GGT in a biochemical blood test – the norm in the blood of ladies, males, children

The focus of gamma-GT informs us about the situation of the liver, kidneys, pancreas and prostate gland. We be taught what GGT requirements exist.

Biochemical evaluation of GGT is carried out in the prognosis of illnesses of the liver and biliary tract. The outcomes of the research depend upon a number of components. Consider the values ​​of the norm and deviation.

The norm for ladies is 10-66 U / L, and for males – 18-100 U / L. Increased ranges of GGT – from 120 to 1000 U / L.

It needs to be famous that the ranges of values ​​accepted as the norm for GGT in totally different laboratories and numerous sources of literature can fluctuate very considerably, even a number of instances. In this regard, it’s essential examine your personal outcome with the norms of the laboratory in which you donated blood for evaluation. Gamma-GT will increase in the blood with illnesses of numerous organs and programs: liver, kidney, lungs, and pancreas.

The price of GGT in the blood varies relying on the age, gender and even race of a individual. In new child infants, the quantity of GGTP in the blood can attain 185 items / l, and in children below the age of 6 months, this determine can enhance to 200 items / l. In adults, the GGT indicator ranges from 6-70 items / l, and the norm in ladies is considerably decrease than for males.

Such a excessive focus of gamma GT in the blood plasma of infants is defined by the undeniable fact that for a number of days after delivery the enzyme is virtually not produced by the liver, and the placenta serves as its foremost supply.

There is a increased focus of GGTP in the biochemical evaluation of blood taken from black folks.

Obesity additionally impacts the manufacturing of enzymes, and results in an elevated focus of GGT in the blood.

In the desk of GGT norms, an elevated degree of protein focus in the blood is clearly traced in males over the age of 12 years in contrast with ladies of a comparable age group. This hole is because of the undeniable fact that a certain quantity of the enzyme accumulates in the prostate gland. This helps to diagnose prostatitis and different illnesses of this gland, as a result of in this case, biochemistry reveals a sharp leap in the focus of GGT.

Regular bodily exercise, in addition to a strict food plan, excluding the use of meat and dairy merchandise, will scale back the content material of GGT in a pure method, with out taking medicines.

In order to know how harmful it’s to extend the degree of GGTP in the blood, it’s essential know its norms and deviations, which can point out the improvement of a illness. In addition, it’s essential know that the degree of GGT in males is barely increased than in ladies. The reality is that in males, a small half of the enzyme is current in the tissues of the prostate gland, which explains a slight enhance in indicators. It is necessary to contemplate the components of continual human illnesses, since in such circumstances the degree of GGTP also can exceed the permissible norm.

  1. The following indicators are thought-about regular:
  2. Women – from 6 to 42 items / liter.
  3. Men – from 10 to 71 items / liter.
  4. Pregnant ladies – from 6 to 33 items / liter. Levels might lower or enhance in every trimester.

In children, the degree of GGTP is considerably increased than in adults, however the older the youngster turns into, the much less enzyme is current in blood plasma. GGTP in children is taken into account individually by a pediatrician.

It is value noting the undeniable fact that the norm, in addition to the deviations in totally different laboratories can fluctuate, so earlier than you undergo this research, it’s essential select a laboratory with a good repute.

The price of GGTP in ladies, like males, can have slight deviations, so the physician attracts consideration to different indicators in the analyzes, particularly, the degree of bilirubin, the quantity of ALT, AST, whole protein, ldl cholesterol and different outcomes which can be current in the decoding of the evaluation. In addition to liver checks, different laboratory and instrumental diagnostic strategies can be prescribed to the affected person, which can assist the physician to compile a full image of the illness, establish the trigger, and if needed, give helpful suggestions or prescribe therapeutic remedy.

The indicators of gamma-glutamyltransferase in the blood in women and men are utterly totally different. For males, the regular price is 10-71 U / L, and for ladies – 6-42 U / L. In newborns, the price is barely increased than in adults. Over time, the content material of GGT in the blood modifications. In males, it’s steady all through life. As for ladies, their gamma-glutamyl transferase content material has been rising over the years.

There are circumstances when the affected person solely the quantity of GGT in the blood differs from the norm, and all different checks are in order. At the similar time, it’s not possible to find out the state of human well being, so docs prescribe a second test.

As specialists have established, the focus of GGT in the human physique relies on a number of components. The foremost ones are:

To decide the focus in the physique of gamma-glutamyltransferase, the norm of which can change over time, a venous blood pattern is taken. The interpretation of the outcomes needs to be carried out completely by the physician – a easy comparability of the figures obtained with the established requirements shouldn’t be informative. However, the following sequence might be traced: massive GGT values ​​point out intensive harm to the liver or biliary tract.

