Supraventricular extrasystole can occur due to both heart disease and other factors.
|Group of reasons||List of causal factors|
|Heart Disease||Chronic ischemic disease and myocardial infarction|
|Any cardiomyopathy – diseases of the heart muscle (myocardium)|
|Congenital and acquired heart defects|
|Myocarditis (inflammatory damage to the heart muscle)|
|Medication||Overdose, uncontrolled administration of drugs: digoxin, antiarrhythmic drugs, diuretics|
|Disruptions in the exchange of electrolytes||Decrease or increase in the concentration of potassium, calcium and sodium in the blood|
|Intoxication and poisoning of the body||Alcohol, chemicals, occupational hazards, smoking, infectious diseases, diseases accompanied by oxygen starvation of tissues: chronic anemia, pathology of the bronchopulmonary system.|
|Pathology of the nervous system||Neurocirculatory dystonia and other types of autonomic disorders|
|Endocrine diseases||Decreased or increased hormonal activity of the adrenal glands and thyroid gland,|
|Formation, imbalance, extinction of ovarian function (the beginning of menstruation, menopause)|
|Lifestyle features||Excessive nervousness, feelings, negative emotions|
|Frequent stressful situations|
|Excessive physical exertion and low physical activity|
|Idiopathic||It is impossible to establish the cause of the disease, since the problem occurs on its own|
Extrasystoles of the supraventricular type can be a separate pathological condition, but extremely rarely (not more than 5-10%). This means that if they exist, you must definitely look for the primary cause – a disease manifested by cardiac extrasystoles. 50% is a pathology of the heart.
The defeat of the nerve endings, which are responsible for the patency of electrical impulses. Strong alcohol intoxication. Oversaturation with caffeine. Certain types of drugs.
In addition to the main reasons, this type of pathology can develop, especially in a young body, due to excessive physical exertion, as well as after the transfer of diseases caused by infection, especially if the diseased body was very dehydrated. When the body is dehydrated, the metabolism is disturbed, and the lack of necessary trace elements leads to a violation of the heart rhythm, since the electrical impulse is suppressed.
Today, a huge number of people suffer from diseases of the heart and cardiovascular system. And not the last place in this list is extrasystole. Extrasystole is a type of arrhythmia, in which there are extraordinary contractions of either the whole heart, or a certain part of it. People suffering from this ailment usually complain of a “blow” from the inside into the chest, short-term sinking of the heart (usually for a few seconds), and then it starts working again as usual.
The most common heart rhythm disorder is ventricular extrasystole. Patients suffering from this disease need adequate antiarrhythmic therapy and should be under the constant supervision of an arrhythmologist.
The etiology of the disease is very diverse. There may be many reasons for the appearance of extrasystoles in the heart, but they are all divided into two groups – functional (transient, transient) and organic. Passing extrasystole in both healthy and sick people can appear due to such phenomena:
- under load, especially after wearing weights, physical exertion, running, etc .;
- under stress, psycho-emotional overload;
- with the abuse of coffee, alcohol, energy, strong tea, smoking;
- during pregnancy, menopause, after abortion and with other types of hormonal changes in the body, as well as during menstruation;
- after eating or eating at bedtime;
- against an overdose of cardiac glycosides and some other drugs.
Among organic diseases of the cardiovascular system, against the background of which constant, repeated extrasystoles are often found, the following are noted:
- malformations of the heart and its valves;
- cardiac ischemia;
- dystrophic processes and cardiosclerosis;
- hypertension (high blood pressure);
- myocardial infarction;
- Heart failure (chronic heart failure);
- pulmonary heart;
- heart surgery;
- violation of sodium-potassium metabolism and the metabolic changes caused by it.
There are a lot of extracardiac diseases, which can also lead to the appearance of extrasystoles in the heart. Among them – hyperthyroidism, tumors, hepatitis, intoxication and poisoning, bacterial and viral infections, allergies, VSD and other autonomic disorders, as well as osteochondrosis. Extrasystole is often noted in a dream, which reflects the dysfunction of the vagus nerve, as well as the possibility of the existence of diseases of the esophagus, intestines, prostate, uterus, gall bladder.
Extrasystoles are essentially a manifestation of diseases of various organs and systems. Most often, these are diseases of the heart, endocrine glands, various lesions of the nervous system, stress and mental disorders.
Heart diseases that are manifested by extrasystoles include coronary artery disease, cardiosclerosis, rheumatic myocardial damage, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, hypertrophy of the heart, simple heart obesity, amyloidosis, and also atherosclerosis.
