Hypertension (arterial hypertension) causes, main symptoms, diagnostic and treatment methods

Hypertension (arterial hypertension, AH) – a persistent increase in blood pressure (BP) from 140/90 mm RT. Art. and higher. Blood pressure – pressure inside the vessels, which provides the ability to move blood through the circulatory system.

According to statistics, hypertension is one of the most common and dangerous cardiovascular diseases in the world, which affects every fifth inhabitant of the Earth. Moreover, it contributes to the development of dangerous diseases such as stroke, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, as well as some diseases of other internal organs.
The nature of the disease.

The heart “moves” blood through all blood vessels, delivering oxygen and nutrients to all cells of the body. If the blood vessels lose their elasticity or become clogged, the heart begins to work harder, thereby increasing the pressure inside the vessels (upper pressure or systolic pressure).

The difficulty in determining hypertension lies in its imperceptible manifestation. So, over the course of several years, a person may experience such general symptoms as headaches, frequent fatigue, dizziness, frequent increase in blood pressure, decreased memory and intelligence, breaking of joints, irritability, etc., which often people do not pay due attention to attention, but in fact, all this may conceal the beginning of the development of hypertension.

It is necessary to beat the bells if all of the above symptoms begin to appear more often and for a longer period of time, although it is better to stay awake than to stay awake and consult a doctor for the first such symptoms of malaise.

High blood pressure without additional symptoms and pain is as dangerous as the course of the disease with severe headaches, malaise, and heart pain. Of course, like any other disease, hypertension is better to prevent than to treat.

Three stages of arterial hypertension are distinguished, and the third requires not only timely diagnosis, but also immediate surgical intervention due to the lack of positive dynamics of long-term conservative therapy.

The pathogenesis of this disease is well known to everyone: blood vessels narrow for certain reasons, and the blood flow pressure, accordingly, rises, violating the quality of life and confining the patient to bed. That is why it is important to know the etiology of a characteristic anomaly in order to protect oneself from being in the so-called “risk group”.

Hypertension in individual clinical pictures is only a symptom of a more serious heart disease, therefore, without a final cure of the main ailment, it is not possible to eliminate it and stabilize the level.

Each core patient should definitely pay attention to the disease present in the body, otherwise his health may noticeably worsen against the background of the prevailing complications. In the absence of timely treatment measures, hypertensive crises, myocardial infarction, stroke, acute heart failure, brain cell necrosis, aortic aneurysm and nephroslerosis progress in the affected body, and most of these diagnoses can result in an unexpected fatal outcome.

It is important to carefully familiarize yourself with the symptoms of a characteristic heart ailment in order to timely discern the prevailing problem in the body and contact a qualified specialist with it.

Causes of the disease

The reasons for the increase in blood pressure with different forms of hypertension are significantly different. Consider them in more detail:

  1. Stress. With mental overstrain, an enormous amount of adrenaline (stress hormone) is produced in the body, affecting the heart, causing it to contract more often, thereby ejecting more blood. In this case, blood pressure rises.
  2. Arterial sclerosis. With arterial sclerosis and the presence of atherosclerotic plaques on the walls of blood vessels, the lumen narrows, being an obstacle to normal blood circulation. At the same time, the heart has to work in an enhanced mode, creating increased pressure in the vessels.
  3. Excess weight. Studies show that overweight people suffer from hypertension 3-4 times more often than people with normal weight. Moreover, people with extra pounds develop atherosclerosis faster, which causes factors for the development of hypertension:
    • High blood calcium and sodium.
    • Violation of the normal supply of blood to the kidneys.
    • Diseases of the internal organs.
    • Violations of the functions of the nervous system (heat and sunstroke).
    • Metabolic disease.
  4. Hereditary predisposition. Of course, the predisposition to hypertension is not an original factor in high blood pressure, but the slightest deviation from the normal functioning of the body, including severe emotional overstrain, can provoke hypertension.
  5. Bad habits: smoking, drinking alcohol, psychotropic and narcotic drugs.
  6. Age. Over the years, the human body tends to wear out. If you do not give proper attention to your health throughout your life, the risk of developing hypertension increases.
  7. Taking medications on an ongoing basis, for example:
    • pills and other medicines to reduce appetite (especially important for those who want to lose weight quickly and without much effort);
    • anti-inflammatory drugs;
    • oral contraceptives containing large doses of hormones;
    • lucocorticoids (Dexamethasone, Prednisolone, etc.)

People who live closer to nature, who are not affected by the economic and political situation, as well as the media, almost do not suffer from hypertension. In 90% of cases, the true cause of hypertension cannot be identified. In this case, the doctor talks about primary or essential hypertension.

Some researchers believe that the triggering factors of essential hypertension are hormonal imbalances, salt reabsorption in the kidneys and / or the presence of vasoconstrictors in the blood. These changes can be caused both genetically and by human life factors, for example, an abundant salt diet.

About 10% of patients have hypertension as a result of another disease or as a side effect of the drugs used. This type of hypertension is called secondary hypertension. The most common causes of secondary hypertension include the following:

About 4% of all detected cases of high blood pressure are caused by various renal diseases. It is well known that the kidneys are the regulators of water-salt metabolism in the body.

