We must say right away that depending on gender and age, the level of hemoglobin can vary significantly.
In women, this indicator varies between 120-160 g / l. Moreover, it can seriously change during the period of menstrual flow, and therefore at this time the analysis for hemoglobin in women will be unreliable. You can take it only 5 days after menstruation.
For pregnant women, 110 g / l is considered the norm. This is explained simply: the total blood volume in women in position increases, and besides, the female body gives part of the iron to the fetus.
Hemoglobin in men is higher – 130–170 g / l. Everything is also quite obvious here: the man is a getter, he is engaged in more hard work, which means that he needs more energy and strength. In addition, the production of testosterone affects the hemoglobin level in men.
If we talk about children, then their norm of iron-containing protein also varies significantly depending on age. For instance:
- in a newborn baby – 145-240 g / l;
- in 1 month – 110–210 g / l;
- at 3 months – 90–140 g / l;
- at 6 months – 110-140 g / l;
- 1 year old – 95–135 g / l;
- in 3 years – 110-150 g / l;
- at 7 years old – 115–155 g / l;
- at 13 years old – 115–155 g / l;
- at 16 years old – 120-160 g / l.
The concentration of hemoglobin in the blood of a child depends on age. From birth, indicators can change constantly and reach the norm of an adult by only twelve years.
Children should have this hemoglobin:
- in the first days after birth from 140 to 220 g / l;
- in the first week of life, indicators are reduced by ten units;
- from the age of three months or up to six months should be 100-140 g / l;
- from 3 to 6 years 140 g / l;
- from six to twelve years 160 g / l.
An insufficient amount of this substance can lead to a slowdown in physical and mental development. Therefore, this indicator is strictly controlled in the first months of life.
For adults, the norms are less dependent on age characteristics. Women and men should have different meanings. This is due to hormonal fluctuations that occur in the body of a woman every month.
It is believed that everything is fine in an adult if hemoglobin:
- For women, it is in the range of 120-150 g / l. During menstruation, the indicator can decrease by several tens of units. This is considered normal, as blood loss occurs.
- For men, the numbers 130-170 liters are normal. This indicator is higher for the stronger sex, as they are more often subjected to heavy physical exertion, as well as due to the influence of the hormone testosterone.
Hemoglobin is a complex protein that provides oxygen transfer to body tissues. The norm of its content in the blood is different in people of different sex and age. So, for an adult woman, an indicator of 120-150 grams of hemoglobin per liter of blood will be acceptable, and for a man – 136-177 g / l. In older people, the limits are somewhat lower.
But the normal level of hemoglobin in children does not depend on gender, but it varies greatly with age. In the first months of life, its level should be 100-180 g / l, by two years the indicator changes to 115-135 g / l, and for a child of twelve years old, the hemoglobin norm in the blood is 115-155 g / l. After that, the standards for boys and girls begin to differ.
Hemoglobin is found in red blood cells – blood cells, which are also responsible for equipping the human body with oxygen. There, it combines with sugar, another component of the blood, and together they form a compound called glycosylated hemoglobin. Its level is also checked in the laboratory after taking blood samples.
It is measured in the number of percent of the total amount of hemoglobin. In fact, it helps to track changes in the amount of glucose in the blood for a long time, because red blood cells are the most long-lived cells. The norm of glycosylated hemoglobin is 5-6%. If the indicator is higher, this is an occasion to suspect the patient has diabetes.
Types of free hemoglobin
The concentration of this protein in the blood can vary throughout the day. Its highest rates are in the morning.
There are several types of free hemoglobin:
- Gliked. It appears when the hemobrotein is bound to glucose. With an increase in its level, diabetes is diagnosed. The concentration of this substance should not be lower than 4 and not higher than 6,5%.
- Fetal. This protein is found in the blood of newborns. Upon reaching the first year of life, it should be completely replaced with normal hemoglobin. Its concentration in the blood of infants reaches eighty percent. But in adults it should be less than a percent.
The normal protein content depends on how the whole body works. It is also affected by nutrition and human lifestyle. Therefore, a hemoglobin study is one of the main laboratory tests. That it is often the reason for the appointment of other types of examinations.
In the body of children and adults, different values are considered normal. A decrease in the level affects the health of the child much more than if this problem arose in an adult. Therefore, it is important to periodically check children for the content of hemoprotein.
How hemoglobin changes
It is worth noting that the level of the protein in question depends not only on age and gender. It is influenced by:
- Seasons. In the autumn, hemoglobin decreases, possibly because, due to the abundant harvest, people are more willing to consume plant foods.