As medical observations present, this enzyme is contained in the feminine physique in a decrease focus. When assessing GGT values, the norm in ladies is established beneath. However, with age, a rise in the focus of the enzyme is noticed. If for ladies below the age of 45, the GGT degree at the center of the reference values ​​is acknowledged as optimum, then after 45 years it shifts to the higher restrict of the norm. You can get acquainted with how a change in the focus of GGT in the blood of the weaker intercourse happens with age, in the desk beneath.

Girls 12-17 years previous

Girls over 17 and girls

Until 32

The GGT price in males exceeds the indicators established for ladies. One of the causes for that is a function of physiology. In addition, males usually tend to drink alcohol. At the similar time, it should be mentioned that with extended systematic use of alcoholic drinks, the values ​​of GGT enhance a number of instances.

Guys over 17 and males

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GGT – the norm in children

In children, a biochemical blood test is virtually not carried out, due to this fact, the degree of GGT shouldn’t be established. The research is finished solely as directed by the physician. Decryption of the result’s carried out completely by a specialist. The values ​​of the indicator are so small that always they don’t connect significance. So, the GGT norm in newborns is nearly zero, due to this fact, for the goal of prognosis, the research is prescribed from 1 yr. The norm of GGT for children is given in the desk.

5 days – 6 months

6 months – 1 yr

ChildrenNormal worth
Until 17

The price of GGT in the blood relies on the age and gender of the affected person. In addition, the reference worth in totally different clinics and laboratories might fluctuate relying on the reagents used.

Average GGT norms in a biochemical blood test:

  • in infants as much as 6 months – as much as 204 IU / l;
  • in children 6-12 months previous – 34 IU / l;
  • from a yr to three years – 18 IU / l;
  • from 3 to 12 years previous – 20 IU / l;
  • from 13 to 17 years previous – 40 IU / l;
  • in ladies over 18 years previous – 5-36 IU / l;
  • for males over 18 years of age – 8-61 IU / l.

The elevated reference worth in representatives of the stronger intercourse is because of the presence of an enzyme in the prostate.

For the well timed detection of pathological modifications in the liver and bile ducts throughout blood evaluation, particular consideration is paid to the GGT enzyme (gamma-glutamyltransferase), it is usually known as gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTP). The enzyme is actively concerned in the building of new protein molecules and is a vital catalyst for biochemical reactions.

GGT in the blood reveals the situation of the liver and bile ducts

Gamma GT is positioned on the cells of the kidneys, liver, pancreas, bile ducts.

Normally, it’s virtually absent in the blood, and will get there solely in the occasion of the destruction of wholesome cells of important organs.

Therefore, the definition of GGT is an integral half of the biochemical evaluation of blood (liver samples). Its sharp enhance in serum signifies harmful modifications in the liver or disruption of the bile duct.

Indications for biochemical research of GGTP are the following circumstances:

  1. Violations of the regular functioning of the liver brought on by abuse of alcohol (alcoholic hepatitis). Typically, such sufferers are noticed by a narcologist.
  2. The presence of stones in the bile duct or tumor in the pancreas. Similar circumstances provoke a blockage of the gallbladder canals.
  3. Pathological modifications in bone tissue (evaluation is carried out if alkaline phosphatase is elevated).
  4. Patient complaints of lack of urge for food, ache discomfort on the proper aspect below the rib, periodic nausea, vomiting. Darkening of urine and lightening of feces, yellowness and itching of the pores and skin could also be added to the medical image.

Blood donation for liver checks is critical earlier than surgical procedure, in addition to in the type of prophylaxis throughout routine medical examinations.

With stones in the gallbladder, an evaluation for GGT is prescribed

To get the most dependable outcomes, it’s essential to correctly put together for the evaluation of GGT:

  1. 8-10 hours earlier than blood donation don’t eat meals and any drinks. Material is taken in the morning on an empty abdomen.
  2. Limit bodily and emotional stress throughout the day.
  3. For a number of days, comply with a food plan – exclude fatty, spicy, salty and smoked meals, sweets and alcohol from the food plan.
  4. Do not take any medicines the day earlier than the research. If this isn’t attainable, then notify the physician about taking medicines, as they’ll distort the outcomes of the research.
  5. Try to exclude smoking at the very least 2-3 hours earlier than the test.

Do not eat spicy or fatty meals a few days earlier than testing.

Preparation and evaluation

A biochemical blood test for GGT is prescribed for the prognosis of illnesses of the liver, digestive organs and the detection of stagnation of bile. Its finishing up is beneficial at emergence of disturbing signs in the affected person: jaundice, nausea, vomiting, normal weak point and darkening of urine. The research lets you diagnose alcoholism and management the course of of abstinence from dangerous habit.

An evaluation of GGT performs an necessary function in assessing the effectiveness of the therapy of liver illnesses, in addition to in figuring out pathological modifications in the physique when taking sure medicines.

