Heart surgery is performed only when other methods of therapy cannot help the patient’s condition. Cardiac surgery can prevent death in a patient, but the risk of an unfavorable outcome remains quite high.
Despite the fact that cardiac surgery does not stand still and develops, heart surgery is very difficult to carry out. The best specialists in cardiac surgery are engaged in it. But even this important fact cannot protect the operated person from complex consequences.
Complications in the postoperative period can even lead to death.
Indications for surgical intervention
As mentioned earlier, cardiac surgery is used in cases where there are no other options to save the patient’s life. Heart surgery requires a very serious approach.
Heart transplant is considered the most difficult and serious surgical intervention. The operation is carried out under the strict supervision of highly qualified specialists.
Indications for heart surgery of any complexity are as follows:
- the rapid development of ailments of the cardiovascular system;
- in the absence of results with drug treatment;
- late appeal to a medical institution.
Heart surgery helps to improve the general condition of the patient and eliminate the symptoms of a tormenting disease.
Cardiac abdominal surgery is performed only after a complete diagnostic study and an accurate diagnosis by a cardio specialist.
What are the types of heart surgery?
This is a rather important question if you are going to have this difficult surgery. You will also need to know how the operation goes and how it is done.
This is necessary in order to make, perhaps, the main decision in your life, on which the whole future fate will depend.
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This is a heart operation that does not involve the organ itself. It is performed without touching the heart. For its implementation, there is no need for special equipment, except for such as the surgeon’s instruments.
The cardiac cavity does not “open”. It is because of this that it is called “closed”.
Such an intervention is performed at the initial stage of the development of the disease, when the patient’s condition can only be improved by operations.
There is also open surgery. This type of surgery requires the opening of the cardiac cavities in order to eradicate the existing pathology.
Open heart surgery is performed using a special device – heart-lung machine or heart-lung machine.
With open intervention, the cavities are open, the heart and pulmonary organs are cut off from the circulation. This makes it possible to intervene on the “dry” organ.
All blood flows through a vein into specialized surgical equipment. There they pass through artificial lungs, are enriched with oxygen and release carbon dioxide, transforming from vein blood into arterial. Then it is driven by a special pump into the aorta of the operated person, in other words, into the systemic circulation.
Innovative techniques help all the “insides” of the equipment (also an artificial lung), with which the patient’s blood comes into contact, to create “disposable”, that is, once for one person. This will reduce the possible disastrous consequences.
Today, a heart-lung machine helps to stop the functioning of the heart organ and lungs for several hours. Thus, allowing to carry out the most difficult operations of an open nature.
X-ray surgical interventions
This type of intervention has been introduced quite recently. But thanks to innovative equipment, they occupy an important place in cardiac surgery.
With the help of a special catheter, surgical instruments are inserted into a strip section of the heart organ, or into the opening of the vessel. Further, using the pressure generated by the device, the valves of the cavity cuts are opened. Strengthen, or distort the partitions, or vice versa, using the device, the distortion is eliminated.
Special tubes are inserted into the lumen of the required vessel, thereby helping to open it.
The process during such operations is carefully monitored by a special computer and control over each action is carried out. As a result, operations are performed with less risk of injury and with a greater likelihood of a favorable outcome.
If you have had an X-ray surgery, the efficiency is higher.
Preoperative action plan
Preparation is required before cardiac surgery. If you have enough time, even a few days or weeks, you need to take care of your body. Eat healthy, nutrient-rich foods.
Get plenty of rest, take a walk in the fresh air, do physical exercises that your doctor has recommended to you.
Try to eat only natural foods every day and not once, even if you have no appetite. Your body needs to consume large amounts of proteins, vitamins and minerals.
Thanks to a healthy diet, the surgery itself and the rehabilitation period are more favorable.
Do not overwork your body prior to surgery. The more you rest, the stronger and stronger your body will become.
If your loved ones want to visit you or they invite you to visit, say that you need to gain strength before a difficult process. Relatives will always understand you and will not be offended.
It’s no secret for everyone that smoking has a negative effect even on the body of a completely healthy person. What can we say about patients with cardiac pathology.
Nicotine affects the heart in the following negative way: it develops arteriosclerosis, increases the pressure in the blood vessels, makes the heart vessels tense. It also narrows the blood-forming arteries and increases the concentration of mucous fluid in the pulmonary organs.
This leads to more difficult adaptation after surgery.
After surgery on the cardiac organ, if not enough time has passed, it is forbidden even to get out of the ward bed. During the entire rehabilitation period, the patient is in the intensive care unit.
This department is intended for patients who are at risk of death.
A special dietary diet plays a huge role in rehabilitation. His attending specialist prescribes individually for each patient. You can start eating only with lean gruel and vegetable broths, but after a few days, the diet increases significantly.
After the patient is transferred to a regular ward, as a rule, the attending physician will allow the use of the following products:
- coarse cereals (pearl barley, barley grits, unpolished rice). You can also include oatmeal in the diet 2-3 times a week;
- dairy production: fat-free curd mass, cheese with a fat content of not more than 20%;
- vegetables and fruit crops: fresh, steamed and in various salads;
- small pieces of boiled chicken, turkey and rabbit. As well as steamed homemade cutlets;
- various types of fish: herring, salmon, capelin, etc.
- all soups without fried ingredients and without fat.
In no case should you eat the following foods:
- all varieties of liver (liver, stomachs, hearts and tongue);
- sausages, small sausages, sausage, purchased minced meat (these food products may also contain liver);
- various smoked products. Brisket and loin must be completely excluded from your life. The only thing you can afford is a small piece of boiled pork a couple of times a month;
- naturally, after surgery, you need to forget about alcoholic beverages forever.
If you adhere to all indications and recommendations, surgical intervention under the strict supervision of an experienced specialist will be favorable. The rehabilitation period will not bring you any unpleasant “surprises”.