- Terrain and climate. In high altitude residents, hemoglobin is usually elevated, while those who live in low-lying areas with no sun often develop anemia.
- The nature of nutrition. Vegetarians and vegans who do not eat meat have Hb below average.
- Lifestyle. Physically hard work and intense strength training increase hemoglobin levels.
- Fresh air. Inhaling clean air, by the way, like smoking, increase hemoglobin levels. But only in the smoker’s body red blood cells carry oxygen contaminated with tobacco smoke throughout the body, which means that the health indicators of the body in this case are seriously deteriorating.
And now we turn to the pathological reasons for the fluctuations of the blood protein in question.
The level of iron-containing protein can drop during surgery, when a person loses a lot of blood, it can be hidden intestinal bleeding, as well as menstrual flow in women.
This may be a genetic anomaly with which a person was born, or a consequence of the negative environmental effects (injuries, infections, poisoning by industrial poisons or radiation exposure).
The reason for this phenomenon is the lack of iron in the food intake, protein starvation, or chronic diseases of the stomach and intestines that impede the absorption or assimilation of iron in the blood. Doctors call this condition iron deficiency anomia (anemia).
Consequences of anemia
Sometimes it happens that hemoglobin enters the blood plasma. This is an abnormal phenomenon, and it can have serious consequences. This can be detected using spectroscopic studies. This occurs when a lot of hemoglobin is released during the breakdown of red blood cells and part of it is not excreted through the kidneys, but enters the bloodstream.
This is accompanied by such processes:
- this hemoglobin captures the cells of the liver and spleen, turns into indirect bilirubin, which leads to the development of hemolytic jaundice;
- sharp anemia occurs on the first day. The hemoglobin level drops by several tens of units;
- blood tests show a large number of reticulocytes.
This condition is often combined with malaria, although the bacteria that cause the disease are not found in the blood. This is due to the fact that infected red blood cells break down in the first place.
Bone marrow puncture in this case shows the absorption and destruction of red blood cells by cells of the macrophage system. Among the symptoms, it is worth highlighting pain in the liver and an increase in organ size.
Anemia is the most common condition caused by a decrease in hemoglobin levels. Depending on the level of Hb, anemia can have varying degrees of severity:
- mild – hemoglobin level 90 g / l;
- the average degree is 70–90 g / l;
- severe – below 70 g / l.
Quite often, pregnant women and children encounter this condition, which can be explained by the increased need for iron in a growing organism.
This condition manifests itself as severe symptoms that literally cover the entire body and lead to a serious deterioration in the quality of life. These include:
- sleep disturbance;
- frequent dizziness;
- increased fatigue and low working capacity;
- constant weakness and apathy;
- pallor of the skin and the appearance of dark circles under the eyes;
- dry skin and blueness of the lips;
- lack of appetite;
- noise in ears;
- shortness of breath, palpitations and tachycardia;
- growth and development retardation;
- weakened immunity and a tendency to colds;
- thinning, brittleness and hair loss;
- the appearance of constipation.
Prolonged or chronic anemia leads to a deterioration in cognitive function.
Anemia is especially dangerous for expectant mothers. A woman in a position to lower Hb may face:
- late toxicosis;
- fetal hypoxia;
- the development of bleeding;
- premature birth;
- early discharge of amniotic fluid;
- the death of the baby immediately after birth.
The appearance of these symptoms does not go unnoticed by a person, but the reasons for their development, as a rule, are not clear to the average person. A specialist, having performed a biochemical blood test, will immediately notice a low hemoglobin level. More in-depth studies will reveal a specific disease that has led to a decrease in the level of iron-containing protein. It may turn out to be:
- latent hemorrhage (intestinal bleeding);
- chronic gastritis or stomach ulcer;
- autoimmune diseases;
- inflammatory processes in the intestines or dysbiosis;
- severe infections (tuberculosis, hepatitis, pneumonia);
- folic acid deficiency (vitamin B9) and cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12);
- oncological diseases;
Hemoglobin Reducing Products
In the case of a pathological decrease in hemoglobin, doctors prescribe iron supplements. The most popular among them are medicines:
- РЎРѕСЂР ± РёС „РµСЂ Р” СѓСЂСѓР »РµСЃ;
- Hemofer drops;
- Ferrum Lek;
These funds are not recommended to be taken without a doctor’s prescription, because they can cause serious side effects (diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting and irritability of the stomach).