You can get dependable outcomes of the evaluation for GGT solely following the suggestions of the physician. Biological materials for analysis is taken from a vein in the morning on an empty abdomen. Refuse meals 12 hours earlier than the research, you may solely use clear water. Exclude bodily exercise and emotional misery. Do not smoke an hour earlier than the evaluation, however hand over alcohol at the very least at some point in reality, even its slight ingestion in the physique can distort the outcome. Do not X-ray, X-ray, or ultrasound earlier than examination.

A blood test for GGTP is the most correct and efficient device for assessing the performance of the liver, bile ducts, pancreas. A blood test for glutamyl transpeptidase is indicated in the following conditions:

  • in the presence of signs: periodic nausea, frequent vomiting, loss of urge for food, ache below the proper ribs,
  • if there may be a suspicion of cholecystitis, cholangitis, cholestasis, jaundice,
  • in figuring out the causes of stagnation of bile,
  • in the prognosis and therapy of alcohol dependence,
  • with drug intoxication,
  • when assessing the situation of the liver,
  • throughout preoperative examination.

This enzyme most strongly accumulates in the kidneys, liver and pancreas, the place its degree is a whole lot of instances increased than the focus in blood plasma. At the first indicators of impaired liver or biliary tract, the focus of the enzyme in the blood plasma sharply will increase in 90% of circumstances.

A biochemical blood test for HGP is carried out if there may be a suspicion of blockage of the bile ducts, the look of stones in the gallbladder or the look of formations in the pancreas.

Monitoring the dynamics of the quantity of GGTP in the blood permits us to guage the effectiveness of the therapy of hepatotoxic lesions.

An evaluation of GGTP is given on an empty abdomen after customary preparation for a biochemical examination, which incorporates a sure food plan for 1-2 days previous to the examination, in addition to a non permanent restriction of bodily exercise, refusal to conduct physiological procedures and diagnostic examinations.

A blood test for kidney checks, in explicit the quantity of GGT, needs to be prescribed by a physician if the affected person complains of sure signs or if some illnesses are suspected. Most usually, the following circumstances are thought-about a sign for the goal of this evaluation:

  1. Pancreatic most cancers suspected.
  2. Diagnosis of bile ducts with suspected gallstone illness.
  3. Chronic alcoholism.
  4. Suspected liver cirrhosis.
  5. Differential prognosis of liver illness.
  6. Screening prognosis earlier than surgical procedure.
  7. Pain in the proper hypochondrium.
  8. A pointy lower in weight.
  9. Chronic fatigue.
  10. Yellowness of the pores and skin.
  11. Dark urine or lightened stool.

Indications for this evaluation could also be different indications or complaints, however in any case, the physician offers route.


GGT indicators in the evaluation might deviate from the norm to a better or lesser extent. The physician ought to fastidiously analyze the knowledge obtained and establish the causes of the deviation, after which prescribe the acceptable therapy.

If GGT is elevated, then we are able to speak about the following pathologies:

  • violation of patency of the biliary tract, which might be brought on by the look of stones, tumors, postoperative scars, pancreatic most cancers;
  • acute or continual hepatitis;
  • infectious mononucleosis, with the unfold of an infection to the liver;
  • pancreatitis,
  • some autoimmune illnesses;
  • diabetes;
  • prostate or breast most cancers;
  • coronary heart failure or myocardial infarction, in which the focus of the enzyme will increase on the 4th day after the onset of the illness;
  • rheumatoid arthritis.

A excessive degree of GGTP might be brought on by taking sure sorts of medication: aspirin, paracetamol, antibacterial, hormonal or contraceptive medication, and different medicines.

A low enzyme degree might be brought on by three causes:

  • hypothyroidism;
  • taking sure medicines that decrease blood ldl cholesterol and triglycerides, resembling clofibrate;
  • put up-therapeutic impact in sufferers cured of alcohol dependence. Ethanol stimulates the intensive manufacturing of enzymes by liver cells; due to this fact, the absence of an extra stimulant sharply reduces the synthesis of GGT and, accordingly, impacts its focus in the blood.

The physician ought to decipher the biochemical evaluation parameters comprehensively, analyzing not solely the degree of GGT, but additionally the quantity of different liver enzymes, bilirubin, lipase, and so on.

Conducting a biochemical blood test on the degree of GGT will assist you to establish illnesses of the liver, pancreas at the very early levels of improvement. Thanks to this, the physician will have the ability to prescribe an efficient therapy. And the implementation of the physician’s suggestions will enable in a brief time to normalize all blood counts and the performance of the physique programs.

A blood test is a essential indicator that may inform the physician about the work of the affected person’s physique. It is prescribed for all illnesses or suspicions of pathological processes going down in the human physique. The physician ought to cope with the decoding of the blood test, since it’s fairly troublesome for an peculiar individual to know the indicators.

