The first “point” for drinking is the stomach. Here it is partially absorbed by the walls of the stomach (80%), while the rest of the alcohol is abundantly diluted with gastric juice and enzymes, which the body immediately allocates to “fight” with the harmful component. A decrease in the production of juice for digestion occurs at a time when the percentage of alcohol is 5%. From this moment begins the “path” of alcohol in all systems and organs of man.
If alcohol was drunk on an empty stomach, then its maximum concentration in the blood will be visible after 40 minutes. In order for ethyl to enter the urine, it will take a little longer – from 4 to 6 hours. The time of alcohol concentration in the urine depends on many features:
- age of the person;
- gender (male / female);
- amount of alcohol;
- the time interval between drinking (on a hangover, the concentration and duration of elimination of ethanol doubles);
- the duration of alcohol intake (binge or one feast);
- living conditions (ecology);
- health status and the presence / absence of chronic diseases;
- the amount of food taken before and after drinking alcohol.
So, for example, in women, the alcohol content in the urine and blood will be higher than in men. This fact is due to the characteristics of the body. In a young man with a good liver and pancreas, ethyl comes out twice as fast as in a person with a problem gland. Living conditions and lifestyle also affect not only the degree of intoxication of a person, but also the ability of his body to quickly remove alcohol toxins.
In order to establish how long alcohol holds in urine and blood, it is necessary to know some features of the decay process of elimination and elimination of ethyl from the body. In general, there are three stages of intoxication (the action of ethanol):
- suction phase. The duration of this phase is on average from 40 minutes to 4-5 hours. The duration of the process depends on factors such as the amount of alcohol taken, its quality, age and weight of the person;
- phase selection. The period of excretion is associated with multiple metabolic processes in the body, which tries to remove toxins from the body by all means: sweating increases, the rhythm of the heart muscle increases (in order to process toxic blood faster); It was during this period that the concentration of ethyl in rock, and in urine, and in saliva was the highest. The duration of the phase is 10-12 hours;
- the oxidation phase is associated with the elimination of ethanol from the body. The concentration of the component in the blood decreases sharply, sobering occurs. That is why for contentious issues regarding driver adequacy, it is recommended to conduct a study on the presence of alcohol in the blood in the first 12 hours. However, sedimentary alcohol will be observed for another three days.
At the same time, you should know that the analysis of urine and blood for alcohol while taking biomaterial will be very different. This happens because ethanol belongs to the hydrophilic components (aqueous composition) in terms of its qualitative composition, and therefore the maximum concentration of ethanol will be observed in the urine. The concentration and amount of alcohol in urine will also depend on the fullness of the bladder: more fluid – less concentration.
However, for an accurate calculation, it is worth considering factors such as the presence or absence of chronic diseases, living conditions and fullness of the stomach. The data shown may vary slightly.
Different spirits have different amounts of ethanol. But, the absorption and concentration of alcohol in the blood will depend not only on the quality and quantity of the ethanol-containing drink. So, for example, whiskey or gin in the amount of only 50 grams is intoxicating much faster than 1 liter of beer. And the point here is not at all in quantity, but in the rate of decay. But the concentration in the blood and in the urine will depend on a number of factors that have been given above.
Beer is eliminated from the body faster than vodka, but if you drink a very large amount of hops and even with oily fish, the process of eliminating alcohol will be twice as long as from ordinary vodka. A full stomach and alcohol slow down the processes of enzyme secretion, the digestive tract works with a vengeance on the simultaneous digestion of food and the removal of alcohol.
Several types of tests are used to determine alcohol in the urine. Each individual alcohol test has its own characteristics and advantages:
- chromatography (liquid or gas). The method allows you to separate the volatile components in urine, saliva and blood. The most accurate method that is used in judicial practice;
- Widmark formula. The test shows the level of ppm of alcohol in the body. It is used to determine the degree of intoxication at the scene of an accident or any other accident;
- enzymatic method. ADH diagnostics is carried out only within the walls of a medical institution. The basis of the test material is saliva and urine;
- test express strips. Instant result for determining the concentration of alcohol in urine and blood.
In order to understand how much alcohol is held in urine, it is necessary to take into account a lot of features and factors (age, state of health, gender). The degree of intoxication is not determined solely by the amount of alcohol drunk in equivalent to ethyl alcohol. If the liver is working correctly, and its functions are not disturbed by chronic alcoholism, then the development of the necessary amount of enzymes for the processing of alcohol will occur in full.