Endocrine disorders that provoke the occurrence of extrasystoles: hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism (thyroid disease), disruption of the normal functioning of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland (hormone-producing or compressive tumors), adrenal disease (pheochromocytoma, Itsenko-Cushing’s disease), diabetes mellitus.
Violations of the nervous regulation of cardiac activity can also cause extrasystoles. Such disorders include damage to the vagus nerve, infringement of the roots of the spinal cord, disorders of the nervous trophism of the pericardium or mediastinum.
Frequent extrasystoles can cause recurring stressful situations. Being in constant nervous tension, a person will not be able to stay healthy for a long time. Sooner or later, the body will cease to cope with large volumes of negative emotions. Often, the cardiovascular system takes a hit.
Heart diseases are found even in people who lead a healthy lifestyle, but are in a state of constant stress. The first manifestations may be causeless pain behind the sternum, as well as extrasystoles. In the future, if you do not change the situation or your attitude to it, this can turn into hypertension, angina pectoris, or even myocardial infarction.
Depression also has a detrimental effect on heart function. Mainly due to metabolic disorders of serotonin and norepinephrine. These hormones regulate many processes in the body, including cardiac activity.
Of the biochemical factors, changes in the ionic composition of the blood should be noted. Subject to a strict diet, malnutrition, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract or pathologies of hormonal regulation systems, homeostasis, such a change in the number of blood microelements is possible that will affect the functioning of muscle tissue.
In the work of any muscle of the human body, many mechanisms of regulation, energy exchange, and transportation of various substances simultaneously take part. In any type of muscle, there are ion channels that carry out active or passive transport of trace elements into or out of the cell. Thanks to the coordinated work of all structures at the cellular and molecular levels, the normal operation of one or another organ can be ensured.
Myocardium is no exception. If there is an excessive amount of calcium or sodium in the blood that goes directly to the heart muscle, and potassium or magnesium compounds are less than normal, then serious malfunctions can occur in the myocardium.
In addition to cardiac manifestations in the form of extrasystoles, constipation, convulsions, coughing, shortness of breath are possible.
Sometimes the cause of extrasystoles can be an increase in the volume of circulating blood against the background of the pathology of the excretory system. An increased load on the heart muscle can affect the smooth operation of the heart.
- clinical picture
- Classification of extrasystole
- Extrasystole in children
- Pregnancy and childbirth
- What are the symptoms of extrasystole?
- Types, diagnosis and treatment of extrasystoles
- Traditional methods of treatment
- Extrasystoles: how to get rid quickly and effectively
- The likely consequences of frequent cardiac extrasystoles
- preventive measures
- Predictions for the detection of extrasystoles
Single and rare supraventricular extrasystoles in a negative way do not affect well-being. Often patients do not feel health problems. Under such circumstances, they speak of an acceptable version of the norm.
If there are clinical signs, then in all cases there is a palpitations, interruptions in the work of the heart. Patients with such sensations are described as fading, somersault behind the sternum.
Frequent extrasystoles reduce diastole, during which the maximum blood filling of the myocardium occurs, the intake of nutrients. As a result of this, ischemia of the heart tissue will occur, which will be manifested by acute, short-term pain.
In patients suffering from coronary pathology, frequent extraordinary contraction of myocardial fibers is manifested by severe dizziness and general weakness, a feeling of lack of air. This is due to hypoxia of the brain against the background of a violation of its blood supply.
Classification of extrasystole
|Type of extrasystoles||Which means|
|Atrial||Arise from the atria|
|Atrioventricular||Occur from the septum between the ventricles and atria|
|Monotopic||One pulse center|
|Polytopes||Two or more foci of pulses|
|Early||Coincide with atrial contraction|
|Late||Match ventricular contractions|
|Single||Frequency less than 5 times per minute|
|Multiple||More often 5 times a minute|
|Group||Several extrasystoles in a row|
By the frequency of occurrence for a certain time interval:
- Rare (up to 5 per minute).
- Medium (6-15 per minute).
- Frequent (more than 15 per minute).
By alternating normal heart rhythm and extraordinary contraction:
- Bigeminia (alternation of the normal ventricular complex with extraordinary).
- Trigeminia (two normal complexes are followed by extrasystolic).
- Quadrogeminia (premature contraction follows three normal ones).
Paired extrasystoles have an unfavorable prognosis, since three or more abnormal complexes are considered paroxysmal tachycardia.