In some circumstances, an elevated degree of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) is current in the outcomes of laboratory blood diagnostics. Of course, for a one that doesn’t have a medical schooling, such an indicator won’t say something, however for a physician, the degree of this element in the blood is the most necessary indicator that tells about the work of the liver and different organs.

The norm of GGT in ladies and ladies older than one yr is from 6 to 29 items / l. It is value noting that in ladies, the enzyme will increase with age in ladies. In males, the indicators are barely increased, and due to this fact the GGTP norm is:

  • 1-6 years: 7-19 items;
  • 7-9 years: 9-22 items;
  • 10-13 years: 9-24 items;
  • 14-15 years: 9-26 items;
  • 16-17 years: 9-27 items;
  • 18-35 years: 9-31 items;
  • 36-40 years: 8-35 items;
  • 41-45 years: 9-37 items;
  • 46-50 years: 10-39 items;
  • 51-54 years: 10-42 items;
  • 55 years: 11-45 items;
  • From 56 years: 12-48 items;

As already talked about, the GGTP norm is often elevated with harm to the liver tissue, however the transcript of the evaluation doesn’t point out the precise trigger of the pathology. Typically, the increased the degree of glutamyl transpeptidase, the better the harm. In addition, elevated GGT might point out cirrhosis or hepatitis, however may be the outcome of congenital coronary heart failure, diabetes, or pancreatitis. In addition, GGT in the blood could also be elevated attributable to the use of liver poisonous medication.

An elevated GGT degree might point out heart problems and / or hypertension. Medications that enhance GGT embody phenytoin, carbamazepine, and medicines from the barbiturate group (phenobarbital). In addition, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication that decrease lipids, antibiotics, histamine receptor blockers (used to deal with extra abdomen acid manufacturing) can enhance the degree of this enzyme. Antifungal brokers, antidepressants, testosterone additionally enhance the degree of GGT.

Low GGT values ​​point out that the affected person has regular liver and doesn’t drink alcohol in any respect. If elevated ALP is accompanied by very excessive GGT, this eliminates bone illness, but when GGT is regular or low, a bone drawback could also be current. In addition, clofibrate and oral contraceptives can decrease GGT.

What is the gamma of GT in a blood test, what are its capabilities, and when is a medical research needed to find out its degree in the human physique? Everyone ought to know this.

Preparation and evaluation

In order for the GGT content material in the blood to be correct and never should be taken once more, some medical suggestions should be adopted. Doctors advise to not eat something 12 hours earlier than supply. The human physique can effectively stand up to such a interval of time with out meals. Of course, that is troublesome, however for the accuracy of the indicator it’s essential overcome your self.

Also, you can’t overstrain and get nervous simply earlier than this process. Smokers are suggested to not smoke for 30-45 minutes earlier than giving up. Moreover, you can’t take alcoholic and even low alcohol drinks a day earlier than the evaluation. If you take any medicines, you have to positively inform your physician about this no later than two days earlier than the process. Also, whether it is attainable for a number of days to cease taking medicine, make sure to do it.

Other components affecting GGT

Pancreatic irritation and pancreatic most cancers enhance GGT ranges.

Many medication could cause a rise in the exercise of gamma-GT in blood serum even in the absence of indicators of harm to any of the organs. These embody phenobarbital, phenytoin, warfarin, estrogens. Alcohol can have a comparable impact.

An evaluation of gamma-GT is often carried out on an empty abdomen in the morning, that’s, the affected person shouldn’t eat something eight hours earlier than the research. For evaluation, blood is taken from the finger or ulnar vein.

Causes of High GGTP

A excessive degree of GGT signifies a pathological situation of the liver and a delay in the output of bile. Exceeding the reference worth is noticed with viral hepatitis, which inhibits the passage of bile via the ducts, which provokes the improvement of cholestasis. The degree of the enzyme will increase with alcoholic or posthepatic cirrhosis of the liver, in addition to with obstructive jaundice. Toxic liver harm, poisoning, together with alcohol, will increase the quantity of GGT in the blood as much as 10 instances.

A excessive degree of the enzyme might point out the presence of malignant tumors or liver metastases. Less generally, a rise in the enzyme signifies diabetes mellitus, coronary heart failure, myocardial infarction, and arthritis.

An elevated degree of GGTP could also be current with a pretty massive record of illnesses, however most frequently a rise in the exercise of this enzyme is current with

  1. Obstructive jaundice.
  2. Cholestasis.
  3. Cholelithiasis.
  4. Cholecystitis.
  5. Acute viral hepatitis.
  6. Chronic hepatitis
  7. Toxic harm to the hepatic parenchyma.
  8. Alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver.
  9. Fatty hepatosis.
  10. Long-term use of sure medicines.
  11. Primary liver most cancers.
  12. Liver metastases.
  13. Chronic glomerulonephritis.

