Together with urine, excess fluid and all unnecessary things that remain after the most complex process of filtering blood in the kidneys are removed from the body. Pathological processes have a strong effect on its composition, changing its characteristics. Only laboratory research can tell about such changes.
Why do you need a urine test
The state of urine can tell a lot about the work of the internal organ systems. Therefore, doctors regularly prescribe urine analysis for prophylactic or diagnostic purposes.
An accurate diagnosis based on the obtained research data, of course, cannot be made, but it is an integral part of diagnosing diseases and determining the general condition of the body.
First of all, a general analysis is carried out, and then, depending on the results, the doctor may prescribe more specific clarifying urine samples.
General or clinical analysis (OAM) is the most versatile, as it is performed to determine the chemical, physical, and microscopic properties of urine. The obtained indicators are compared with the norm.
Also, the presence of certain foreign substances and cells is determined, which should not be in the urine of a healthy person or in very small quantities.
- Colour. The color is considered normal from light shades of straw to rich yellow. A deviation from the norm can be an important sign of a disease. So, for example, clear urine is observed in diabetics. A dark brown color indicates liver or kidney problems.
- Density. An increase or decrease in the level of density relative to the norm is a sign of a violation of the filtration function of the kidneys.
- Transparency. Turbid urine indicates the presence of impurities in it in the form of salts, mucus, purulent discharge, protein. This is a sign of inflammation or urolithiasis.
- Reaction pH. Normal urine has a slightly alkaline, neutral or slightly acidic reaction. A shift in one direction or another indicates pathology.
- Smell. If urine has a pungent smell of acetone, then you should pay attention to the work of the pancreas. Urine smells like ammonia with cystitis. With infectious processes in the urinary system, there is a rotten smell.
- Protein. Normally, protein should not be present. Its appearance is typical for inflammatory processes in the kidneys and urinary tract, as well as for acute viral infections. During pregnancy, protein in the urine is a sign of late toxicosis, requiring immediate hospitalization.
- Glucose. A healthy person has no sugar in urine. Its appearance is typical for diseases such as pancreatitis and diabetes.
- Ketone bodies. The presence of acetone bodies is found in diabetes mellitus.
- Bilirubin. Various liver diseases lead to the appearance of bilirubin in the analysis, especially with icteric syndrome.
- Leukocytes. A single number of leukocytes in healthy urine is allowed. Exceeding the norm is a symptom of inflammatory diseases and infections.
- Erythrocytes. Normally, up to 3 per field of view is allowed. The appearance of blood in the urine is an alarming sign of various pathologies.
- Cylinders. Formed at high temperatures, hypertension, protein metabolism disorders, various kidney pathologies.
- Salts. The presence of salts is explained by the presence of urolithiasis.
- Bacteria and fungi. They shouldn’t be in normal urine. If detected, an additional study is assigned to determine the pathogen.
Preparation for analysis
OAM does not require any complex specific training. It is recommended to exclude from the diet foods that can cause staining of urine, for example, beets, carrots, rhubarb, sodas with cola, such as cola. Alcohol and mineral water should not be consumed the day before.
You should also refrain from excessive physical exertion, going to the sauna. The use of medications is excluded if they are not vital.
A container for collecting material should be prepared in advance. This can be a special container purchased at a pharmacy, or a sterilized small jar. In the morning before urinating, thoroughly wash the genitals. For research, you need an average portion of urine.
What volume of urine for analysis must be collected from an adult and children
For research, an adult should collect 50-100 ml or 2/3 of the container. For a child over one year old, the required volume is about 30-50 ml. In children under one year old, the minimum amount is 10 ml. A smaller volume may simply not be enough for research.
Collection of urine in infants
It is rather difficult for a child under one year old to collect urine for research. To facilitate this process, a special pediatric urine collection bag can be purchased at the pharmacy. This device is glued to the genitals of the child. After the child has urinated, the urine is poured into a container.
Do not squeeze urine out of a diaper or pour it out of a pot.
Storage periods of urine for research
The shorter the time between the collection of material and delivery to the laboratory, the more reliable the result will be. It should not exceed 2 hours. After this period, microorganisms begin to develop in urine, the components dissolved in it are destroyed.
To obtain accurate information about your health, you should not neglect the simple rules for collecting material for urine analysis. It is also recommended to adhere to the acceptable shelf life. Then the conducted research will be as effective and useful as possible.
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