Extrasystoles are additional contractions of the myocardium that “wedge” into its pace of work. This process increases the load on the heart and, as a result, can lead to the development of a number of cardiological diseases. The mechanism of occurrence of extrasystoles is quite simple. They appear when, in addition to the sinoarterial node, electrical impulses are supplied to the myocardium from the outside (due to neurological disorders).
This type of arrhythmia is divided into two types:
Rare (up to 5 per minute). Medium (6-15 per minute). Frequent (more than 15 per minute).
Bigeminia (alternation of the normal ventricular complex with extraordinary). Trigeminia (two normal complexes are followed by extrasystolic). Quadrogeminia (premature contraction follows three normal ones).
Extrasystoles are divided at the location of the pulse generator, the activity of which causes from the appearance of:
- Supraventricular extrasystoles – if an extraordinary pulse is generated in any part of the atria, but not in the sinus node
- Ventricular extrasystoles – if an extraordinary impulse is generated in any part of the ventricles of the heart.
The focus of pathological impulses with extrasystole can be located on any part of the conducting system. Depending on its location, the following types of disease are distinguished:
- supraventricular (supraventricular) extrasystole, including:
- atrial (lower atrial, mid-atrial);
- ventricular premature beats;
- sinus, or nodal extrasystole (a rare species, localization of the focus of excitation – in the pacemaker).
If the patient has atrial extrasystoles, then the focus of excitation is formed in the atrium, and then transmitted to the sinus node and down to the ventricles. Rare atrial extrasystole, in comparison with other types of the disease, occurs mainly with organic damage to the heart. Most often, it develops in a prone position, often at night.
Extrasystole of the atrioventricular connection is divided into three types:
- atrial ailment followed by ventricular arousal;
- simultaneous excitation of the ventricles and atria;
- pathology with excitation of the ventricles, followed by excitation of the atria.
According to the ECG, reflecting the number of foci, supraventricular extrasystoles are classified as follows:
- one focus – monotopic extrasystole;
- several foci – polytopic extrasystole.
In frequency per minute, extraordinary contractions of the heart can be:
- single (5 or less);
- multiple (more than 5);
- group or salvo (several in a row);
- paired (2 at a time).
By the timing of the appearance of supraventricular extrasystoles are divided into such types:
- early – observed with atrial contraction;
- interpolated (insertion) – are formed between the contraction of the ventricles and atria;
- late – occur during contraction of the ventricles or during diastole – relaxation of the heart.
Ventricular extrasystoles account for more than 62% of the total and are divided into right ventricular and left ventricular. They are classified as follows (graduation according to Laun-Wolf):
- the first group – less than 30 extraordinary reductions per hour (physiological, not life-threatening);
- the second group – above 30 extrasystoles per hour;
- the third group – polymorphic extrasystoles;
- the fourth group – paired and group extrasystoles;
- the fifth group – early extrasystoles.
All types of extrasystole also differentiate according to the degree of danger to humans:
- Benign. There are no symptoms of myocardial damage, there is no risk of cardiac arrest.
- Potentially malignant. Organic myocardial lesions are present, hemodynamic disturbances begin to appear.
- Malignant. The causes of the disease are associated with serious organic damage to the heart, the risk of death is very high.
The type of compensatory pause (the duration of the diastole period after extrasystole) with extrasystole can be complete and incomplete. The duration of a full pause is two normal cardiac cycles, incomplete – less than two normal cardiac cycles.
Extrasystole in children
It was previously believed that the more common form of extrasystole in children is ventricular. But now all types of extrasystoles are found with almost the same frequency. This is due to the fact that the child’s body is growing rapidly, and the heart, unable to cope with such a load, “includes” compensatory functions due to all the same extraordinary contractions. Usually, as soon as the child’s growth slows down, the disease disappears by itself.
But it is impossible to ignore extrasystole: it can be a sign of a serious disease of the heart, lungs, or thyroid gland. Children usually present the same complaints as adults, that is, they complain of “interruptions” in the work of the heart, dizziness, weakness. Therefore, when such symptoms occur, the child must be carefully examined.
If a child had ventricular extrasystole, then it is quite possible that treatment will not be required here. The child must be put on a dispensary account and examined once a year. This is necessary in order not to miss the deterioration of his condition and the appearance of complications.
Drug treatment of extrasystoles in children is prescribed only if the amount of extrasystoles per day reaches 15000. Then metabolic and antiarrhythmic therapy are prescribed.