If the kidneys retain too much salt, the volume of fluid in the body increases accordingly. The load on the heart increases many times, blood volume and pressure increase. The kidneys also produce a special enzyme, renin, which plays a key role in regulating blood pressure.

About 3% of all cases of high blood pressure are the result of kidney infections or nephritis. In some others, even chronic kidney diseases can cause hypertension.

Renal arteries supplying the kidneys with oxygen branch from the abdominal aorta. Narrowing one or both of them leads to a decrease in renal blood supply. Oxygen-deficient kidneys begin to produce renin, an enzyme that, through a series of biochemical reactions, turns into angiotensin 2, a powerful vasoconstrictor.

Vasoconstriction leads to increased pressure. Renin also increases the production of another hormone – aldosterone, which is responsible for the reverse absorption of salt and water. Renovascular hypertension is rare, about 1-2% of cases, most often in the elderly, smokers and young children.

Renovascular hypertension is diagnosed by injecting a contrast medium into a vein or artery and studying the blood circulation in the kidneys using x-ray irradiation.

Tumor adrenal glands.

The adrenal glands are two glands that secrete a number of hormones, including aldosterone, and located on top of each kidney (hence the name). The hormone aldosterone produced by them regulates the water and salt balance in the body.

In very rare cases (approximately 0,5%), an adrenal tumor leads to an increase in aldosterone production, which, in turn, contributes to the retention of salt and water in the body, thereby increasing blood pressure.

This rare type of hypertension occurs mainly in young women. As additional symptoms, severe thirst and excessive urination can be observed.

Another rare type of hypertension is caused by another type of adrenal gland tumor, namely pheochromocytoma. At the same time, the production of another hormone, adrenaline, increases in the pancreas. Adrenaline is a hormone that helps the body respond adequately to stressful situations.

It increases heart rate, increases blood pressure and promotes the transfer of blood to the leg muscles. In addition, with pheochromocytoma, adrenaline causes such body reactions as palpitations, trembling, fever.

It’s no secret that some drugs can increase blood pressure. These include, for example, cortisone and other steroids, some antipyretic, as well as glyceric acid, which is part of caramel.

Increased pressure during pregnancy.

This type of hypertension can develop in the last three months of pregnancy and is part of late toxicosis. Normally, the pressure during pregnancy is slightly reduced and is approximately 90-100 / 70-75. If the pressure rises above 135-140 / 85-90, appropriate therapy should be prescribed.

High blood pressure is noted in both men and women of various social groups. In most cases, the disease develops in adults aged 35 to 50 years.

The development of the disease is provoked by the so-called risk factors. These include: excessive intake of salt, alcohol, smoking, lack of enough potassium in food.

Disease >

Primary (essential, idiopathic) hypertension is the most common form, while constantly high blood pressure is an independent disease, and not a manifestation of other disorders in the body. Secondary (symptomatic) hypertension – constant high blood pressure is only one of the manifestations of another disease.

There are several options:

  • Symptomatic renal hypertension – occurs as a result of pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis, renal artery stenosis.
  • Endocrine – develops due to hyperthyroidism.
  • Neurogenic – due to encephalopathy.
  • Vascular – associated with atherosclerosis or changes in the aorta.

According to the level of increase in pressure, hypertension is divided into 3 degrees:

    1 degree (soft) – upper pressure 140-159 mm Hg, lower 90-99 mm Hg Blood pressure indicators are unstable, after resting, a decrease in blood pressure is possible, but the disease is still there.

In the absence of treatment for hypertension, patients are disturbed by headaches, sleep disturbance, tinnitus, decreased mental performance. Hypertensive crises are rarely observed, dizziness, nosebleeds occur.

At this stage of the disease, there are no signs of left ventricular hypertrophy, the ECG is almost deviated from the norm, but sometimes it reflects the state of hypersympathicotonia. The fundus remains virtually unchanged, kidney function is not impaired.

In the absence of treatment of hypertension, aimed at reducing high blood pressure. Patients complain of headache, dizziness, heart pain (often ischemic in nature). Hypertensive crises are characteristic of this stage. The average degree from the mild is distinguished by the presence of damage to target organs: left ventricular hypertrophy, decreased renal blood flow and glomerular filtration, and vascular damage.

From the side of the heart failure, various manifestations of vascular insufficiency are also observed, transient ischemic attacks and cerebral strokes are possible. In the fundus in the absence of treatment of high blood pressure, exudates and hemorrhages are formed.

Grade 3 (heavy) – the upper pressure is more than 180 mm Hg, the lower is more than 110 mm Hg. The severe degree of arterial hypertension is characterized by the frequent occurrence of vascular catastrophes, which is due to the stable increased blood pressure and the progression of vascular lesions. Systolic blood pressure rises above 180 mm Hg. Art., diastolic – above 110 mm RT. Art.

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Lesions of the kidneys, heart, fundus, brain are observed. In patients with grade III hypertension, despite persistent high blood pressure, severe vascular complications do not develop for many years.

Hypertension 1 degree: symptoms

The initial degree of hypertension. Pressure rises infrequently and does not last long above normal.