Once in the body, ethanol is absorbed into the blood from the small intestine. With the flow of blood, it spreads throughout the body, and the reaction of its neutralization as a toxic substance starts in the liver. For this, hepatocytes are actively beginning to produce alcohol dehydrogenase, an enzyme that decomposes ethyl alcohol into harmless components and toxic acetaldehyde.
Thus, the breakdown time of alcohol in the blood directly depends on the amount of these two enzymes. It is simply impossible to indicate the exact period, it is individual for each and, in addition to the enzymatic activity of the liver, depends on several other factors:
- volume of drink and its strength – the higher these indicators, the longer it will take to neutralize ethanol and its decay products;
- body weight – the fuller, more massive the person, the slower he will get drunk and sober up faster;
- gender – women get drunk faster and sober longer, since the ADH enzyme in the female body is produced less;
- age – a slowdown in metabolism over the years also means a decrease in enzymatic activity;
- state of health – blood weakened by the body weakened by the disease takes longer to process (especially for chronic liver diseases – its insufficiency and other pathologies);
- the way of drinking alcohol is a large volume drunk at a time (“in one gulp”) and the absence of a snack speed up intoxication and make it longer.
Therefore, as a result of a feast with dancing in the fresh air, the degree of intoxication is less, and sobriety occurs much faster.
Motorists are primarily interested in the rate of removal of ethanol from the body. Moreover, the determining factor is not the presence of the characteristic smell of “fumes” or the testimony of the breathalyzer of the traffic police, but the ability to drive the vehicle adequately. Information on how long alcohol holds in the blood of men is in the table below.
|Alcohol strength,% (name)||Body weight, kg||Output speed, hours|
|100 g||300 g||500 g|
|40-42 (vodka, rum, cognac)||to 60||more 6||18 – 19||30|
|61 – 80||5||14||24|
|81 – 120||3 – 4||11||20|
|18-30 (tincture, port, liquor)||to 60||more 4||12||18 – 19|
|61 – 80||3||10 – 11||17|
|81 – 120||less 3||7||12|
|9-11 (wine, champagne, gin and tonic)||to 60||more 1,5||4||7 – 8|
|61 – 80||1||3 – 4||6|
|81 – 120||less 1||3||5|
|4-6 (beer or low alcohol cocktails)||to 60||less 1||2||3 – 4|
|61 – 80||0,5||2||2 – 3|
|81 – 120||less 0,5||1||2|
The given indicators are the average time of the alcohol content in the blood of a healthy person.
For people with chronic diseases (especially the liver), these values change upward. In addition, medication can affect the process and rate of excretion of ethanol. Some drugs can increase these periods, so you need to first familiarize yourself with the information about the interaction.
A separate topic is the metabolism of alcohol in the body of a person who drinks regularly or suffers from alcoholism. He and intoxication comes faster, and enzymatic activity is reduced. As a rule, for the complete breakdown of alcohol in this case, it takes much more time, since this biochemical process has its own characteristics.
Five years ago, according to Russian law, an express test was supposed to give a zero indicator for drivers. Then, in 2013, the adopted norms were carefully revised and amended to the relevant law. Now, after corrections, the maximum permissible concentration in exhaled air is 0,16 ppm. For laboratory analysis, the rate of alcohol in the blood is 0,35.
Signs of presence in the body
Alcohol leaves the body not always at the desired speed. Drivers sometimes have to take a kind of alcohol test with a breathalyzer. This procedure allows you to drive a car with alcohol 0,16 ppm. This content is measured in the air exhaled by a person. When conducting a survey in a medical institution, the ethanol content in the norm is 0,35 ppm. The presence of alcohol can be determined without such devices. This may be indicated by signs:
- outgoing specific smell of alcohol;
- apparent impairment of memory and speech;
- delayed reaction;
- lack of control over certain movements;
- special nervous excitement;
- trembling fingers;
- distracted attention;
- deterioration of vision;
- excessive aggressiveness;
- sudden inhibition.
With an alcohol content of 0,2-0,5 ppm, motorists and pedestrians lose their ability to evaluate the size of light sources and their speed of movement. At 0,5-0,8 ppm, the red color ceases to be perceived, the level of vision decreases, the driver ceases to notice the curb. 1,2 ppm of alcohol does not allow you to drive a vehicle. A lethal dose is 4-5 ppm.
How much alcohol does the body hold? It can persist at different times. There are special methods for counting this substance in the blood. Compiled and tables to determine its quantity. The table of alcohol withdrawal from the body is based on the gender of the person, his weight and the amount of alcohol consumed. According to the table, you can calculate the alcohol content in the body of women and men. All calculations do not claim to be highly accurate. But for drivers, a table can be useful.