Pregnancy and childbirth
Pregnant women may experience any type of extrasystole (up to 50% of expectant mothers have one or another of its manifestations). Since the body undergoes a number of major changes, including hormonal, electrophysiological, neurohumoral, heart rhythm disturbances are quite possible and even highly likely.
Treatment of extrasystole during pregnancy and lactation is quite complicated, because not all drugs are safe for the baby. Usually, anti-arrhythmic drugs are not prescribed for expectant mothers, and the emphasis in therapy is on relaxation, refusal of excessive physical activity, and prevention of anxiety and stress.
Almost all women are recommended taking vitamin-mineral complexes, which is necessary to optimize metabolic processes in the myocardium. Childbirth in a natural way with “simple” types of extrasystole is not contraindicated. With organic pathologies of the heart, pregnancy is required under the supervision of a cardiologist and childbirth by cesarean section.
What are the symptoms of extrasystole?
As already mentioned, this type of arrhythmia sometimes develops asymptomatically, however, some symptoms can still suggest the development of extrasystole, and if they occur, it is recommended not to delay a visit to the doctor:
frequent dizziness, in which a feeling of fear does not leave a person; sudden headaches, especially after physical exertion; palpable heart tremors, which are clearly manifested in the sternum; with emotional stress, a fading of the heart rhythm is felt; chest pain that causes panic; lack of air, shortness of breath, which manifests itself even with minor loads.
The doctor will be able to visually determine the development of the pathological process after examining the cervical arteries. With the development of the disease, veins in this area can stand out and even throb. This is a clear sign of circulatory disorders, the location of which develops in a small circle, which does not allow the body to fully access oxygen through the blood.
According to statistics, an adult has about 30-40 “extra” heart contractions per hour. The following is the daily rate for people with certain heart rhythm problems:
- from 720 to 960 additional pulses – the norm for people who do not have any problems with the cardiovascular system;
- from 960 to 1200 – the norm for those who have been diagnosed with polymorphic extrasystoles does not pose a threat to health;
- 1200 and above is no longer the norm and indicates the presence of problems with the heart rate, up to tachycardia.
Today, the first two groups according to the results of the survey include 75% of people on the planet, and this does not mean that this is fraught with any serious consequences for them. However, if extrasystoles are accompanied by severe clinical symptoms, it is not recommended to postpone going to the doctor. Among these symptoms, it is first necessary to note:
- a feeling of tremors in the chest in the region of the heart (occur with vigorous contraction of the ventricles after a compensatory pause);
- interruptions and “fading” in the work of the heart, which are accompanied by a lack of air, sweating, fever and weakness;
- in advanced cases: dizziness and fainting, which occurs due to a decrease in blood flow to the brain at the moments of “tremors” and “fading” of the heart.
Using the following characteristic manifestations of such a condition as extraordinary extrasystoles, it is possible to promptly identify the initial stage of this cardiological lesion. The main symptoms of extrasystoles should include:
- subjective sensations, characterized by malfunctions in the rhythm of heart contractions, a decrease in the amount of blood transported by the heart, which leads to insufficient air and insufficient breathing;
- “Fading” and malfunctions in the heart rhythm, in which many patients experience the occurrence of fever and sweating, as well as severe weakness;
- at later stages of the disease, many patients complain of dizziness, instability of self-awareness. These sensations arise due to insufficient blood flow to body tissues during interruptions in its contractile activity.
In the normal rhythm of heart contractions, the above manifestations are not felt. The occurrence of excessively frequent electrical pulses leads to a manifestation of a lack of oxygen in the air consumed, an increased level of fatigue and dizziness.
One of the types of arrhythmias that can occur from overexcitation in the heart, in the medical field of activity is usually called supraventricular extrasystole. An impulse that occurs in the antriventricular node or in the upper heart region can provoke the disease.
Symptoms of extrasystole, regardless of the cause of the disease, are not always pronounced. Most often, patients complain of:
- Malfunctions of the heart (it may feel like the heart turns over in the chest);
- Weakness, discomfort;
- Increased sweating;
- Hot flashes;
- Lack of air;
- Irritability, a feeling of fear and anxiety;
- Dizziness. Frequent extrasystoles may be accompanied by dizziness. This is due to a decrease in the amount of blood ejected by the heart muscle and, as a result, oxygen starvation in the brain cells.
Extrasystole may be a sign of other diseases. For example, extrasystole during vegetative-vascular dystonia (VVD) is caused by a violation of the autonomous regulation of the heart muscle, increased activity of the parasympathetic nervous system, and therefore can occur during physical exertion, and in a calm state. It is accompanied by precisely the symptoms of a nervous system disorder, that is, anxiety, fear, irritability.