  • Headache, increasing during intense physical exertion.
  • Dizziness, sometimes leading to fainting.
  • Cardiopalmus.
  • Various sleep disorders.
  • Noise in ears.
  • Flickering black dots in front of the eyes.

It is important to know: if you have mild hypertension, all these symptoms may not appear at all.

Complications of grade 1 hypertension:

  • Microinfarction of the brain.
  • Sclerosis of kidney tissue.
  • Hypertrophy of the left ventricle of the heart.

As a rule, grade 1 hypertension is easily treated without complications. The main thing is to identify it in time, undergo a course of treatment and remove negative factors that can provoke the development of the disease. Complications occur in 15% of cases – most often because high blood pressure was not detected and stopped on time.

Arterial hypertension of the 2nd degree: symptoms

Pressure already rises more often, keeps increased longer, rarely returning to normal. Upper blood pressure varies from 160 to 179 mm Hg. Art., lower – from 100 to 109 mm Hg. In the second degree of hypertension, new symptoms are added to the typical symptoms described above:

  • Chronic fatigue.
  • Nausea.
  • Ripple in the head.
  • Redness of the skin.
  • Sweating.
  • Swelling of the face.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Numbness of the fingers.
  • Hypertensive crises (sudden pressure surges).

An attack of high blood pressure can last several hours and provoke vomiting, cause shortness of breath, urination disorders and stool.

Sharp pressure surges are especially dangerous – hypertensive crises, which are different and are accompanied by different symptoms:

  • Neuro-vegetative form: increased heart rate, overexcitation, hand tremor, unmotivated panic, dry mouth.
  • Edematous form: lethargy, swelling of the eyelids, inhibited consciousness.
  • Convulsive form: frequent cramps and fainting.

Attacks of high blood pressure in case of arterial hypertension of 2 degrees are more severe and can provoke already more serious complications. Complications of arterial hypertension of the 2nd degree:

  • The defeat of the vascular walls.
  • Vascular thrombosis.
  • Encephalopathy (dysfunctions of the central nervous system).
  • Angina pectoris.
  • Protrusion of the aortic wall (aneurysm).

At this stage, hemorrhages to various organs sometimes occur, because the walls of the vessels are damaged, lose their elasticity and are easily destroyed. With an increase in intravascular pressure, the walls of the vessels can form a protrusion (aneurysm) with subsequent rupture and the development of hemorrhagic stroke.

In areas of damage to the inner layer of the vascular wall, cholesterol can be deposited, forming atherosclerotic plaques with impaired blood supply to organs, the formation of intravascular thrombi and the development of ischemic stroke and heart attack.

Remember: the sooner you start treatment for hypertension, the less internal organs are involved in the pathological process.

Hypertension 3 degrees: symptoms

Hypertension of the 3rd degree – proceeds quite hard. Blood pressure is higher than 180/110 mm Hg. Art. Hypertension 3 degrees: symptoms

  • Arrhythmias.
  • Gait changes (e.g., shakiness).
  • Violation of coordination of movements.
  • Persistent visual impairment.
  • Prolonged hypertensive crises that cause speech disorders, clouding of consciousness, sharp pains in the heart.
  • Hemoptysis.
  • The difficulty of independently moving around, communicating, serving yourself.
  • Myocardial infarction.
  • Cardiac asthma (asthma attacks).
  • Heart failure.
  • Stroke.
  • Damage to the peripheral arteries.
  • Pulmonary edema.
  • Retinal lesions up to blindness.
  • Nephropathy with the development of nephrosclerosis and renal failure.

Hypertensive crisis

The second and third stage of hypertension is able to give a complication called hypertensive crisis. For the most part, this complication arises due to the fact that the patient, feeling better, consciously refuses the prescribed treatment. Hypertensive crisis – a sharp increase in blood pressure to critical levels, resulting in impaired intracerebral circulation.

This leads to an increase in intracranial pressure and hyperemia of the brain, which is expressed in the form of dizziness, sharp headaches, nausea and vomiting. This condition can continue throughout the day, gradually weakening. It has three varieties with different symptoms:

    Neurovegetative hypertensive crisis. A feature of this type of exacerbation is a sharp state of human overexcitation.

He is very anxious and frightened. Perspiration may appear on the skin, trembling in the hands appears, and even the overall body temperature may slightly jump. An attack of tachycardia may occur and the pressure rises significantly (especially the upper one).

The reason is a heavy drink or eating heavily salty foods. The obvious symptoms here are significant swelling of the face and hands. A person feels a strong lethargy and puts him to sleep, the pressure rises significantly both the upper and lower.

Convulsive crisis. This extremely serious complication is quite rare.

Brain damage occurs here – encephalopathy with cerebral edema. The patient experiences multiple cramps. The likelihood of a stroke is very high. The pressure level becomes noticeably higher than during exacerbations (in particular, the lower rises strongly). This is all hypertension, the symptoms of which range from uncomfortable to frightening and deadly.

How to measure blood pressure

To measure blood pressure, there is a special device that each of you can buy in almost any pharmacy. The pressure is measured while lying or sitting, after 5 minutes of relaxation, when breathing and heart rate return to normal.

