From a conversation with a candidate, honey. Sciences Guseynovoi Z. G. (Bulletin of healthy lifestyle 2008, No. 12, p. 12-13)
Hypertensive crisis is a sharp sudden increase in blood pressure, which is accompanied by vasospasm or an increase in the volume of blood circulating in the circulatory system.
At what indicators of the tonometer can we talk about a hypertensive crisis? Different people have different indicators. If a person has a life pressure indicators of 90/60, then a crisis in him can occur at rates of 120/90, and in a patient with grade 3 hypertension, a crisis can begin at rates of 250/180.
2. Traumatic brain injury
3. Pathology of the kidneys
4. Endocrine and other diseases
Symptoms of hypertensive crisis
1. A sharp increase in blood pressure by 20-50 units
2. Severe headache
6. Shroud before the eyes or flashing flies
8. Compressive pain in the heart
9. Panic, fear of death
Some of the above symptoms of a hypertensive crisis may not be present.
Emergency care for hypertensive crisis
A crisis can last 2-3 hours, sometimes longer. The longer it lasts, the worse the consequences – the vessels are in a state of spasm, the nutrition of the tissues of the brain, heart, eyes, and kidneys is disturbed. Therefore, it is necessary to provide the patient with emergency care
What to do if you or a loved one has a hypertensive crisis – first aid.
1. Keep calm, do not fuss.
2. The patient should take a reclining position, raising the head – this will create an outflow of blood from the head. Lying down is not advisable.
3. Unfasten tight clothing.
4. Hot foot bath if there is no varicose veins.
5. Cold on the neck and neck
6. Eliminate all noise sources, turn off the TV
7. Water cannot be drunk – it can cause vomiting, and the gag reflex increases pressure.
8. Take a drug that reduces blood pressure – Corinfar, capoten, captopril. Sharp pressure can not be reduced. The process should be stretched for 3-4 hours. A sharp decrease in pressure can cause vasospasm, metabolic disturbances in the brain.
With arterial pressure less than 180, take 1/4 of the pill first, measure pressure after 30-40 minutes. If decreased, take another 1/4 tablet. Etc.
9. What to do with a hypertensive crisis, if there are no drugs that reduce blood pressure at hand. You can drink 2 tablets of noshpa and something sedative – valerian, corvalol, valocardine.
10. Take soothing drugs, because a hypertensive crisis is an adrenaline rush that is accompanied by a fear of death, a person is in panic fear, from which the pressure continues to increase and the tablets may not work.
11. What to do if nose bleeding has opened during a hypertensive crisis? You don’t need to be afraid, it’s good on the contrary – when the blood flows, the intracranial pressure decreases, otherwise the vessels of the brain could burst. You can’t throw back your head, otherwise there will be blood flow, but you can’t lower it low, put cold on the nose.
What medications to take with hypertensive crisis.
It happens that a person took a medicine, but it did not help him. What to do? Can I take another medicine or can I not take two drugs at the same time? There is nothing wrong with taking two drugs, but you need to know which one is more powerful. Corinfar acts quickly – after 15 minutes, the pressure decreases. Kapaten begins to work later, but the pressure decreases more slowly, which is necessary during a crisis. Therefore, drinking after Corinfar capaten does not make sense.
In addition, it must be remembered that the same drugs are released with a short or prolonged effect, for example, there is the drug Corinfar retard, which begins to act only after 4-5 hours. For emergency treatment for hypertensive crisis, this drug is certainly not suitable.
What to do after a hypertensive crisis.
Once the blood pressure has returned to normal, you need to drink 20-30 g of tincture of motherwort, hawthorn or peony, or a mixture thereof. 3-4 days after a hypertensive crisis, take these tinctures 3 times a day. At night, you can take 1/4 tablets of light sleeping pills (mezepam, phenazepam)
If the patient takes some kind of pills for a chronic disease. For 1-2 days after a hypertensive crisis, it is better to abandon them for 1-2 days. This does not apply to antibiotics and the use of antihypertensive drugs with hypertension.
Noise in the head, dizziness, visual impairment after a hypertensive crisis last for several days. These days you need to rest and not allow physical and emotional overload, not to be in the sun, not to bend, not to work on a computer and not to read the fine print.
Food after a hypertensive crisis: limit the intake of salt, pickles and marinades, spicy seasonings. Consult a doctor – it may be necessary to replace ordinary table salt with salt with a low sodium content. It is good to include honey, walnuts, vegetables, fruits, juice from cranberries, viburnum, aronia, rosehip broth in the diet.