The course of therapy varies from 2 to 12 weeks. In this case, the first results of treatment can be felt no earlier than after 2-3 weeks of administration. In addition, if the composition of the medication taken does not contain vitamin C, it is necessary to take ascorbic acid together with iron preparations up to 0,3 g per day.
It is also important to understand that while taking iron preparations it is forbidden to take products containing calcium. Otherwise, iron will be poorly absorbed by the body.
If anemia is not pronounced, it is much more useful to eliminate the syndrome by adjusting the diet. There are a number of food products that replenish iron stores in the body no worse than medicines. In this regard, people with low hemoglobin should add the following products to their diet:
- red meat, as well as meat offal (heart, liver, kidneys and tongue). To maintain hemoglobin levels, it is enough to consume 50 g of beef tongue per day;
- fish and bird;
- vegetables and greens: young baked potatoes, tomatoes, pumpkin and all kinds of green vegetables (green onions, watercress, young turnip tops, parsley and broccoli);
- cereals: rye, buckwheat and oat;
- legumes: peas, beans;
- fruits: apricots and dried apricots, apples and pomegranates, bananas and pears, quince and persimmon;
- berries: blackcurrant, blueberries, strawberries and cranberries;
- juices: carrot and beetroot (literally 50 ml daily);
- other products: nuts, dried mushrooms and dark chocolate, hematogen, seafood and sea kale, egg yolk.
It should be noted that strong tea and coffee interfere with the absorption of hemoglobin due to the tannin included in these drinks.
Experts can advise you to change the diet, diversifying it with food, which actively reduces the level of red blood cells in the blood. These products include:
- River fish;
- vegetables (raw and stewed), especially carrots, cauliflower and sauerkraut;
- dairy products: cottage cheese and kefir, yogurt and fermented baked milk;
- pearl barley and oatmeal;
- fruits: apricot, lemon and grapes;
- fish fat.
Try to drink more water to lower your hemoglobin level. Drink often, but little by little. In addition, arrange fasting days 1-2 times a week, for example, on kefir or vegetables.
Carrying out a diet to reduce hemoglobin, refuse to eat red meat and offal, smoked meats, fat milk, blackcurrant and red fruits. It is also recommended to visit the fresh air more often and increase physical activity, for example, do morning exercises or arrange jogging.
1. Take 1 cup of walnuts and prunes, raisins and dried apricots. Grind the ingredients, send them into a deep bowl, add 1-2 chopped directly with lemon peel and 3-4 tbsp. honey. Store the finished product in the refrigerator and consume 2-3 tbsp. in a day.
2. Pour half a cup of buckwheat with 1 cup of kefir and leave overnight. In the morning, eat porridge for breakfast. After 2 weeks of such procedures, your hemoglobin will rise to normal levels.
3. Mix half a glass of freshly squeezed apple juice with the same amount of cranberry juice, add 1 tbsp. l Beetroot juice, mix and drink. Take the mixture 1 r / day for a month.
4. Combine the beetroot and carrot juices, 100 ml each, and drink immediately. Using this tool once a day you will raise hemoglobin in literally 3 days, however, to consolidate the effect, you need to take the medicinal fluid for a month.
5. Pour ½ cup red dry wine into a glass jar, place on the stove and boil for 5 minutes in a water bath. After removing the product from the stove, add 1 tbsp. ghee and ¼ cup of nettle broth. Take 1 r / day for 3 weeks in a warm form.
An elevated hemoglobin level is no less dangerous than anemia, even if this condition occurs much less often. A person whose blood contains excess hemoglobin experiences a number of unpleasant symptoms, including:
- sleep disturbance;
- loss of appetite,
- visual and hearing impairment,
- high blood pressure;
- redness of the skin;
- elevated temperature;
- pain in joints, muscles, bones;
- the presence of blood in the feces;
- alternating diarrhea and constipation;
- violation of the function of the genitourinary organs (sometimes);
- rapid weight loss.
Having taken all the necessary tests, the doctor will establish the cause of the increased hemoglobin. It may be:
- excessive consumption of products containing iron;
- heart defects;
- bronchial asthma or cardiopulmonary failure;
- blood diseases (erythrocytosis, hemoglobinemia);
- kidney disease (increasing the production of the hormone erythropoietin);
- violation of the bone marrow;
- taking drugs that increase performance;
The onset of symptoms of elevated hemoglobin levels cannot be ignored, because this pathological process leads to thickening of the blood and the formation of blood clots that clog vessels.