For adults, a cuff with a width of at least 12 cm is used; for children, devices with a narrower cuff are produced. The cuff is placed on the shoulder so that its lower edge is about 2 cm above the elbow. Then, with the help of a pear, they begin to pump air. It is recommended that air injection be continued until the pressure rises by 20 mmHg. Art. after the disappearance of the pulse.

Then the air is gradually released and at a certain moment, when the blood overcomes the resistance of the pinched vessel again, we hear the appearance of a pulse in the headphones. The indications on the scale of the apparatus, which coincided with this appearance, are the indications of the upper (systolic) pressure.

Listening further to the blood flow, we determine the moment when the sounds in the headphones cease – this is an indicator of the lower (diastolic) pressure. Doctors recommend measuring the pressure three times and taking the result of the last measurement as a result. The interval between measurements should be 2-3 minutes.

Those who consider themselves to be completely healthy are advised to take blood pressure at least every 3 months. People with hypertension should measure blood pressure at least once a day. Moreover, it will be very good if you accustom yourself to keep daily records, recording the results obtained – this will help you and your attending physician to easily track the dynamics and characteristics of your particular disease.

Diagnosis of pathology

You can determine this disease by your own health and changes in the body. If the patient, after moderate physical exertion, feels tinnitus, a decrease in working capacity and a sharp loss of vision, then it’s time to make an appointment with a specialist.

The doctor, in turn, will listen to all the complaints present and personally measure blood pressure. After that, he will direct the patient to perform an electrocardiogram, because it is this generally accessible diagnostic method that allows to outline the present pathological process and its features, as well as to eliminate the risk of other diseases.

In general, determining the presence of hypertension is not difficult at all, it is much more difficult to identify its stage and form, and without this it is very difficult to prescribe an effective treatment. When the diagnosis is made, it is important to immediately transgress to treatment. To diagnose hypertension, the doctor determines:

  • pressure rise stability;
  • the presence and degree of pathological changes in internal organs, especially the heart, brain, and kidneys;
  • the reason for the increase in pressure.

The following tests are prescribed:

  • urine analysis for protein and glucose;
  • blood test for hemoglobin or hematocrit;
  • determination of urine creatinine or blood nitrogen;
  • fasting glucose;
  • electrocardiogram.

Depending on the results and history, the following studies may also be carried out:

  • total cholesterol;
  • high density cholesterol;
  • fasting triglycer >

The first signs of arterial hypertension are general weakness, dizziness and constant headaches, fatigue and irritability. If hypertension has become ill, first of all, you need to call a doctor, and while the doctor has not arrived, you can do the following:

  • take a half-sitting position, preferably in a comfortable chair;
  • warm feet and legs (warmer, basin with water, mustard plasters);
  • take such drugs as Corvalol, Valocordin (30-35 drops) or another drug that the patient has previously taken;
  • if chest pain is observed, take nitroglycerin under the tongue;
  • with severe headache, take a pill with a diuretic effect;
  • refrain from eating.

Treatment

In the treatment of hypertension, an individual integrated approach to each patient is required, and the goal of intensive therapy is to quickly eliminate the pain syndrome, stabilize the pressure indicator at an acceptable level, prevent health complications and achieve a long period of remission.

You need to act sequentially, and most importantly – in concert with your doctor. So, to stabilize the general condition, the use of antihypertensive drugs is shown, which demonstrate a stable therapeutic effect during the day. However, do not forget that characteristic remedies demonstrate the effect of addiction, that is, over time they are no longer able to eliminate relapse as quickly as it was before.

That is why several medications of this pharmacological group should prevail in the medicine cabinet at once. It is possible that you will have to drink pills for the rest of your life. As a rule, during drug therapy, the doctor prescribes regular intake of diuretics, calcium antagonists, β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and, of course, angiotensin receptor blockers.

Typical medications are determined at an individual consultation with a cardiologist, and superficial self-medication only contributes to the development of complications in the cardiovascular system. It is impossible to completely cure arterial hypertension, however, with a clear follow-up of all medical prescriptions, patients with this diagnosis live to a very old age. In this case, it is important to observe all well-reasoned preventive measures.

As already mentioned above, severe and malignant hypertension consists not only in high blood pressure, but also in the destruction of target organs (brain, kidneys, heart, eyes). In this regard, the treatment of severe and malignant hypertension is aimed, in addition to normalizing daily blood pressure, to symptomatic treatment of affected organs until their normal functioning is fully restored.

The treatment of severe hypertension is also carried out in stages:

  1. Blood pressure is normalized by 10-15%.
  2. If the patient’s well-being does not worsen, they begin to symptomatically treat the affected organs, up to surgical intervention.

In the treatment of severe and malignant hypertension, the following combinations of drugs (usually 3-4 types) are prescribed:

  1. beta-blocker + diuretic + ACE inhibitor;
  2. beta-blocker + diuretic + calcium antagonist + alpha-blocker;
  3. ACE inhibitor + diuretic + calcium antagonist + alpha-blocker.