The extrasystole that occurs with osteochondrosis is due to the fact that, with a disease, compression of the nerve endings and blood vessels occurs between the vertebral discs.
In pregnant women, too, quite often the appearance of extrasystoles is recorded. Typically, extrasystoles during pregnancy occur due to overwork or anemia, as well as if a woman had problems with the thyroid gland, cardiovascular and bronchopulmonary systems. If the pregnant woman feels well and does not show any complaints, then in this case treatment is not required.
Extrasystole after eating is also not uncommon. It is functional and usually does not require treatment. Such extrasystole is associated with the parasympathetic nervous system and occurs if a person, after eating food, has taken a horizontal position. After eating, the heart rate decreases, and the heart begins to turn on its compensatory abilities. This happens just due to extra, extraordinary heart beats.
Sometimes the signs of the disease are visible only on the cardiogram, but clinically they are absent. Often, long walking, performing exercises, playing sports, and a strong lingering cough leads to a short-term sensation of increased heartbeat, which quickly passes. But in people with organic heart diseases, thyrotoxicosis, vegetovascular dystonia, the tolerance of extrasystoles is reduced, and the symptoms of the pathology are pronounced. They may be as follows:
- a feeling of turning the heart in the chest, a strong push from the inside;
- sinking hearts, failures in his work;
- discomfort, mild pain in the heart;
- sharp short-term pain in the apex of the heart;
- swelling of the cervical veins, which can pass immediately after extrasystoles;
- increased sweating;
- sensations of hot flashes;
- lack of air;
- anxiety, fear of death;
- irritability, frequent mood swings.
If extrasystoles become more frequent, dizziness may join the clinic of the disease. The fact is that a high frequency of extrasystoles causes a decrease in blood ejection and provokes brain hypoxia. In the absence of first aid and drug treatment, dizziness may pass out.
Hypoxic processes in the brain can be complicated by aphasia and paresis. In some patients, extrasystole disappears after recovering from the underlying pathology, for example, after it has been possible to get rid of myocarditis and correct hyperthyroidism. But often extrasystole develops throughout a person’s life, it has to be treated constantly, sometimes the disease spontaneously disappears for a long time.
Extrasystoles that occur in a healthy person are often ignored. But it happens that the occurrence of sensations of interruptions during the work of the heart occurs against the background of a rapid heartbeat or high blood pressure. Usually, after such complex manifestations, people go to the doctor.
Extrasystolic (paroxysmal) tachycardia is characterized by a sharp increase in heart rate with constantly alternating extrasystoles. Typically, the number of strokes reaches a minute and is accompanied by a feeling of fear, pallor, low blood pressure. Such an attack can last from several minutes to a day.
In children and adolescents, extrasystoles may be the first manifestation of such a functional disorder as vegetative-vascular dysfunction. In addition to interruptions, this disease is often accompanied by a violation in the regulation of the tone of the vascular wall – low or high blood pressure, as well as symptoms that are characteristic of the defeat of the autonomic nervous system: nausea, dizziness, sweating, hot flashes, loss of appetite, fainting.
This set of symptoms makes parents worry about the health of their child and they begin to examine it in all respects. And even if complaints of interruptions faded into the background, when conducting electrocardiography, extrasystole is most likely to be detected.
Pregnant women are also very sensitive to the appearance of extrasystoles. Indeed, in this category of people, the appearance of any symptom of a pathology of the cardiovascular system causes a feeling of fear, panic and can aggravate the situation.
In a healthy pregnant woman, extrasystoles may appear due to an increased load on the heart. Especially often interruptions occur after physical exertion or stressful situations. Therefore, it is very important for a pregnant woman to observe the regimen of the day, not to resort to physical activity without emergency, and to protect her nervous system.
There are opposite cases when, in the last weeks of pregnancy, the expectant mother does not notice interruptions in the chest, referring to fetal movements. In such cases, the first symptoms of a pathology of the cardiovascular system may be missed.
In older people, it is difficult to differentiate pathological extrasystole from physiological extrasystole only by complaints. Since this category of people can present complaints about the slightest changes in their well-being (sometimes in order to draw attention to their person).
The most reliable for their examination is the method of Holter research (daily monitoring of ECG-indicators of the heart).