Very usually, the quantity of GGTP in the blood rises on the 4th day after myocardial infarction and lasts for two weeks with a profitable prognosis. One of the widespread causes is alcoholism, or slightly, harm to liver cells by the merchandise of the breakdown of alcohol – acetaldehydes, that are poisonous to the complete organism.

With an elevated degree of gamma-glutamate transferase, solely the attending doctor can diagnose and prescribe therapy. An ordinary therapy that might be aimed particularly at decreasing GGT in the blood doesn’t exist, because it all relies on the diploma of harm to the parenchymal organ, concomitant illnesses, age and gender of the individual.

Mezim, Pancreatin, Creon, Panzinorm and others. In circumstances the place the illness is extreme related to tumor processes or the full destruction of the organ, therapy is carried out in a hospital below the shut supervision of medical employees, surgical procedure may be prescribed. Treatment, the title of the medication, in addition to the therapeutic course, is assigned individually for every affected person.

In addition to taking medicines, the physician offers sufferers beneficial suggestions on diet and way of life, compliance with which can assist scale back the degree of GGT in the blood, enhance the normal effectively-being of a individual.

Patients are prescribed a particular food plan, which consists of consuming plant meals which can be wealthy in vitamin C, folic acid and fiber: pumpkin, carrots, spinach leaves, apricots. Non-fat grades of rabbit meat, rooster, and numerous cereals may also be helpful. It is essential to control the degree of fluid consumption.

In order for the blood composition to return to regular, it’s essential to utterly exclude the consumption of alcohol, together with low-alcohol merchandise, you have to additionally quit smoking. The advantages can be walks in the recent air, in addition to the elimination of bodily and psychological stress.

It is necessary to know that with elevated detection of liver enzymes in the blood test, you shouldn’t hesitate to go to a physician, since such indicators are an necessary sign that the pathological course of begins to develop in the liver, kidneys, coronary heart, pancreas and bile ducts, and the quicker a individual will search the assist of a specialist, the better the likelihood of a profitable restoration.

GGT, or gamma-glutamyltransferase, is an indicator of the sluggish development of bile in the liver in the biliary tract. A blood test to find out GGT is carried out in order to find out the presence of illnesses of the liver and different organs of the gastrointestinal tract.

With a biochemical evaluation, you may precisely decide the presence or absence of the illness, if docs have doubts about the prognosis. The outcomes of this test are entered in a particular type and given out to a individual. Deciphering the knowledge permits the physician to make an correct prognosis to the affected person.


Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase is a protein enzyme concerned in amino acid metabolism. He participates in complicated biochemical reactions, performing as a catalyst in the switch and trade of amino acids between physique cells.
This protein is contained inside the cell, however when it’s destroyed, it penetrates the blood.

However, in the case of the improvement of any illness, the course of of cell destruction is considerably accelerated, which results in a sharp enhance in the quantity of GGHT in blood plasma.

This protein responds a lot quicker to wreck to liver cells than different liver enzymes. In numerous types of hepatitis, the quantity of GGT will increase a lot sooner than the focus of aminotransferases.

For this purpose, the narcologist often makes use of test outcomes to guage the effectiveness of therapy for alcohol dependence. A month after the final consumption of alcoholic drinks, the degree of GGTP drops twice. It needs to be famous that in response to statistics, 30% of folks with alcoholism preserve regular plasma protein ranges.


A lower in the degree of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase happens with elevated bodily exercise, vegetarianism and with abstinence from alcohol. Hypothyroidism can change into the trigger of diminished GGT, when all metabolic processes in the physique decelerate considerably. In addition, hormonal contraceptives contribute to a lower in the degree of the enzyme.

Analysis of GGT shouldn’t be sufficient for an correct prognosis, due to this fact, its outcomes are evaluated in conjunction with different research (liver checks).

Rates and deviations

When the evaluation reveals that gamma-glutamyltransferase is elevated, the affected person is prescribed an extra examination. First study the liver. The defeat of the parenchymal tissue of this organ usually provokes a sharp enhance in the focus of TSH. Violation of the outflow of bile also can provoke a rise in the focus of the enzyme. In addition, the degree of GGT could also be the outcome of alcoholic harm to the liver, continual processes in this organ.

In order to precisely decide why the GGT indicator in the biochemical evaluation of blood is elevated, docs should conduct multiple examination. Only after acquiring all the outcomes of the research and assessing the values ​​of the foremost indicators, it’s attainable to determine the purpose for the enhance in the focus of gamma-glutamyltransferase in the bloodstream.