A positive result is:

  • decrease in blood pressure by 25% compared with blood pressure before treatment;
  • the disappearance of symptoms of hypertensive encephalopathy (impaired brain function);
  • improved vision, confirmed by diagnosis;
  • improving nitrogen excretion and concentration function of the kidneys;
  • normalization of the functioning of other target organs.

After treatment, a daily monitoring of blood pressure indicators is prescribed, as well as a doctor examination at least 1 time in 3 months.

Hypertension medication

Currently, there are several types of antihypertensive drugs that should be prescribed depending on each case: captopril, losartan, enalapril, amlodipine, ramipril, diuretics, for example. In addition, people with arterial hypertension should be consulted regularly by a cardiologist to evaluate blood pressure and treatment.

The treatment of hypertension in the elderly can be carried out with the help of drugs, and some changes in lifestyle, depending on the severity of the disease. Therefore, it is recommended:

  • Doctor visits to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment;
  • Take medication prescribed by your doctor;
  • Weight loss;
  • Rejection of bad habits;
  • Avoid foods high in fat and salt, as well as instant foods and give preference to homemade food;
  • Exercise at least 3 times a week;
  • Eat more foods rich in potassium, magnesium, calcium and fiber;

Medication involves taking medications to lower blood pressure: diuretics, calcium channel antagonists, angiotensin inhibitors, and beta blockers, for example. In addition, it is important to note that the treatment of arterial hypertension in the elderly should be very thorough and individual, especially for those who have other health problems, such as heart disease, urinary incontinence and a tendency to dizziness when standing up.

Medicines to control blood pressure

Uncontrolled hypertension increases the risk of heart disease, kidney disease, stroke, and heart attack. In most cases, a cardiologist recommends the use of drugs when the pressure remains above 140/90, with a diet low in salt and regular exercise.

The main antihypertensive drugs. To control the pressure, the doctor may recommend various medications, such as:

  1. Diuretics are medicines that act on the kidneys and enhance the elimination of water and salt in the urine, such as furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, spironolactone or indapamide, for example.
  2. Vasodilator medications that relax arteries and can be used with other antihypertensive drugs. Examples of vasodilators are hydralazine and minoxidil.
  3. Calcium channel blockers are a class of antihypertensive drugs that dilate blood vessels such as nifedipine, amlodipine, nicardipine and verapamil, for example.
  4. ACE inhibitors – are widely used in the treatment of hypertension, as they prevent the production of a hormone that raises blood pressure, for example, captopril, enalapril, lisinopril or ramipril. Some people may develop a dry cough with regular use of these drugs. Another class of drugs with similar effects, but without the effect of coughing, are angiotensin receptor antagonists, which lower blood pressure, preventing the effects of angiotensin hormones.

Some drugs for hypertension in this class are losartan, valsartan, candesartan, telmisartan.

  • Beta-blockers – are part of a group of drugs that help to help keep blood pressure under control and reduce heart rate. These include: propranolol, atenolol, carvedilol, metoprolol and nebivolol.
  • S >

    Side effects of medications for treating hypertension include dizziness, fluid retention, changes in heart rate, headache, vomiting, nausea, sweating, or impotence. If you notice any of these symptoms, you should talk with your doctor to assess the possibility of reducing the dose of the drug or even exchange it for another.

    Medicines for treating hypertension do not gain weight, but some of them can cause edema, and in these cases, a cardiologist may also prescribe the use of diuretics. However, the use of these drugs should always be recommended by your doctor. In the simplest cases, treatment is carried out using only one drug, especially when the values ​​do not exceed 160/90 mm RT. Art.

    However, in some cases, the doctor recommends using 2 or 3 drugs together. The use of drugs for the treatment of hypertension in most cases lasts for a lifetime, because hypertension is a chronic disease.

    Surgical treatment of hypertension

    The main factors in the treatment of a patient with arterial hypertension are a healthy lifestyle and the selection of adequate drug therapy. Modern antihypertensive drugs have a different mechanism of action and, depending on the severity of the disease, they are prescribed both monotherapy (one drug), and in combination of several drugs.

    Often there are cases of uncontrolled hypertension, “resistant hypertension”, in which the use of three or more antihypertensive drugs, including diuretics, do not give the desired result – blood pressure still remains quite high. Such hypertension requires a more aggressive approach to treatment, namely, surgical intervention.

    The Symplicity renal denervation system is based on a technique by which selective denervation (rupture of neural connections) occurs in the renal arteries. As a result of this, the activity of the sympathetic nervous system decreases, the production of hormones that provoke a rise in blood pressure decreases, which in turn protects the heart, kidneys and blood vessels from further damage.

    This system expands the possibilities of treating cases of resistant hypertension and provides several undeniable advantages for the patient:

    • significant and stable decrease in blood pressure;
    • safe short-term surgery that does not require general anesthesia;
    • quick recovery with minimal complications.

    The operation itself takes only 40-60 minutes. A flexible Symplicity catheter is inserted into the femoral artery in the upper thigh, after which it is sequentially inserted into both renal arteries. After the catheter enters the renal artery, the supply of low-frequency RF pulses (8 W) to different points of the vessel begins.