Types, diagnosis and treatment of extrasystoles
Extrasystoles of all types can be detected by a cardiologist in the process of palpating the pulse. However, to create a clear picture of the disease, a patient with a suspected pathology must undergo an ECG diagnosis. The device will determine the source of extrasystoles and their type with absolute accuracy.
- reducing the interval between the P wave of the main rhythm and the P wave of an additional impulse;
- reducing the interval between the QRS complex of the main rhythm and the QRS complex of the additional impulse;
- apparent deformation and increased amplitude of the extrasystolic QRS complex;
- absence of P wave before ventricular extrasystole.
An experienced doctor can determine extrasystoles by feeling the pulse, but to fully see the picture of the patient’s condition, it is necessary to conduct an electrocardiogram.
Attention! To determine the amount of extrasystoles per day, daily monitoring is performed according to Holter using a portable ECG.
Using an ECG, the localization and type of extrasystoles is determined with high accuracy. If the ECG data does not fully represent the situation, the doctor may prescribe an ultrasound of the heart or an MRI.
You can judge extrasystole on an ECG by the following signs:
- Between the P waves of the main heart rhythm and the additional, a decrease in distance is observed.
- Also, QRS complexes will be with a shorter interval.
- Marked deformation and increased amplitude of the QRS extrasystolic complex are observed.
- Before ventricular extrasystole, there is no P wave.
To determine the amount of extrasystoles and compare them with the daily norm, monitoring is carried out according to the Holter method. In this case, a continuous examination can last up to 2 days. Such an examination is necessary in order to assess the reaction of the heart muscle to rest, physical activity, sleep, wakefulness, eating and stressful situations.
Recognizing supraventricular extrasystole is not difficult. Diagnosis can be made at the beginning of a diagnostic search. During the survey, patients will describe characteristic complaints of heart failure. Examination reveals an uneven pulse, as well as symptoms of coronary diseases (increased blood pressure, heart murmur, discoloration of the skin, and others).
The diagnosis is confirmed by electrocardiography, daily Holter monitoring. The characteristic features of supraventricular extrasystolic rhythm disorders are as follows.
- Previously, the appearance of undeformed ventricular (QRS) complex.
- P wave change before early contraction.
- The presence of an incomplete compensatory pause.
From atrioventricular connection:
- The appearance of premature QRS complex.
- Negative P wave in 2,3, and VF leads after an extraordinary contraction.
- Incomplete compensatory pause.
Daily Holter monitoring makes it possible to diagnose rare isolated extrasystoles that are not registered on the cardiogram tape.
Additionally, according to indications, ultrasound and laboratory tests are performed.
Therapeutic tactics include the following rules for stopping premature contractile activity of the myocardium. First of all, it is necessary to eliminate bad habits, organize the regime of the day and rest, normalize the emotional atmosphere, drink coffee and strong tea in moderation.
The purpose of sedatives is valerian, motherwort, lemon balm, mint. It is imperative to adhere to a potassium-containing diet (dried fruits, potatoes, cherries, grapes), and if necessary, take drugs like Asparkam, Panangin.
Such measures are effective when arrhythmia is functional in nature and is not a deviation from the norm.
When an extrasystolic disorder adversely affects the patient’s well-being, arises due to cardiac pathology and risks initiating tachyarrhythmia paroxysm antiarrhythmic therapy is appropriate. For this purpose, the following drugs are used:
- Grade 1a (procainamide).
- Grade 2 (beta blockers).
- Grade 4 (calcium channel antagonists).
Supraventricular extrasystole refers to common heart rhythm disturbances. In many patients, the disease is asymptomatic. Rare, sporadic premature contractions in healthy individuals do not lead to menacing health consequences.
More dangerous are frequent, group extrasystolic disorders, which can be fraught with acute and chronic hemodynamic disorders.
In order for the doctor to be able to accurately diagnose and prescribe an effective treatment technique, he will first have to determine the location of the extrasystole, taking into account the symptoms and characteristics of the pathology. In addition to the main groups – organic and functional – they distinguish another, rather severe form – supraventricular. Supraventricular extrasystole is treated according to a special therapeutic technique, since its consequences can be very serious.
A serious form of pathology is dangerous in that for a long time it may not show itself at all, a person will not feel a deterioration in health until development affects the muscle layer of the myocardium. In this case, vascular collapse will begin to develop in the body, the person will constantly feel dizzy, frequent fainting may occur.
Most often supraventricular extrasystoles are detected by random examination. Such a pathology is clearly visible on an ECG study, which shows the extent to which all cardiac extrasystoles are filled. If the doctor reveals even an insignificant deviation in the work of the heart during an ECG, the patient will be prescribed additional individual tests, for example, Holter monitoring or ultrasound, to accurately identify the cause of arrhythmia and to prescribe an adequate treatment technique.