Not only low, but also high hemoglobin signals health problems. Patients with this diagnosis complain of high blood pressure, insomnia, and fatigue.
Increased hemoglobin in athletes experiencing intense physical exertion: they have a much higher oxygen demand. Particularly high likelihood of this problem in people taking anabolic steroids.
For all other people, a violation of the normal hemoglobin level is a sign of a serious disease of the blood or internal organs.
With poor functioning of the heart or lungs, an oxygen deficiency occurs in the body and in order to at least slightly compensate for its reserves, the body begins to produce several times more red blood cells than usual. This phenomenon, called erythrocytosis, is often observed in patients with pathologies of the heart, vascular insufficiency, pulmonary fibrosis. Almost always, hemoglobin in the blood exceeds the norm for intestinal obstruction and oncology.
It is permissible to increase hemoglobin during dehydration, but its level should normalize immediately after restoring moisture balance.
When the concentration of hemoglobin reaches 180g / l or more, one of the most serious consequences of this phenomenon occurs – an increase in blood density, which means its poor coagulability and a high risk of the formation of vascular blood clots – thrombosis. With such a disease, the patient can have a heart attack, cerebral hemorrhage or tissue necrosis at any time, and in this situation the probability of a fatal outcome, unfortunately, is too high.
To avoid such sad consequences, you should immediately consult a doctor for advice and receive treatment recommendations immediately after a malfunction of hemoglobin is detected.
Blood thinners are an effective way to reduce hemoglobin. They normalize the outflow of blood, improve its coagulation, thereby regulating hemoglobin. Along with taking medications, patients are recommended a diet based on limiting the intake of protein and iron. People with increased hemoglobin are not recommended to eat meat, fruits, and nuts.
They are better off refraining from fatty foods: since with high hemoglobin the blood is quite viscous, it loses its ability to quickly process cholesterol, which means that it will accumulate in the vessels and as a result, cholesterol plaques are formed that can instantly clog any of the vessels in the body.
The basis of nutrition during the treatment should be cereals and vegetables. The use of fish and seafood is desirable to minimize: they, although in small quantities, but contain iron. It is necessary to ensure that these products are well cooked: raw fish will worsen the well-being of patients with high hemoglobin, and the bacteria contained in it can contribute to the development of severe infections in the body.
Until the hemoglobin level returns to normal, patients should completely abandon alcohol: it accelerates the absorption of iron, and with increased hemoglobin, the opposite effect is needed. But the consumption of all other liquids: water, fruit drinks, tea, on the contrary, it is better to significantly increase. Prevent the processing of iron and dairy products, so they should definitely be included in the daily diet.
If following a diet and taking blood-thinning drugs did not work, then the number of red blood cells will be reduced using a special procedure – erythrophoresis: at the same time as the number of blood cells decreases, the hemoglobin level will also drop.
The use of all these methods, of course, will quickly reduce hemoglobin in the blood and even bring it back to normal, but it will not eliminate the cause of the change in indicators. Therefore, in order to get rid of this problem completely, the main efforts should be made to identify and eliminate the cause of hemoglobin fluctuations. To do this, you need to regularly examine the heart and blood vessels, check the blood condition, do an ultrasound of the internal organs in order to identify possible pathologies and inflammations in time. Well, of course, it is always recommended to monitor your diet, take vitamins and mineral supplements to maintain the health of the body.
Separately, it is worth mentioning the bioavailability (digestibility) of iron. To ensure that this trace element is absorbed by the body in full, it is important to combine products in the diet. Otherwise, the use of products that increase hemoglobin, and even taking iron supplements, may be ineffective. So:
- sulfur-containing amino acids (meat, fish and all kinds of seafood);
- Vitamin C (bell pepper, rosehip, oranges and lemons);
- folic acid (beef liver, walnuts and cod liver);
- copper (various cereals and peanuts);
- malic and citric acids (tomatoes, peppers and citrus fruits);
- milk and soy protein;
- calcium (dairy and dairy products);
- tannin (pomegranate and persimmon, as well as coffee and tea);
- phosphates (processed cheese, carbonated drinks and canned goods);
- lentils and other legumes;
Now you know how important hemoglobin is for our body, and what symptoms show an increase and decrease in the level of this protein in the blood. Such knowledge will help you to seek medical help in a timely manner and protect yourself from the development of serious diseases.
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