    Each impulse lasts about two minutes. The purpose of the pulse is to partially reduce the innervation of the renal arteries. The patient does not feel pain, because painkillers are pre-administered. The postoperative period lasts from several hours to a day. It depends on the condition of the wound (the site of insertion of the catheter) and the opinion of the attending doctor.

    After surgery, it is very important for the patient to lead a healthy lifestyle. It:

    • to give up smoking;
    • limited alcohol consumption;
    • adequate physical activity;
    • healthy eating
    • control of your emotional state.

    It is very important in the postoperative period – strict adherence to the recommendations of your doctor and continued use of antihypertensive drugs!

    Traditional medicine and non-drug therapy

    Herbal medicine is of no small importance in the complex of treatment for GB. First of all, these are sedative herbs and fees. They can be used in finished form (extracts, tinctures and tablets). These are mainly preparations of valerian, motherwort, hawthorn. Plants with a calming effect also include chamomile, medicinal lemon balm, peppermint, hop cones and many others.

    Traditional medicine advises patients with hypertension to eat honey, aronia (200-300 g per day), citrus fruits and wild rose in the form of a drink, green tea. All of these products reduce high blood pressure and are rich in vitamin C, a necessary weakened heart muscle.

    1. Dissolve a tablespoon of honey in 1 cup of mineral water, add the juice of half a lemon. Drink on an empty stomach in one go. The duration of treatment is 7-10 days. The tool is used for hypertension, insomnia, increased irritability.
    2. Grind 2 cups of cranberries with 3 tablespoons of powdered sugar and eat daily at a time one hour before meals. This remedy is used for mild forms of hypertension.
    3. Beetroot juice – 4 cups, honey – 4 cups, marsh cinnamon grass – 100 g, vodka – 500 g. Combine all components, mix thoroughly, insist for 10 days in a tightly sealed container in a dark, cool place, strain, squeeze. Take 1-2 tablespoons 3 times a day half an hour before meals. The tool is used for hypertension of the I – II degree.
    4. Onion juice helps lower blood pressure, so it is recommended to prepare the following remedy: squeeze juice from 3 kg of onion, mix it with 500 g of honey, add 25 g of walnut films and pour 1/2 liter of vodka. Insist 10 days. Take 1 tablespoon 2-3 times a day.
    5. St. John’s wort (grass) – 100 g, chamomile (flowers) – 100 g, immortelle (flowers) – 100 g, birch (buds) – 100 g. The components are mixed, ground in a coffee grinder and stored in a glass jar with a lid.

    The daily dose is prepared in the evening: 1 tablespoon of a mixture of 0,5 l of boiling water is brewed and insisted for 20 minutes. Then filter through the canvas and squeeze the residue. Half of the infusion with 1 teaspoon of honey is drunk immediately, and the remainder is heated in the morning to 30–40 ° C and drunk 20 minutes before breakfast.

    Treatment is carried out daily until the mixture is fully used. Used for heart attack and hypertension.

    Emergency pressure reduction (instead of tablets):

    • Vinegar. Soak a simple cloth with apple or table 5% vinegar and attach it to your heels for 5-10 minutes. Make sure that the pressure does not drop low. When normalized, stop the procedure.
    • Bath with mustard. Type hot water in the foot bath and sprinkle the mustard. Soak your feet for about 10-15 minutes and the pressure drop.
    • Mustard plasters. With high blood pressure, simply place mustard plasters on the calf muscles, shoulders, neck and back of the head.

    The main objective of non-drug therapy is to make lifestyle as healthy as possible. What does she include? As a rule, these are various wellness and strengthening procedures, which may include:

    • Breathing exercises.
    • Light massage.
    • Reflexology.
    • Normalization of sleep.
    • Compliance with the mode of the day.
    • The intake of vitamins.

    Patients are of considerable interest in the treatment of hypertension with folk remedies. The most popular information is on how to lower blood pressure with the help of medicinal plants. And this is quite justified, because herbal medicine for hypertension causes side effects much less often than “artificial” drugs.

    Hypertension pills prescribed by your GP or cardiologist can cause general weakness, dizziness, impotence, allergies, kidney problems, and many other problems. At the same time, competent treatment of hypertension with folk remedies not only normalizes blood pressure, but also saturates the body with vitamins and other useful substances.

    If hypertension was diagnosed in time at the initial stage, then the use of medicinal plants can effectively lower blood pressure. The effect of the treatment of hypertension with folk remedies will be strong and lasting if the patient takes the trouble to lead a healthy lifestyle and adhere to a balanced diet.

    It is recommended to take herbal decoctions and infusions for the treatment of hypertension, prepared according to folk recipes for a long time, taking breaks for 5-10 days every 2-3 months. As a rule, herbal preparations for lowering blood pressure include plants that have a calming, diuretic and antispasmodic effect.

    These medicinal plants contain many chemical compounds that affect the patient’s body. They are called biologically active substances. These include: vitamins, macro- and microelements, volatile, organic acids and other substances.

    Remember, treating without consulting a doctor is contraindicated!

    Diet for ailment

    A healthy lifestyle for hypertension involves diet correction. And in some cases, this alone is enough to control the level of blood pressure. The main directions for changing the hypertensive diet are as follows:

      Calorie restriction for weight control. Being overweight is one of the main risk factors for hypertension.