Drink dose: 100 g; 300 g; 500 g
Output Speed: 6 hours; 18 hours; 30 hours (with a weight of up to 60 kg and a beverage strength of 40-42% vol.);
5:14; 80 hours; about a day (weight up to kg);
3-4 hours; 11 o’clock; 20 hours (weight up to 120 kg).
Similar tables exist for drinks with a strength of 18-30, 9-11, 4% vol.
For this purpose, there is no need to take tests.
You can determine the presence of alcohol by observing the symptoms:
- The coordination of movements suffers.
- In the behavior style extremes are included: aggressiveness, retardation or others.
- Difficulties expressed in speech.
- Memory weakening.
The absence of symptoms is not a reason to assume the absence of alcohol in the body. The tests performed can detect alcohol even if there are no behavioral changes.
The presence of a strong drink in the body can be divided into three stages:
- First, absorption occurs. It starts when alcohol enters and continues until it enters the bloodstream.
- The second stage involves isolation. Alcohol enters into almost all the vital products of the human body. However, it can be found in urine, feces, saliva, sweat and expired air.
- The last, third stage is oxidation. The bulk of the alcohol is removed from the human body. The remaining penetrates the nervous and reproductive systems and is deposited for a long time in them.
In order to study the urine submitted for analysis, the alcohol content in it, the following methods can be used:
- Gas or liquid chromatography may be used. This method is considered the most accurate. During the study, the volatile components of urine are separated and their analysis is more detailed, on the basis of which the final conclusions are made.
- The use of enzymatic techniques. This type of analysis is usually performed in a drug treatment clinic. This test gives doctors a wealth of information.
- Application of the Widmark formula. Determines the exact amount of ppm of alcohol that is contained in urine.
Even when there is no alcohol left in the blood, it is still possible to detect traces of it in the urine. It is impossible to precisely answer the date when no trace will be left at all.
When drinking strong drinks, the concentration of alcohol increases rapidly in the blood. The absorption rate of ethanol is affected by the fullness of the stomach, the strength of the drink. As a rule, alcohol is excreted through the kidneys, liver, skin, lungs. The main action for processing, assimilation of ethanol is given to the liver. The product of the breakdown of alcohol is acetaldehyde – a toxic substance that leads to various liver diseases. The rest of the volatile liquid is excreted with sweat, urine, another person can actively exhale it into the air. The withdrawal of alcohol depends on such factors:
- liver health;
- individual characteristics of the organism;
- the fortress of the drink itself;
- the amount of alcohol consumed.
Many people are interested in the question of how much alcohol is held in the blood? The ethanol resorption period varies depending on the type and strength of the drink used. In addition, a large role is given to individual characteristics of a person (the presence of chronic diseases, frequency of use, etc.). It is difficult to determine the exact time for removing alcohol from the body – the value of the figure, based on the volume of alcohol consumed, can vary from 30 minutes to a day. The half-life of alcohol can be about an hour with a plasma concentration of up to 100 ml.
Much more depends on the degrees in the drink – if you drink a liter of brandy, then the alcohol concentration will stay longer than on dry wine in the same volume. In this case, the combination of drinks does not matter much, for example, a mixture of juice and vodka has the same effect as undiluted plain vodka. There is a special table for the withdrawal of alcohol from the body, taking into account the strength and volume of alcohol consumed.
It is difficult to answer unequivocally the question of how quickly alcohol disappears, because the duration of its release is individual. Drinks with different degrees are displayed in different ways, because the level of concentration of ethyl alcohol in the blood depends on the strength. In addition, ethanol leaves the blood at an individual rate for each person. Although there are main factors affecting the excretion of alcohol:
- Floor. In women, it goes longer, and toxic organ damage and intoxication appears faster than in men.
- Weight. Fat people get drunk slowly.
- Age. Withdrawal of toxic substances in older people takes longer than in young people.
- Number. A large dose of alcohol will stay inside the body longer.
- If a person rarely drinks, then the splitting of alcohol-containing drinks occurs faster.
- Health status. The presence of diseases, stress, depression, fatigue make alcohol remain in the body longer.
- Full stomach. The presence of snacks slows the solubility of alcohol.
The period of decay and neutralization of ethanol is a long process. How much it will take time depends on the health of the liver, so it will not work much to affect the speed of cleansing. Alcohol from the body of an adult male is, on average, excreted at a rate of 0,15 ppm / hour, in women – 20 percent slower. In case of poisoning, when a high concentration of alcohol is life threatening, cleansing can take place in 0,25 ppm / hour. The time for alcohol removal often depends on which particular drink a person drank.