Several folk recipes to normalize the pressure
1. Rosehip broth: half a glass of dried rosehips per 1 liter of boiling water – keep for 15 minutes in a steam bath. Or brew a wild rose in a thermos. Drink instead of tea.
2. Juices: mix 1 glass of beet juice, carrot, horseradish, honey and juice of one lemon. Take 1 tbsp. l 3 times a day before meals for 1 hour.
3. Infusion of dill seeds: 1 tsp. seed pour 0,5 cup of hot water. Insist 30 minutes, drink before meals 3 times a day. Dill seeds can be replaced with clover flowers.
How often can a hypertensive crisis occur in a patient.
It depends on the reasons that caused it. If the reason is heavy unusual work, stress, alcohol abuse, then this is a one-time crisis. But here we must be seriously examined. Make an ECG, an ultrasound of the heart – it is important to exclude hypertension. Often people don’t feel high blood pressure and don’t know that they have hypertension, therefore they don’t carry out treatment, and complications of hypertension slowly develop until they get a stroke or heart attack.
If the cause of the crisis is hypertension and crises recur after 2-3 days, then there is an exacerbation of hypertension and serious treatment is required, or rather, treatment correction by a therapist, neurologist, optometrist.
How to cope with a hypertensive crisis – when to call an ambulance From a conversation with a candidate honey. Sciences Poskrebysheva A. S. (Bulletin of Healthy Lifestyles 2013, No. 5, p. 16-17)
If you measured the pressure and found that it is very different from ordinary indicators, you need to calm down and measure it another 1-2 times. If the measurement results are disappointing, you need to assess the situation – whether you can deal with the crisis yourself or you need to call an ambulance.
If the increased pressure lasts more than an hour and does not decrease, while speech is suddenly disturbed, numbness in the arms or legs, pain, asphyxiation appear, then this may be a pre-stroke condition, then immediate hospitalization is necessary. If there are no such signs, then you can try to help yourself with a hypertensive crisis yourself.
It is necessary to clearly understand the rule – the pressure can not be reduced sharply, otherwise a stroke may develop. To reduce the pressure during a hypertensive crisis, completely different medicines will be needed than those that a hypertonic uses daily. Namely, tablets are not prolonged, but short-acting, which can be absorbed under the tongue.
With this resorption, the medicine immediately enters the bloodstream, i.e., acts like an injection. The safest for these purposes are capoten and prazosin. Each hypertonic should have them in the medicine cabinet in case of a crisis. Often, ambulance doctors use dibazole in injections, magnesia is only a waste of time, their effect is much weaker than the effect of the above drugs.
So, the patient takes a pill under the tongue. After 30 minutes, the pressure is measured. If it goes down, you don’t need to do anything else, just measure the pressure and track the trend. The main criterion is that in 3-4 hours it should decrease by 25 percent from the original. If after 4 hours such a decrease did not occur, then dissolve another pill.
You can use a folk remedy – dampen a napkin in apple cider vinegar and attach it to the soles. for 10 minutes.
After a hypertensive crisis, the daily dose of medications is usually increased, preferably after consulting with your doctor. And you can add traditional medicine to conventional medicines: an infusion of herbs that lower blood pressure, a mixture of beet juice. carrots and lemon, garlic juice with honey.
All alternative methods of treatment may have contraindications. Before using prescriptions, consult your doctor!
The main reason contributing to the onset of a hypertensive crisis (hereinafter referred to as HA) is hidden in a sudden jump in blood pressure. This, in turn, causes a violation of natural blood flow, which negatively affects the performance and functioning of internal organs. In turn, this provokes the development of consequences such as: heart rhythm disturbances, vascular obstruction, cerebrovascular accident, damage to the heart muscle or lung tissue.