    You should abandon the use of sweet, fatty and floury foods. It should be remembered that starvation is contraindicated in patients with hypertension, since a lack of protein, vitamins and trace elements in the body negatively affects the state of the cardiovascular system and metabolism.

    Limiting the content of animal fats in the diet. This is simultaneously aimed at reducing the calorie content of food and the prevention of atherosclerosis, which is one of the risk factors for hypertension.

    Foods rich in cholesterol (liver, brains, caviar) should be excluded from the diet, and butter, cheeses, sour cream, sausages, lard, fried meatballs should be replaced with additional portions of vegetables and fruits, vegetable oil, low-fat fish. Dairy products are preferably fat free.

    Salts, smoked meats, chips, salted cheeses, canned foods should be excluded from the diet of hypertensive patients. The amount of salt used in cooking should be reduced to 1 teaspoon per day.

    Enrichment of the diet with magnesium and potassium, which reduce the tendency of vessels to spasms, strengthen the nervous and cardiovascular systems. A large amount of potassium is found in foods such as apricots, prunes, cabbage, potatoes, pumpkin, bananas, wild rose.

    Carrots, lettuce, beets, parsley, walnuts, black currants, black bread with bran, oatmeal and buckwheat are rich in magnesium.

  • The use of foods rich in vitamin C, a firming effect on the walls of blood vessels. Vegetables and fruits, which contain a large amount of vitamin C, are best consumed raw or subjected to a short heat treatment. Vitamin C is rich in citrus fruits, wild rose, blackcurrant, sea buckthorn, Sudanese rose flowers.
  • Products unwanted with hypertension:

    • salted butter;
    • cheeses;
    • olives;
    • canned food;
    • sausages, smoked meats, etc.
    • salty fish;
    • sauces, mayonnaise, bouillon cubes;
    • sweet soda;
    • fast food;
    • coffee;
    • Black tea.

    Uncontrolled arterial hypertension in the elderly is the most important risk factor for developing heart problems at this age, such as a heart attack, for example.

    A potassium diet can give a good effect during an exacerbation. It includes potassium-rich foods, excludes sodium chloride and extractives from meat and fish, and limits the amount of free fluid. Eating – 6 times a day. The diet is prescribed in the form of four consecutive diets (diets 1-2 – for 1-2 days, 3-4 – for 2-3 days).

    1. Diet 1
      • 1st breakfast: baked potatoes – 200 g, coffee substitute with milk – 180 ml.
      • 2nd breakfast: juice from fresh cabbage or carrots – 100 ml.
      • Lunch: mashed potato soup – 200 ml, carrot puree – 100 g, fruit jelly.
      • Snack: broth of wild rose – 100 ml.
      • Dinner: mashed potatoes – 300 g, rosehip broth – 100 ml.
      • At night: fruit juice – 100 ml.
    2. Diet 2
      • 1st breakfast: baked potatoes – 200 g, coffee substitute with milk – 180 ml.
      • 2nd breakfast: millet porridge – 150 g, cabbage juice (carrot) – 100 ml.
      • Lunch: mashed cabbage and potato soup – 200 ml, potato patties – 200 g, fruit jelly.
      • Snack: broth of wild rose – 100 ml.
      • Dinner: rice pilaf with fruits – 150 g, rosehip broth – 100 ml.
      • At night: fruit juice – 100 ml.
    3. Diet 3
      • 1st breakfast: millet porridge with dried fruits – 200 g, coffee substitute with milk – 180 ml.
      • 2nd breakfast: mashed potatoes – 200 g, cabbage juice (carrot) – 100 ml.
      • Lunch: oat soup with vegetarian vegetables – 250 ml, carrot cutlets – 150 g, dried fruit compote – 180 ml.
      • Snack: broth of wild rose – 100 ml.
      • Dinner: boiled fish – 55 g, mashed potatoes – 200 g, tea with milk – 180 ml.
      • At night: fruit juice – 100 ml.
    4. Diet 4
      • 1st breakfast: fresh vegetable salad – 150 g, buckwheat milk porridge – 200 g, coffee substitute with milk – 180 ml.
      • 2nd breakfast: raisins (dried apricots) soaked – 100 g, cabbage juice (carrot) – 100 ml.
      • Lunch: vegetarian potato soup – 400 ml, boiled meat pilaf with rice – 55/180 g, dried fruit compote – 180 ml.
      • Snack: baked apples – 100 g.
      • Dinner: boiled meat – 55 g, potato patties – 200 g, tea with milk – 180 ml.
      • At night: fruit juice – 100 ml.

    On the 2nd, 3rd and 4th diets, 50, 100 and 200 g of salt-free wheat bread are given, respectively, on the 4th diet – 30 g of sugar. Diet contains from 6 to 7 g of potassium.

    I emphasize once again that obese patients are 3-5 times more likely to suffer from hypertension than people with normal body weight, which is fraught with the rapid development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Moreover, a decrease in body weight almost always contributes to a decrease in blood pressure.