Among the foremost pathological circumstances that trigger such a violation:

  • obstructive jaundice brought on by blockage of bile prophets;
  • cholecystitis;
  • cholelithiasis;
  • viral hepatitis in the acute section;
  • compensated cirrhosis of the liver;
  • continual type of hepatitis;
  • liver harm attributable to intoxication;
  • cirrhosis brought on by alcoholism;
  • cancerous lesions of the liver or penetration of metastases into the organ;
  • myocardial infarction (from 4 days of sickness).

If there is a rise in GGT in the blood of the affected person, docs prescribe a complete examination. If different blood counts are regular, solely gamma-glutamyltransferase is elevated, specialists prescribe a second blood donation. It needs to be borne in thoughts that a slight GGT mismatch in the norm carried out in a biochemical blood test might be related to the physiological traits of the physique and be non permanent.

Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT or GGTP) is an enzyme concerned in the metabolism of nucleic acids. It is contained in membranes, the cytoplasm of mobile buildings of parenchymal organs, and its small quantity can be current in the mucosa of the bile ducts. Normally, GGT shouldn’t be current in the blood, solely throughout the interval of cell renewal can a small quantity of it’s noticed in blood plasma.

It is thought that the exercise of this enzyme in blood plasma can enhance with enhanced destruction of cells, in addition to the improvement of sure illnesses that have an effect on the liver, spleen, pancreas and even the mind. Most usually, the quantity of GGTP will increase with stagnation of bile, the breakdown of liver cells or with cholestasis.

With elevated GGTP ranges, a individual might expertise minor signs, together with nausea, vomiting of bile, itching, yellowing of the pores and skin, darkening of urine, or lightening of feces. But in some circumstances, a individual might not expertise any indicators, and the elevated degree of the enzyme itself could also be recognized by likelihood and even come again to regular by itself. How critical is the scenario with a rise in GGPT straight relies on the trigger that provoked its presence in the blood plasma.

Laboratory evaluation for gamma-glutamyltransferase refers to biochemical and is included in the group of liver checks. The outcomes of such an evaluation will replicate not solely the degree of GGTP, but additionally the quantity of ALT, AST, bilirubin, ldl cholesterol and different indicators that may assist the physician decide the trigger, make the appropriate prognosis after which prescribe an ample therapy.

It is necessary to know that the degree of GGTP is affected by a individual’s way of life, in addition to the age, gender of the affected person. In males, this enzyme is many instances extra usually current than in ladies. Moreover, his indicators are affected by the use of alcoholic drinks, the frequent abuse of fatty, spicy or candy meals. In ladies, this enzyme might enhance with extended use of oral contraceptives. In any case, if the presence of GGT exceeds the norm, you will need to decide the causes, since it may be hidden behind pretty critical illnesses.

It is necessary to know that the degree of gamma-glutamate transferase varies throughout the day, however in the morning its focus is the lowest, so it’s essential take an evaluation in the morning on an empty abdomen. In the night, the focus of GGT is the highest, it may be related to consuming, bodily exercise and different causes.

The evaluation is taken from the ulnar vein on an empty abdomen. In order for the outcomes of the evaluation to be appropriate, on the eve of the supply you can’t drink alcohol, adhere to a food plan, refuse fatty and spicy meals. The solely factor is that earlier than taking the test you may drink peculiar water, this won’t have an effect on the outcome. In addition, on the day of the test, you can’t bear an ultrasound or X-ray examination, exclude attainable annoying conditions.

Compliance with all the guidelines will assist to offer the most correct outcomes, eradicate their distortion. If the preparation guidelines usually are not adopted, the outcomes could also be incorrect, which can result in an incorrect prognosis.

A excessive gamma-glutamyltransferase in the blood means the presence of such illnesses:

  • hepatitis;
  • diabetes;
  • pancreatic or prostate most cancers;
  • pancreatitis;
  • hyperthyroidism;
  • coronary heart failure;
  • continual alcoholism;
  • cirrhosis of the liver;
  • lung illnesses
  • arthritis.

If the indicator is barely exceeded, and the relaxation of the analyzes are regular, there is no such thing as a purpose for robust concern, as that is a non permanent phenomenon, and shortly it can normalize.

Causes of elevated GGT in the blood:

  1. Regular use of alcohol.
  2. Taking narcotic medication.
  3. Overweight.
  4. Taking sure medicines that sluggish the price of bile excretion.
  5. Inadequate bodily exercise.
  6. Intense smoking.
  7. Inflammation in the organs of housing and communal providers.
  8. Diabetes.

Alas, fairly often elevated ranges of GGT in the blood usually are not accompanied by pronounced signs. Symptoms of this ailment don’t all the time manifest themselves, and in the event that they do, then not everybody pays consideration to it. Among the commonest are:

  • nausea;
  • vomiting;
  • itching;
  • clarification of feces;
  • darkish urine;
  • stomach ache.