The reason for the increase in blood pressure can be even a smoked cigarette.
|· Strong emotional stress;|
· Increased physical activity;
· Excessive use of salt in cooking;
· Excessive consumption of alcohol;
· A sharp rejection of antihypertensive drugs;
· GM ischemia in the acute phase, with an accelerated decrease in pressure;
· Resuscitation after or during surgery.
|· May occur in women against the background of a general disorder of the endocrine system in the menopause;|
· Exacerbations of coronary heart disease (cardiac asthma, acute coronary insufficiency), as well as ischemia of GM;
Violations of the mechanisms of urodynamics, as a consequence of prostate adenoma;
· Sudden impairment in renal hemodynamics (together with overproduction of renin and secondary aldosteronism);
The manifestation of apnea during sleep;
· Sickle-cell type crisis;
The content of the article:
The patient with such unpleasant symptoms urgently needs urgent hospitalization. At the hospital, a nurse or other staff will be given first aid for a hypertensive crisis, which will help to stabilize general well-being in a short time. Urgent pre-medical actions of specialists are presented below:
Any mistake by a nurse can lead to complications of the course of the disease and serious irreversible consequences. Therefore, it is important that the healthcare provider has work with patients suffering from hypertension.
The tactics of a nurse in the event of a hypertensive crisis – stopping the attack, eliminating symptoms and taking preventive measures to prevent a second attack.
To stop the hypertensive crisis, drugs are selected based on the individual characteristics of the patient’s body
Right Aid for Hypertensive Crisis
After a hypertensive crisis, the patient needs peace and clear recommendations from the doctor.
What are the responsibilities?
When caring for a patient, nursing intervention involves the following measures:
Note. Nursing with a hypertensive crisis also involves a daily debriefing on the work with the patient. This event will help to monitor the patient’s condition and adjust treatment methods.
Hypertensive crisis – a sudden increase in blood pressure, as a result of which a person’s condition worsens. Predicting its appearance is very difficult. For each individual patient, hypertensive crisis is characterized by a certain level of blood pressure, which differs from regular. Even if the measured pressure is considered normal for most, for some it may be elevated.
The doctor selects the drug, taking into account the age of the patient and the characteristics of his body. When assisting with a hypertensive crisis, it is important to accurately calculate the rate of decrease in blood pressure and its level, which should be achieved as a result.
change in weather conditions: cold snap, warming, winds
High salt intake
For those who have been taking antihypertensive drugs for a long time, a hypertensive crisis may be caused by discontinuation of their use.
However, the most common cause still remains nervous tension. Among the main manifestations of a hypertensive crisis is a patient’s feeling of fear and anxiety, which must be eliminated in the first place so that the pressure returns to normal.
A biochemical analysis of blood during a hypertensive crisis of the first type reveals an increased number of white blood cells, and in the urine – a protein. The pressure rises, the pulse quickens. This type of hypertensive crisis is often called uncomplicated. This means that during exacerbation of the disease, target organs do not suffer.
Hypertensive crisis of the second type lasts several days. Symptoms in this case are the same, but they are more pronounced. The patient experiences dizziness, heart pain, and nausea may develop into vomiting. visual impairment. Among the main complications, this is a heart attack. stroke. pulmonary edema. A blood test shows an increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and an increased number of white blood cells.
Complicated hypertensive crisis is usually repeated in the form of periodic seizures. Patients suffering from chronic arterial hypertension are at risk. To avoid crises, the course of the disease should be monitored. Among patients with hypertension, high mortality due to hypertensive crises was noted.
In most cases, the emergency medical team’s call is caused precisely by a hypertensive crisis. Patients receive different care depending on the region, and the degree of complications varies. The most favorable situation has developed in Western Europe. There, the number of cases of attacks of hypertensive crisis decreased due to the high level of medical services. It is also associated with high-quality diagnostics, which allows to detect the presence of the disease in time and prevent its exacerbation.
Russia is significantly behind in this indicator. Only a quarter of patients receive timely treatment, so cases of hypertensive crisis are much more common. It is more common among women.
The duration of a hypertensive crisis varies depending on the rate of symptoms. Basically, it is 60-120 minutes and is directly related to the state of the compensatory forces of the body. During GC, vital organs do not receive proper nutrition, and the more often an attack appears and develops longer, the higher the percentage of probability of life-threatening complications
First aid for hypertensive crisis:
Fear of death contributes to the duration of the attack, so the patient needs to take any drug with a calming effect.
Often, HA is accompanied by intense bleeding from the nose. Many doctors consider this a positive aspect, because the outflow of blood helps to reduce blood pressure, which positively affects the rate of its normalization.
What to do with nosebleeds? No need to throw back your head, because in this case there is a risk of aspiration, just apply a cold compress on the nose and lower your chin.
