productively absorbed into the systemic circulation and distributed throughout the body, all the way to the brain.
Otherwise, the positive dynamics is in no hurry to move, in addition, serious health complications are not ruled out.
In the indicated clinical picture, the presence of diuretics, which stabilize the body’s water balance, is mandatory.
Disposal of excess water is necessary to prevent venous and arterial stagnation, normalize blood pressure, the formation and elimination of harmful cholesterol and intoxication products.
Diuretics with intracranial pressure form the basis of intensive care, differ in the multifaceted effect in the body. The following are particularly effective medications for intracranial pressure in adults with a diuretic effect.
If you timely choose an effective medicine for intracranial pressure in adults, you can avoid the spread of the chronic form of a characteristic ailment in a weakened body.
In this case, improvements can be expected in the near future, a stable therapeutic effect is guaranteed. Glycerol with intracranial hypertension is available in the form of a therapeutic solution and suppository, the active ingredient is glycerol.
This active substance not only suppresses an acute attack of intracranial pressure, but also fights against intraocular pressure disorders.
Daily doses depend on the patient’s age, general health, and the presence of chronic diseases. Glycerol suppositories are prescribed rectally, the daily dose is 1 suppository after meals once a day for 7-10 days.
Regular sessions help to reduce not only intracranial pressure, but also reduce the amount of cerebrospinal fluid, eliminate the formation of cerebral edema.
The drug should be used with extensive areas of damage, but first seek help from your doctor.
To completely get rid of intolerable bouts of migraine and zones of necrosis in the cerebral cortex, doctors offer various medical methods, but the drug Treksimed is used as a powerful decongestant and pain medication.
If symptoms of high intracranial pressure appear, the patient will receive help from Treximed, which describes in detail how to take the medicine to reduce symptoms and see the desired result.
Subject to daily doses, this method of treatment really works.
Before using alternative medicine methods, it is necessary to clinically examine the allegedly affected areas, determine the conditions for a speedy recovery.
When deciding how to reduce intracranial pressure in an adult, it is important not to forget about time-tested recipes that have helped no generation.
Before putting such an idea into effect, it is important to determine the individual intolerance of the individual components of plant origin to the body.
- Pour camphor oil and medical alcohol into the same container in equal proportions, stir. Apply the composition to the head before bedtime, wrap hair in cellophane, do not remove the warming compress all night.
- In a liter of water, boil 20 branches of mulberry, insist, strain. Take inside a glass before meals to ensure an increase in energy supply, speed up metabolic processes.
- The doctor also prescribes a head massage and individual exercises at home. The method is effective, the more you can conduct sessions at the first request of the body.
Arina, 37 years old
After hospitalization, I measured the intracranial pressure with a special sensor. I do not clearly remember such a bad time of my life, especially since the result I received left much to be desired. I stayed in the hospital for two weeks, then went to the hospital, but the health problem still reminds me of attacks from time to time.
Catherine, 29 years
I had such a problem after childbirth, or rather, the older child. Diagnosed immediately after birth. The kid was moody, from the first days of his life he had to give him medicine. In three years, against the background of impaired pressure in the skull, vision fell sharply. The doctor says that this is my neglect of pregnancy.
She took both the drug Treximed and Glycerol, and the sense was zero. The amount of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles did not decrease. I believe that this is an individual health problem that an adult patient should simply adapt to. I often change the treatment regimen, but I still manage to maintain health without complications.
The information presented in the article is for guidance only. Materials of the article do not call for independent treatment. Only a qualified doctor can make a diagnosis and give recommendations for treatment based on the individual characteristics of a particular patient.
- Acute hypertension. It occurs due to cerebral hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, tumors and brain cysts. If pressure arises in this form, a person may die within a few weeks.
- Moderate. Appears in patients with vegetovascular dystonia, and regularly falling into stressful situations. Also, this kind of disease is often found in weather-dependent people who respond to weather changes.
- Venous cerebrospinal fluid intracranial hypertension is the result of a blood outflow from the cranial cavity. It occurs when the cervical veins are squeezed by osteochondrosis, tumors of the chest, abdomen, as well as with thrombosis, which covers the venous lumen.
- Benign intracranial hypertension can be triggered by overweight, malfunctioning of the thyroid gland, menstrual irregularities and hormonal abnormalities (in women aged 20 to 40 years). In this case, a person can be considered relatively healthy, because intracranial hypertension (in this form) is not considered a pathological disease. It is also called idiopathic hypertension.