Such a popular alcoholic drink, like vodka, unusually affects a person. For example, the determination by a breathalyzer of the remainder of vodka after the first 100 grams shows 0,8 ppm, then after another 100 g it shows only 0,2 ppm, and if you drink another 150 g, the amount of ethanol is 2,75 ppm. Finally, this amount of vodka disappears after 12 hours. As a rule, the removal of vodka depends on:
- an abundance of snacks: if you drink in small doses, alternating hearty dishes with vodka, the concentration will be low;
- psycho-emotional state of a person: often the nervous system contributes to rapid intoxication;
- drinks previously drunk: if a person used to drink beer before vodka, the process of eliminating alcohol can increase by 2 hours;
- sex, weight and health status, for example, in a man, 85 kg of a half bottle of vodka disappears on average 10 hours.
The most popular low-alcohol drink is beer. Often they drink it, regardless of the day of the week or time of day. This drink has a specific smell that can give a person. Therefore, many people want to know how long the beer disappears from the body. As a rule, the calculation table for alcohol excretion takes into account many factors (state of health, body weight, strength, etc.). But on average, beer leaves the body like this:
- 0,085-0,1 ppm per woman;
- 0,1-0,15 ppm per hour for men.
The alcoholic drink of whiskey, obtained from wheat, barley, corn, is very strong, so the body is difficult to cope with. After what time does the whiskey disappear from the blood? The elimination table for a middle-class person contains information that the period of sobering takes about 20-24 hours. It has been scientifically established that overweight people cope better with ethanol.
Most people who consume wine do not always know the time it was removed from the blood. Unlike most other drinks, dry red wine will disappear quickly. 100 ml may exit within 1,5 hours. If the volume is 200 ml, the elimination period is doubled. The rate of weathering of ethanol increases with decreasing body weight.
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One of the most difficult alcoholic drinks to process is cognac. Due to its high strength, its vapors disappear from the body for a long time. Protecting a person from instant intoxication, the stomach includes a special protective mechanism. It briefly closes the valve on the way to the small intestine, where the blood absorbs more ethanol. There is a special table for the withdrawal of alcohol from the body, which indicates how long a certain amount of cognac will disappear.
Cognac, unlike refined alcohol, goes worse. The tannins and tannins obtained during aging in a barrel are broken down by the liver longer. Therefore, the process of removing a bottle of cognac is almost an hour longer than the weathering of the same amount of vodka. In general, in order to calculate how long the body will get rid of cognac and sobriety comes, it is necessary to add 10% to the period beyond which vodka goes.
In the male body, the duration of alcohol stay is as follows:
- when taking a glass of brandy (50 ml), alcohol will be excreted for about 4 hours, if a man drank a bottle, then the alcohol will go out for about a day;
- a drunk bottle of beer is displayed about 3 hours;
- how long does blood alcohol hold after vodka? After consuming 100 grams of the drink, the withdrawal of alcohol from the body will last about 5-7 hours, with large volumes of drunk, the withdrawal duration is about 11-19 hours;
- half a liter of champagne will leave the body after 6-7 hours.
How long is left
- Liquor, vodka, cognac stay in the blood for at least three days. In urine, this time is four to six days.
- If you drink 100 ml of beer, then all its residues will leave the body of men after the first urination after they are fully absorbed after 30 minutes. If the dose is increased three times, the residence time from half an hour will increase to two and a half hours.
- After 100 ml of champagne has been drunk, the body will be completely cleansed after an hour and a half. A bottle of sparkling wine will take nine hours.
There may be situations when a person did not have the opportunity to go to the toilet. There was a delay in urination. At the same time, ethanol, which was supposed to be excreted, is not excreted from the body.
People with less body weight remove alcohol more slowly. It can be detected much longer than in massive people.
The residence time of ethanol in the urine is individual and depends on many factors. Therefore, in different situations and in different people, it can vary significantly.
It must be borne in mind that the concentration of ethyl alcohol in the blood is negligible. This can create difficulties in the analysis. The specific stay is individual and depends on the characteristics of the body.
It is important to understand that when passing tests some time before the study, alcohol should not enter the body so as not to distort its results.
In the female body, alcohol lasts about 20% longer than in the male
- 100 ml of vodka is removed about 7-11 hours;
- a similar amount of champagne will come out at least 2 hours;
- 50 ml of cognac will disappear in 7 hours;
- 200 ml of wine will be removed after 9 hours;
- if a woman drinks a bottle of beer, then the release date for alcohol will be 4-5 hours.