How to remove the first symptoms? For the treatment of hepatitis C, it is important to take fast-acting pharmacological agents that lower blood pressure in time, for example, Captopril, Nitroglycerin, Andipala.
At all times, garlic has been known for its healing properties. For the preparation of prophylactic agents for a month. it is necessary to soak thin slices of garlic in alcohol. The resulting mixture is stored in the refrigerator. Tincture is taken 10 drops 3 times a day. To reduce the aggressive effects of essential oils on internal organs, drops are seized with a piece of refined sugar.
If GK was taken by surprise, and there are no pharmacological means at hand aimed at reducing blood pressure, you can give a person a drink of tincture of valerian root or motherwort as a quick aid. If there is no tincture, take two tablets of Valerian officinalis.
To prepare the medicine, you must take:
To prepare the medicine you must purchase:
Ingredients are poured in a glass of boiling water. Previously, lemon and garlic are passed through a garlic press or finely chopped or chopped with a blender. The resulting mass is infused in heat for up to 3 days. From time to time it is mixed, then filtered. Tincture is taken in a tablespoon 3 times a day 30 minutes before the meal.
Medicines based on this plant also help lower blood pressure. At home, tincture is prepared from flowers. One tablespoon of them is poured with 0,5 liters of hot water. The broth is infused for 30 minutes, filtered and consumed twice a day. You need to drink 150 ml at a time. This tool strengthens the capillary walls, significantly reduces blood pressure and tachycardia.
Two tablespoons of dry grass are poured with 250 ml of boiling water and infused for half an hour. After filtering, the broth is ready for use. To reduce blood pressure and prevent a hypertensive crisis, 1 tablespoon is taken 5 times a day.
After the transferred HA, the patient should adhere to bed rest for several days. So that the recovery process does not drag on, it is important to control your diet, excluding salt from the diet. Since HA often proceeds in parallel with psycho-emotional stress, in order to normalize the functioning of the central nervous system, hypertensive patients need to diversify their diet with plant foods.
Herbal drinks from chamomile, mint and motherwort will help to cope with stress and accelerate recovery after a crisis. If possible, it is recommended to spend more time outdoors. An excellent solution is to purchase a ticket to a sanatorium or a special medical boarding house.
Work with the patient’s family
Family Health Depends on the Competence of a Nurse
Work with the sick family is carried out according to the following principle:
Important! An attack can begin at any time, therefore, in the absence of a nurse, family members and the patient must know all the details when providing first aid during a crisis. For this, it is necessary to provide complete information about the algorithm of actions in case of a sudden crisis. It will be useful to show the actions clearly.
To maximize the results of therapeutic measures, you need to collect as much information as possible about the patient. To do this, it is necessary to ask the patient about his relationship with his family, how stressful situations often occur, to study the patient’s nutritional characteristics and whether there are bad habits.
In addition, it is important to know about which drugs the patient uses, whether there are people with chronic blood pressure diseases among family members and what working conditions the patient has (schedule, presence/absence of harmful factors, etc.). All this information will help to more accurately determine the possible causes that affect the onset of seizures and prescribe competent treatment.
Drugs for hypertensive crisis
By calling an ambulance, the patient is approximately aware of the means by which medical workers reduce pressure in order to stabilize the general condition of the patient. Use them without prior medical prescription is strictly contraindicated, dangerous to life and health. Here are the relevant pharmacological groups and their representatives:
Studying the algorithm of first aid for hypertensive crisis, you need to pay special attention to such medications:
Causes of pain in the heart
Typically, drugs are used in the form of injections and lozenges, since vomiting is often observed with hypertensive crisis and the use of oral agents is ineffective.
In the treatment of this disease, parenteral preparations are prescribed:
With a sharp increase in pressure and a jump in tachycardia, beta-blockers are prescribed. It is advisable to choose a medicine with properties similar to a vasodilator drug.
To improve the patient’s condition and strengthen the therapeutic effect, long-acting drugs are used, such as dihydropyridine or amlodipine (5-10 mg). Normalization of the pressure level is achieved during the day.
Pressure reduction should occur no more than 20% of the current blood pressure level. If the patient is feeling better, it is worth putting him in a bed with a raised headboard. Further actions for the treatment of the crisis should be discussed with your doctor.
How to provide first aid emergency care?
First aid for hypertensive crisis can not replace qualified medical help! But the general condition of the patient and the development of complications depend on the actions of relatives and friends. Knowledge of the help algorithm and the ability to apply it in a timely manner largely determines the outcome of the disease.