The peculiarity of the course of intracranial hypertension in a benign form is that the human consciousness functions well. Sometimes patients do not even need therapeutic therapy, hypertension can go away by itself, after applying elementary folk remedies.
Causes of appearance
Intracranial hypertension does not have specific causes. However, it is associated with the following problems:
- Brain changes: hematomas or tumors, which over time begin to increase in size and squeeze the tissues located around them, provoking intracranial pressure.
- Any injuries to the skull or brain (even 20 years ago). They are capable of provoking an increase in cerebrospinal fluid pressure over the years.
- Pathological processes leading to cerebral puffiness. A striking example of these deviations: encephalitis, hydrocephalus, meningitis.
- Pulmonary diseases of a chronic nature, heart failure.
- Improper blood circulation due to a failure of the vascular performance of the brain.
As we saw, it is necessary to identify and begin treatment of intracranial hypertension as soon as possible. If this is not done on time, the consequences can be irreversible and deplorable: loss of vision, developmental delay, death.
In addition, it is important to use preventive methods to prevent the disease – lead a healthy lifestyle, eat right, avoid emotional and physical exhaustion, treat serious brain diseases or traumatic brain injuries in a timely manner.
In the process of treating a liquid pathology, it is important to carefully follow all the prescriptions and recommendations of the doctor. To do this, you may need consent to surgery, a change in your usual lifestyle, and the use of specific medications. But any efforts are worth it – your health will be safely preserved and protected from subsequent negative complications.
Initially, it is necessary to examine the patient, to study the condition of the eyeballs and blood vessels. With pronounced red eyes with enlarged capillaries, intracranial hypertension can be suspected. A person is sent for an ultrasound scan of the brain vessels. The study establishes the presence of violations in the outflow of blood.
It is possible to accurately detect the presence of the disease by measuring the pressure of the cerebral fluid cavities. For this, invasive manipulation is performed. The doctor inserts a special needle into the ventricles or other structures of the brain. Then the specialist attaches a pressure gauge to the needle. To measure pressure, special sensors are also used, which are implanted in the skull box. A similar procedure is carried out under the control of magnetic resonance imaging.
Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography assess the state of the cerebral ventricles, fluid cavities. As a concomitant diagnostic method, an encephalogram is performed.
It is much more difficult to detect the disease in children, especially in infants who are not able to maintain a static position and express their feelings. The standard procedures that detect a pathological condition in a child include the collection of necessary blood tests, puncture, examining the spinal fluid, neurosonography in newborns. Consultation of a psychologist, neurologist, cardiologist, endocrinologist is also required.
In order to prevent the development of hypertension syndrome, it is necessary to consume more than a liter of water per day. Also, diuretics and glucocorticoids should not be taken uncontrollably.
The prognosis of the disease depends on the cause of the ICH, the correctness and timeliness of therapy, and brain compensatory abilities. If the syndrome has a malignant etiology, then a fatal outcome is possible. The benign course of hypertension is easily amenable to therapy.
Methods of therapy
The human brain is not able to function properly with high blood pressure. This will lead to atrophic processes, a decrease in intellectual capabilities, and a violation of nervous regulation. Therefore, it is necessary to resort to treatment methods that will restore healthy pressure values.
Treatment of the syndrome includes the use of the following methods:
- non-drug therapy – lifestyle changes, menu adjustments, physiotherapeutic procedures, visits to a neuropsychologist;
- drug therapy – dehydration, taking sedative, neuroprotective, metabolic drugs;
- operative intervention used in severe cerebral hypertension, which is not amenable to medical treatment.
Non-drug therapy can be used even after recovery. The patient should normalize nutrition and drinking regimen, perform feasible physical exercises, use physiotherapeutic methods.
The basis for the treatment of ICH is the need to reduce the synthesis of cerebrospinal fluid along with an increase in its absorption. For this, diuretics are prescribed that reduce the production of exudate (Diacarb). With prolonged use of diuretics and the absence of a therapeutic effect, the patient is prescribed glucocorticosteroids (Dexamethasone).
To eliminate the hypertensive syndrome, medications are required that improve blood flow through the veins (Troxevasinum). With the intensity of painful sensations, agents from a number of anti-inflammatory non-steroidal groups (Nimid) are used. With ICH that has arisen against a background of infectious diseases, the patient is given antibacterial drugs.