If you encounter these signs, you need to instantly seek the advice of a physician, as this will likely point out a critical sickness that must be urgently handled. A neglect of your well being can result in critical penalties, due to this fact it’s higher to establish the illness as quickly as attainable and start to combat it.


After a thorough prognosis of the affected person’s physique situation, a course of remedy is prescribed. First of all, the therapy of illnesses that provoked a rise in GGT is carried out. As a rule, docs prescribe particular medication, in addition to a strict food plan. It is feasible to cut back gamma-glutamyltransferase indicators by consuming vegetables and fruit.

As a prophylaxis of the content material of gamma-glutamyltransferase in the blood, docs suggest main a wholesome way of life, abandoning unhealthy habits, monitor your food plan, and in addition frequently bear an examination to observe indicators. Moderate bodily exercise has a helpful impact on well being. Normal walks at the very least 20 minutes a day stabilize not solely these indicators, but additionally stress, normal well being.

GGT in the biochemical evaluation of blood in mixture with different analyzes is usually used to diagnose the situation of the liver, since its highest focus is contained in this organ. But though GGT is elevated in the blood throughout many illnesses in which harm to the liver and bile ducts happens, different pathologies, for instance, these related to the coronary heart, also can provoke its progress.

Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT or GGTP) is an enzyme discovered in many physique tissues. Normally, the content material of GGT is low, however with liver harm, GGT evaluation is the first to point out that GGT is elevated: its degree begins to extend as quickly as passage via the bile ducts from the liver to the gut begins to dam.

However, regardless of the excessive sensitivity, a blood test for GGT shouldn’t be particular in distinguishing the causes of liver illnesses, since it might enhance with a number of illnesses of this organ (most cancers, viral hepatitis).
In addition, its degree might enhance in some illnesses that aren’t associated to the liver (for instance, acute coronary syndrome). This is why GGT evaluation is rarely achieved by itself.

When GGT in the blood is elevated, ALP additionally will increase with liver illness. But with bone illness, solely ALP rises, whereas GGT stays regular. Therefore, the decoding of the gamma-GT evaluation might be efficiently carried out after the ALP evaluation in order to precisely say whether or not the excessive ALP is the outcome of bone illness or liver illness.

What does the GGT evaluation in the blood present?

The cells of the human physique include a particular protein enzyme, gamma – glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). This substance, which can be known as γ – glutamyltransferase, is concerned in mobile metabolic processes. It is current in a selection of organs.

Due to the renewal processes that continuously happen in the cells, this substance is generally discovered in the blood in a minimal quantity. But if pathological processes develop in numerous organs, then a enormous quantity of this protein enzyme enters the bloodstream.

This is precisely what the biochemical blood test for GGT reveals.

The kidneys include the highest quantity of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, however the hepatobiliary system is taken into account the supply of serum exercise. This signifies that with liver pathologies, the degree of this substance in the blood will increase considerably. When kidney cells are broken, the degree of the protein enzyme will increase not in the blood, however in the urine.

What is that this evaluation

A research is obligatory for liver checks. This protein is taken into account a marker of illnesses of the liver and biliary system. Also, γ – glutamyltranspeptidase can point out the improvement of illnesses of the pancreas and different necessary organs.

Attention! You needs to be conscious that the elevated manufacturing of γ – glutamyl transferase happens towards the background of alcohol abuse. In this case, a rise in the degree of a substance in the blood doesn’t point out the dying of liver cells attributable to the improvement of a sure pathological course of.

Blood biochemistry, designed to find out the degree of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase in the blood, is carried out to verify attainable pathologies of the liver, pancreas and biliary system. The evaluation should be assigned:

  • Before surgical procedure.
  • For the prognosis of pathological processes in the liver.
  • If you think the incidence of tumors in the prostate and pancreas.
  • To monitor therapeutic measures in the therapy of oncology.
  • To assess the poisonous results of potent medication on the physique.
  • If you think the improvement of cirrhosis of the liver or hepatitis attributable to alcoholism.
  • For prophylactic monitoring of folks affected by continual alcoholism.

Very hardly ever, a physician can prescribe an evaluation for GGT throughout a routine examination, suspecting the improvement of a sure liver pathology. A research could also be beneficial primarily based on affected person complaints, resembling:

  • Occurrence of periodic pulling pains in the proper hypochondrium
  • With fatigue towards the background of fixed weak point.
  • With a full lack of urge for food.
  • With a periodic feeling of nausea.
  • With darkening of urine and lightening feces.