Previously, the appearance of undeformed ventricular (QRS) complex. P wave change before early contraction. The presence of an incomplete compensatory pause.
The appearance of premature QRS complex. Negative P wave in 2,3, and VF leads after an extraordinary contraction. Incomplete compensatory pause.
Grade 1a (procainamide). Grade 2 (beta blockers). Grade 4 (calcium channel antagonists).
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The diagnosis is made by a cardiologist and is based on the data of a cardiogram, listening to the heart, conducting a number of other examinations, as well as interviewing the patient. The ECG accurately reveals all types of extrasystoles, reflecting extraordinary contractions of the heart, which alternate with normal contractions.
The main ECG signs of ventricular extrasystole:
- increased duration of the ventricular complex QRS for a period of more than 0,12 s., its deformation;
- complete compensatory pause (it is absent only if the disease has already been complicated by atrial fibrillation);
- the displacement of the ST segment up (down) from the isoline, the appearance of an asymmetric tooth T directed in the opposite direction from the main tooth of the extrasystole.
ECG signs of atrial extrasystole:
- the appearance of an extraordinary P-wave, followed by a normal QRS complex;
- a change in the position of the P-wave: the tooth decreases if the focus of excitation in the middle section of the atria becomes negative if the extrasystoles are atrial;
- incomplete compensatory pause;
- lack of disturbances in the ventricular complex.
ECG signs of atrioventricular extrasystole:
- a negative P wave located after the QRS complex or its fusion with an aberrant ventricular complex (extrasystoles with aberrant conduct may resemble ventricular extrasystoles);
- lack of deformation of the QRS complex;
- incomplete compensatory pause.
Often, a disease by a normal ECG is not detected if there are no violations during the examination period (no more than 5 minutes). In this case, Holter monitoring is prescribed, which will probably determine the presence of pathology. It is carried out during the day, while the person must conduct the usual activities, and a fixed device will record all changes in the heart rhythm.
Traditional methods of treatment
Before proceeding with the treatment of a disease, it is necessary to make sure that it is pronounced. Extrasystoles are often secondary in relation to a more serious disease and can be eliminated in the process of its elimination. For example, having cured thyrotoxicosis or coronary heart disease, the patient in most cases gets rid of arrhythmia.
The greatest effect in the treatment of extrasystoles is achieved when taking antiarrhythmic drugs (AAP). During the period when the patient is undergoing therapy with their use, the number of heart contractions returns to normal. However, the presence of side effects in these drugs is extremely high and therefore their administration is accompanied by the appointment of beta-blockers and Amiodarone.
The patient should be prepared for the fact that specialists will not immediately be able to choose the right method of treatment for him. Primary therapy is almost always carried out by trial and error, and in the first 3-4 days, doctors will only be busy looking for optimal solutions to the problem. After determining the method of treatment, the patient has a positive trend.
The disease is treatable, but an individual approach to each specific case is necessary. Contact a cardiologist for help.
Whatever treatment methods are used, supraventricular extrasystole cannot be completely cured until its cause is eliminated. Be sure to deal with the treatment of the underlying disease (coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathy, endocrine pathology, etc.)
Eliminate sudden attacks of frequent supraventricular extrasystoles or reduce their number with constant presence can be antiarrhythmic drugs. It:
- Means containing potassium (Panangin, Asparkam). In the form of injections, they have a moderate antiarrhythmic effect, for tablets, the effect is weak.
- Beta-blockers (Bisoprolol, Metoprolol, Nebivolol). The therapeutic effect is well expressed, especially with a rapid heartbeat (more than 90 beats per minute). Available only in tablets, more suitable for the treatment of chronic extrasystole with a stable course.
- Calcium Channel Blocker (Verapamil). It is used in the form of intravenous injections for the purpose of emergency treatment of attacks of frequent extrasystole from the upper parts of the heart.
- Amiodarone (Cordaron, Arrhythmil) is a universal antiarrhythmic drug. Available in ampoules for intravenous injections and in tablets. Equally well eliminates stable supraventricular extrasystole and in the form of seizures.
Surgical treatment is indicated mainly for young people and people without severe concomitant diseases.