With a marked increase in ICH, Mannitol, which has a dehydrating activity, is administered intravenously. With pathology that has arisen against the background of neurosurgical intervention, drugs from a number of barbiturates are used (Thiopental).
If cerebral hypertension progresses and painful symptoms are not eliminated with medications, then the patient is shown surgery. Often resort to the use of lumbar puncture, through which 30 ml of spinal fluid is removed. In many cases, such manipulation greatly facilitates the patient’s condition. Multiple procedures are usually required.
To level pathological manifestations in severe cases, lumbar-peritoneal shunting is used, in which the conditions for the outflow of exudate are artificially created. For this, a special tube is inserted into the cerebrospinal fluid cavity, the other end of which is placed in the peritoneum. So excess fluid is evacuated from the brain.
The most aggressive treatment method is cranial trepanation, during which doctors intentionally injure the skull so that the brain substance does not rest against bone tissue. This therapeutic method is rarely used.
For the treatment of visual disorders, they resort to decompression of the myelin sheaths of the optic nerve.
The consequences of ICH
The brain loses functionality when it is in an unhealthy strangled state. This leads to atrophy of brain cells, which affects a decrease in intelligence and a violation of regulatory processes. In the absence of treatment, compression of the brain provokes the displacement or wedging of parts into the base of the skull. Such a condition leads to death.
When squeezing, the brain can shift to the occipital or cerebellar part, the process is accompanied by squeezing the stem sections. In this situation, the patient dies from respiratory arrest. When wedging in the temporal lobe, the pupil expands, breathing is difficult, a person falls into a coma.
If wedging occurs in the area of the designation, then the patient stalls, becomes drowsy, inhibited. Slows breathing. An increase in intracranial pressure provokes a rapid decrease in vision, since pathology leads to atrophy of the optic nerves.
In most cases, a therapeutic treatment will be sufficient for a complete or satisfactory partial recovery. However, if the disease progresses or gives frequent relapses, surgery may be recommended to help remove excess cerebrospinal fluid. What is its essence?
A puncture needle is inserted into the spinal cord (at the level of the lower back), with the help of which a certain amount of cerebrospinal fluid is sucked out. In one procedure, no more than 30 ml of cerebrospinal fluid can be withdrawn, however, despite such minimal indicators, the patient will feel lightning-fast improvement. In some cases, repeated manipulation may be necessary, which can be carried out several times, with an interval of a couple of days.
Another type of surgical treatment is bypass surgery – the introduction of small tubes (in the form of a shunt or catheters) to correct the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.
Intracranial hypertension is a dangerous consequence of brain diseases. The degree of manifestation of the pathology is determined by the symptoms, treatment methods and prognosis. With timely medical attention, secondary complications of intracranial hypertension can be avoided.
The following sources were used to prepare the article: Tsarenko S.V. Correction of intracranial hypertension // Research Institute of Emergency Care. N.V. Sklifosovsky. – 2011.
Magzhanov R.V., Davletova A.I., Bakhtiyarova K.Z., Pervushina E.V., Tunik V.F. Benign intracranial hypertension: clinical observations // Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology – 2017.
Parkhomenko E.V., Sorokina E.A., Nartov S.E., Karpov D.Yu., Barinov A.N., The problem of diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension // Medical alphabet – 2017.
Treatment of intracranial pressure in adults – drugs and folk remedies at home
The first stage of intracranial pathology can be cured by folk remedies. They can also be used with advanced types of hypertension as an addition to the main type of treatment.
Here are some recipes for folk medicine:
- Two lemons and two heads of garlic, pour 1,5 liters of water, insist for a day and take orally in a strained form, one tablespoon per day for two weeks.
- Valerian, hawthorn, motherwort, mint, eucalyptus (mix the leaves in equal proportions and pour one spoonful of the finished mixture with a half-liter bottle of vodka). Instruct for a week, strain and drink for a month three times a day, twenty drops.
- Tincture of clover flowers (pour 0,5 liters of vodka and insist a crescent). Take orally three times a day, one tablespoon, previously diluted in 100 g of water.
- A decoction of lavender leaves (pour one tablespoon of 0,5 liter of boiling water and leave for an hour). Use for a month on a tablespoon of the broth for half an hour before eating.
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