It is critical to arrange for the blood sampling for the research of the degree of GGT. Blood donation should be carried out on an empty abdomen, which signifies that the meal needs to be no later than 8 hours earlier than the evaluation. In addition to acquiring dependable outcomes ought to:

  • Drink a small quantity of plain water earlier than taking blood.
  • About half an hour earlier than the test, it’s essential give up smoking.
  • Two days earlier than the evaluation, overview the food plan in order to exclude excessive-fats meals and alcoholic drinks from it.
  • The day earlier than the evaluation, it is suggested to desert elevated bodily exercise.
  • Before donating blood, it’s essential relax emotionally.

Important! It needs to be remembered that distorted evaluation outcomes might be obtained after fluoroscopy, fluorography, ultrasound or physiotherapy procedures.

The research entails venous blood sampling. For this, a typical disposable syringe or vacuyner can be utilized. The evaluation relies on the methodology of kinetic colorimetry. As a rule, the outcomes might be obtained in a day.

Along with the dedication of GGT, blood checks are carried out for the content material of different substances, resembling: ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, ldl cholesterol, albumin. Only on the foundation of a complete evaluation of the knowledge can a ultimate prognosis be made and a resolution on therapy be made.

The customary indicators of GGT in the blood in folks of totally different ages differ, in addition, there may be a dependence of the norm on the individual’s gender. Up to 12 years, the norm modifications solely relying on age. To decrypt the evaluation, the following indicators are used:

  • Up to five days – as much as 185 U / l.
  • Up to six months – as much as 202 items / liter.
  • Up to 12 months – as much as 34 items / liter.
  • Up to three years – as much as 18 items / liter.
  • Up to six years – as much as 22 items / liter.
  • Up to 12 years – as much as 16 items / liter.

After 12 years, the norm is already totally different relying on gender. To decrypt the evaluation, the following indicators are used:

  • Up to 17 years – for males – as much as 45 items / liter, for ladies – as much as 33 items / liter.
  • Adults – for males – in the vary of 10 – 71 items / liter, for ladies – in the vary of 6 – 42 items / liter.

High ranges of the substance in the blood of newborns are defined by the undeniable fact that in newborns their placenta is the supply. Only after a while, γ – glutamyl transferase begins to be produced by the child’s liver.

In males, elevated charges are related to the undeniable fact that this protein is contained in the prostate gland. Other normative indicators of the substance in the blood of ladies throughout the interval of gestation. They fluctuate relying on the trimester and are:

  • Up to 13 weeks – 0-17 U / l.
  • In the interval of 14-26 weeks – as much as 33 items / liter.
  • In the interval of 27-39 weeks – not more than 32 items / liter.

Exceeding the normative parameters of GGT signifies the presence of pathologies in numerous organs. First of all, a rise in the quantity of protein in the blood might point out the improvement of the following liver illnesses:

  • Obstructive jaundice, which is related to obstruction of the bile duct attributable to a selection of causes.
  • Liver most cancers.
  • Cirrhosis of the liver.
  • Acute and continual hepatitis.
  • Mononucleosis of an infectious nature.

Considering the undeniable fact that a rise in the degree of this protein in the blood results in a individual’s longing for alcohol, the evaluation is extensively used to diagnose continual alcoholism. An enhance in GGT in the blood additionally happens with the improvement of pathologies of different organs, particularly when:

  • pancreatitis.
  • diabetes.
  • weight problems.
  • prostate most cancers.
  • oncological neoplasms in the lungs.
  • malignant tumors in the mammary glands.
  • hyperthyroidism.
  • disturbances in the functioning of the organs of the cardiovascular system.
  • the improvement of myocardial infarction.

It must also be borne in thoughts that the degree of GGT might enhance whereas taking numerous medication:

  • Aspirin
  • Paracetamol
  • Ascorbic acid, with extended use.
  • Antibiotics.
  • Antidepressants.
  • Hormonal medication.

A decreased degree of GGT in the blood is noticed after the therapy of alcoholism, roughly a month after quitting alcohol. This is because of the disappearance from the physique of a man-made stimulator of the manufacturing of GGT, which is ethanol. Also, the causes for the lower in the quantity of GGT are:

  • The improvement of hypothyroidism.
  • Taking hormonal medication, clofibrate.

A blood test for the content material of GGT in the blood doesn’t enable to determine a particular prognosis with accuracy. In this regard, it might solely be used in conjunction with different research.

Gamma-glutamyltransferase, GGT, in a biochemical blood test is an indicator used to establish attainable abnormalities. With the assist of GGT, it’s not possible to find out the sort of illness, the nature of the dysfunction. The mismatch in the focus of this enzyme is regarded by docs as an indicator for a complete examination of the physique, and particularly the liver.

Such a research helps to establish:

  • blockage of the bile ducts;
  • the presence of calculi in the gallbladder;
  • pancreatic tumors;
  • major cirrhosis;
  • sclerosing cholangitis.

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Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.