An interesting fact is that if a person takes a blood and urine test for alcohol, they will most likely show different results.
How alcohol is eliminated from the body
An important factor affecting the rate of assimilation, and, therefore, the output of ethanol is food. If a person thoroughly ate during drinking, then blood alcohol will be determined later than that of a drinker on an empty stomach, because the absorption of alcohol in such a situation slows down.
It is almost impossible to influence the processing of alcohol by the liver, but it is quite possible to speed up the process of getting rid of it with the help of the excretion system. In order for alcoholic products to quickly leave the body, it is necessary to resort to several tricks:
- take a diuretic drug like Lasix, Furosemide or Trifas. These drugs will speed up withdrawal due to the diuretic effect;
- need movement, do not lie in bed, quietly recovering from a hangover. Take care of household chores, take a walk with the dog, vacuum or wash the dishes, most importantly, do not overdo it, excessive activity can harm;
- no matter how much alcohol is held in your body, drink more fluids. Suitable for drinking mineral water, lemon tea, various vegetable juices, ordinary drinking water;
- Take a walk. Fresh air will give vigor and accelerate the removal of ethanol;
- take a drug from the group of sorbents, for example, activated carbon, Enterosgel or Smecta;
- take a cool shower, but not hot, a similar procedure will significantly alleviate the condition;
- before the proposed celebration it is recommended to eat tightly, and during the feast, get up for a dance or a short walk more often;
- during and after the feast, eat citrus fruits or drink a few tablets of ascorbic acid.
There are many contradictions about the bath. Such a procedure can help with relatively good heart health, but if there are cardiovascular problems, it is recommended to refuse bath procedures.
The time for the removal of alcohol from the body after binge differs significantly. He is able to hold on for quite some time. For an accurate determination, a blood test from a vein is needed. There can be no zero indicators in this test. Even drunk kvass or kefir show a certain dose in ppm. It is not recommended to take medicinal products with ethanol.
Physical activity speeds up the breakdown of alcohol in the blood
The time for withdrawal of alcohol from the body is different for each person. It depends on several factors, mainly on the strength of the drink, and on what is the breakdown time of alcohol in the blood. It is known that a full person gets intoxicated much more slowly, a large amount of alcohol taken lingers longer inside. Alcohol acts faster on women than on men.
With a great desire and support of relatives, the rate of alcohol elimination can be increased if the work of the lungs, liver and kidneys is facilitated. Doctors recommend:
- a walk in the air to cleanse the lungs of alcohol vapors;
- contrast shower, enhancing blood flow;
- drinking plenty of fluids;
- intake of vitamin C;
- more movements;
- intake of activated charcoal and diuretics.
Alcohol when ingested by the digestive system begins to be absorbed into the mucous membranes. After an hour and a half, it is absorbed and its decay begins. The period of this process in the blood is different for each individual person. After decay, alcohol is eliminated from the body through the respiratory organs, liver and sweat glands. A lot of waste is contained in urine.
Contrast shower helps
Everyone knows that alcohol is the enemy of man. It is the cause of terrible accidents in transport, taking many thousands of adults and children to the graves. How much is this drink excreted from the body completely? The weathering time of alcohol from the body can be found in special tables. But there it is indicated only approximately.
Before starting to be excreted, ethanol undergoes several chemical processes. With the breakdown of alcohol, acetaldehyde is formed, then acetic acid. The rates and the weathering of ethanol itself depend on their activity. On average, alcohol residues are excreted at a rate of 0,2 ppm per hour. In women, another 20% should be added to this figure, because the body needs more time to withdraw alcohol.
Alcohol drunk on a full stomach needs to stay inside a person for a bit longer than on a hungry one. No one knows for sure how quickly he will get out of you. You can look at the table, but it will not help much. To make the product come out faster, it is recommended to take some medications: Lasix, Trifas, Furosemide.
They have a diuretic effect. It is recommended to drink more mineral water, tea with lemon, vegetable juice, spend more time outdoors. A cool or contrast shower will help relieve a hangover. During the feast, it is better to dance more often. To ethanol is eliminated faster, you can drink several tablets of ascorbic acid.
A person can be considered completely sober only after the end of withdrawal symptoms. Then he is able to calmly drive a car. Breathalyzer can not always be trusted. Better to have a blood test. Advertising materials such as Anti-Police do not help either. They only slightly alleviate the condition, but do not absorb ethanol residues.
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