    Therefore, with high blood pressure against the background of obesity, it is first of all necessary to use low-calorie diets, but with a greater restriction of table salt. If all else fails, it makes sense to try several fasting courses (fasting and dietary therapy).

    Possible complications

    Hypertension is often compared to a silent killer, because its health effects are often manifested in the later stages of the disease. Hypertension is the main cause of heart attacks and strokes. Hypertension negatively affects almost all organs of the human body:

      Violations of the arteries.

    High blood pressure contributes significantly to the processes of coarsening of the arteries from the aorta to arterioles. Increasing pressure on the inner walls of blood vessels contributes to their greater susceptibility to the accumulation of fatty elements. This process is known as vascular atherosclerosis.

    Subsequently, the development of atherosclerosis leads to a narrowing of the lumen of the arteries and angina pectoris (angina pectoris). Narrowed arteries in the legs can cause symptoms such as pain and stiffness while walking. This disease is called intermittent claudication.

    A common form of complications observed in arteries altered by hypertension. A blood clot in a coronary (cardiac) artery can lead to a heart attack, a blood clot in a carotid artery that feeds the brain can lead to a stroke.

    Hypertension started for many years leads to the development of a dangerous complication – aneurysm. Aneurysm is a protrusion of an artery wall (like bulging out the thinnest place in a balloon).

    Increased pressure has a damaging effect on small arteries, however, in a slightly different vein. The muscle layer from which the walls of the arteries are built thickens, compressing the vessel, which impedes the normal flow of blood inside it. This can lead to kidney damage. Thickening of the walls of the intraocular vessels and hemorrhage lead to complete or partial loss of vision.

    Violations of the heart.

    The heart is the main target organ of long-term hypertension. Increased pressure causes the heart muscle to work in an enhanced mode to ensure adequate oxygen supply to the tissues. Such work leads to an increase in the size of the heart.

    In the early stages, an enlarged heart has greater strength in order to pump blood into the arteries more effectively under high pressure.
    An enlarged heart muscle can become stiff and weak and cease to provide enough oxygen to the body.

    Disorders from the brain.

    The circulatory system is designed to provide a steady supply of oxygen and nutrients to the brain. If the body feels a decrease in the volume of blood flowing to the brain, it immediately turns on compensatory mechanisms that increase pressure, and blood from other organs is transferred to the brain.

    In this case, the heart immediately accelerates its rhythm, and the contraction of the blood vessels of the abdominal cavity and legs provides an influx of more blood to the brain.

    The blockage of the arteries of the brain can be short-term, causing a temporary break in the blood supply to a certain part of the brain. This phenomenon in medicine is called a microstroke.

    Even if such an episode lasts a minute, it requires immediate medical advice and therapy, since the risk in this case is the development of a full stroke. Repeated episodes of micro strokes can lead to a weakening of certain brain functions, which in medicine is denoted by the term 17A-dementia.

    Violations of the kidneys.

    The kidney consists of millions of tiny filters called nephrons. Every day, more than 1 liters of blood passes through the kidneys, where toxins and waste products are filtered and excreted with the resulting urine, and beneficial substances return to the bloodstream.

    High blood pressure makes the kidneys work in an enhanced mode. In addition, damage to the smallest vessels inside the renal nephrons reduces the amount of filtered blood. Subsequently, this can lead to a reduction in the filtering ability of the kidneys.

    As a result of such changes, the protein is excreted in the urine before it returns to the bloodstream, and waste that is normally excreted, on the contrary, can enter the bloodstream. The process leads to a serious condition – uremia, and subsequently to renal failure, requiring periodic dialysis or blood purification.

    Violations of the view.

    As noted earlier, there are many tiny blood vessels at the bottom of the eyeball that are especially sensitive to high blood pressure. After several years of uncontrolled hypertension, ocular retinal degeneration may begin due to poor blood supply, pinpoint bleeding, or the accumulation of cholesterol in the vessels.

    This condition is called retinopathy. The risk of retinopathy in patients with diabetes is especially high.

    Prevention

    Modern youth is prone to hypertension, because it does not adhere to the most correct lifestyle. As you know, bad habits, alcohol abuse, overweight and passive behavior in everyday life are the same pathogenic factors that develop this diagnosis.

    That is why it is important to reconsider your diet and your usual daily routine, excluding prolonged “lying on the couch” and eternal snacks in fast foods. It is also important to minimize the amount of salt entering the human body through food, as it can also cause an increase in blood pressure.

    In addition, it’s time to go in for sports, choosing for yourself the most basic cardio exercises, for example, running, walking, dancing, aerobics or swimming. Such physical activity will reduce the number of relapses, and hypertension will prevail exclusively in remission.

    If high blood pressure is just an alarming symptom of the underlying heart disease, then it’s time to take all measures to completely eliminate it, or to transfer to the stage of remission.

    It is also advisable to control your emotional state, avoiding strong emotional disturbances, stress and chronic insomnia. Once every six months it is advisable to perform a cardiogram and visit the attending physician to once again make sure of the stability of their own health.

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    Detonic for pressure normalization

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    Svetlana Borszavich

    General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
    Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
    The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
    The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

    Detonic