The sequence and principles of first aid:
Take blood pressure every 20 minutes, the result will be important for emergency doctors
Sometimes after providing medical care, the patient becomes easier and hospitalization is not required. But in some cases, at the discretion of specialists, urgent treatment in a hospital is necessary, which in no case should be abandoned.
Therapeutic actions for hypertensive crisis need to be provided quickly. Relatives and relatives need to call an ambulance immediately. Then they proceed to emergency first aid.
The algorithm is as follows:
To calm the patient offer valerian or motherwort. In addition to traditional medical emergency care, some patients prefer traditional medicine.
Honey is stirred in a glass of water and lemon juice is added. Drink the drug in one go. It reduces pressure and reduces emotional excitability.
It is necessary to prepare the following components:
Pour dry grass with a glass of boiling water. Let it brew for about five minutes. Drink the product warm until blood pressure drops.
Pour boiling water over the herbal mixture. Let it brew for about 10-12 minutes. Then strain and drink the medicine until the blood pressure drops.
You can not treat HC only folk remedies! Alternative medicine recipes are used in combination with medical emergency care.
With an uncomplicated crisis, dibazole and diuretics are administered intravenously.
With hypertensive crisis of type II, hemiton, clonidine, catapressan are prescribed.
Sometimes, to obtain a rapid hypotensive effect, intravenous administration of diaxizon or hyperstat is used.
In almost any case, it is recommended to put nifedipine or corinfar under the tongue.
In combination with other medicines with type 2, antipsychotics (droperidol) are used.
When, in combination with an increase in blood pressure, symptoms of acute left ventricular failure are observed, diuretics and ganglion blockers are administered.
If the hypertensive crisis was complicated by acute coronary insufficiency, then nitrates (nitrosorbide, sustac, nitrong) and analgesics, up to narcotic drugs, are additionally used.
On average, the pressure should decrease by 10 mm Hg per hour
Such a hypertensive crisis is characterized by the absence of target organ damage. The clinical symptom complex requires a quick, but not emergency drop in blood pressure. With such a hypertensive crisis, it is quite enough to give tablet forms of antihypertensive drugs:
When emergency care is provided, the doctor measures your blood pressure every 10 minutes. He achieves a reduction in blood pressure in the first 2 hours by 25% of the original, and in the next 2-6 hours he tries to reach the target value of 160/100 mm Hg.
If HA is complicated
For complicated hypertensive crisis, involvement of target organs in the pathological process is characteristic. GK – a threat to the life of the patient. The condition requires urgent normalization of blood pressure during the first hour of therapy.
What should the doctor do:
Used drugs for complicated hypertensive crisis:
What to do after stopping the attack
To stop the crisis, action is required immediately, you can’t do without taking certain medications. In case of arrhythmias, acute headaches, tachycardia and angina pectoris, the first thing you need to do is call an ambulance, while providing the patient with unhindered access of oxygen to the body. Before giving any kind of medication to the injured party, there is an urgent need to measure blood pressure with a blood pressure monitor. Other specialist recommendations are presented below:
Practice shows that first aid for hypertensive crisis should be comprehensive and timely. Otherwise, strokes develop, extensive lesions of the cardiovascular system, cerebral edema is not excluded. The provision of emergency care for such a crisis requires compliance with the following algorithm of pre-medical actions in the home setting:
With the development of complications, you should immediately consult a doctor or go to the hospital. To prevent the appearance of irreversible changes, it is necessary to recognize the signs of a complicated crisis:
With a strong increase in blood pressure, complications may occur:
Coma, pulmonary edema, acute heart failure, encephalopathy, eclampsia, bleeding, and heart rhythm disturbances may also develop.
These are not all complications, there are a lot of them and all threaten a person’s life, so a lot depends on the time of first aid provided.
When the patient’s pressure suddenly jumps up, it is strictly forbidden to perform certain actions, otherwise this can lead to dangerous consequences.
When emergency care is provided, you cannot:
Calmness of the patient and the quick response of others who provide him with first aid are the main components of a successful prognosis.
After eliminating the manifestations of a hypertensive crisis, the victim needs to go to the hospital to undergo a full medical examination. It will help to find out the cause of the attack, analyze the general condition of the patient and assess the extent of the damage caused to the health GC. After that, the attending physician will prescribe adequate supportive and preventive therapy.