Extrasystoles are called additional contractions of the myocardium, which seem to wedge into the general rhythm of the heart. Due to the increased load in the heart, pathologies can develop. Extrasystole has a fairly simple mechanics: impulses for contraction can come not only from the sinoarterial node, but also from the outside. As a rule, the patient can feel the disturbance of the heart rhythm in stressful situations and during physical exertion.
It is worth noting that only pronounced extrasystole is treated. In this case, extrasystole may itself be a symptom of another more serious disease, after the elimination of which extrasystoles also disappear.
For example, if a patient has coronary artery disease or thyrotoxicosis, then, when cured of these diseases, he will not experience cardiac arrhythmia. According to medical practice, drug treatment of extrasystoles begins after exceeding the mark of 700 extrasystoles per day. This is because therapy can otherwise do more harm than have a positive effect.
For the effective treatment of extrasystole, antiarrhythmic drug therapy is used. During the period of therapy, the patient has a normalization of the heart rhythm, however, due to serious side effects, beta-blockers and Amiodarone are additionally prescribed for these drugs.
Moreover, treatment can vary greatly in each individual case, so doctors can choose the appropriate treatment method for a long time. The first days of primary therapy, which are characterized by trial and error, will consist only in the selection of the necessary drugs to eliminate problems. After the correct option is selected, the patient will experience positive dynamics.
The daily norm of extrasystoles determines the course of treatment and the need for it. If the number of extrasystoles does not exceed 700 times a day, then this can be considered normal and not interfere with the functioning of the heart, but only undergo regular examinations by a doctor.
Before assigning an effective treatment methodology to the patient, which is selected individually, the doctor will recommend normalizing the work regime, getting rid of addictions, normalizing night’s sleep. The patient should fully sleep for at least 9 hours, take a break for rest, at least for half an hour, after spending 2-2,5 hours at the workplace.
Given the advice of doctors, the daily diet should consist of foods that contain a lot of magnesium and potassium, substances that will help the heart to function normally. The following products are richest in such components:
potatoes, especially baked; lean meats; apricot and peach; watermelon and dried apricots.
It is recommended to exclude fatty and fried foods from the diet, not to drink drinks rich in caffeine. Most often supraventricular extrasystole does not pose a serious danger, but it provokes the development of other cardiac arrhythmias, which are already associated with serious risks. But be that as it may, it should be remembered that pathology develops in the most important human organ, and as you know, any changes in the functioning of the heart adversely affect its functionality, and therefore, on all human organs. To prevent the development of the disease, you should seek medical advice at the first alarming symptoms.
Medicines for the treatment of supraventricular extrasystole are prescribed only if, during the examination, the doctor reveals secondary signs of pathology in the patient. They can manifest themselves both in the brain and in other internal structures of human organs. If the pathology has become severe, then the patient is given an intravenous dropper, which is administered under the supervision of a doctor in a hospital.
Most often, the following medications are prescribed for the treatment of extrasystole:
Propafenone or Brethilium; Cordanol or Atenolol; Cinarizine or Verapamil.
Which drug is suitable for the patient should be decided only by the attending physician, given the development of the pathology and its characteristics. In no case should you start treatment on your own, since such a process can lead to very serious complications.
Folk remedies are no less effective, especially at the initial stage of the development of the pathological process and, of course, after the permission of the doctor. The most suitable are recipes with hawthorn.
To prepare a folk remedy, you will need:
15 g of hawthorn fruit; 250 g of quality vodka; dark glass bowl.
Dry fruits are poured into the container, poured with vodka, infused in a dark place for 2 weeks. Strain the tincture, take 15 drops before meals – 3-4 times a day.
Tincture on the roots of valerian is also effective. To prepare the tincture you need to take:
4 teaspoons of valerian root; 150 ml of boiling water; the container in which the components will need to be boiled.
Cook the mixture over low heat for 15 minutes. After cooling, filter, take tincture 2 times a day, in a tablespoon, about an hour before eating.
Extrasystoles are called additional contractions of the myocardium, which seem to wedge into the general rhythm of the heart. Due to the increased load in the heart, pathologies can develop.
Extrasystole has a fairly simple mechanics: impulses for contraction can come not only from the sinoarterial node, but also from the outside. As a rule, the patient can feel the disturbance of the heart rhythm in stressful situations and during physical exertion.
Before starting treatment, it is necessary to consult a doctor. In no case should you self-medicate, as arrhythmia is a serious disease that can lead to various complications. The doctor will conduct the necessary examination, measure blood pressure, prescribe additional examination methods and, if necessary, prescribe the appropriate drugs. Remember: only a specialist should prescribe a cardiac extrasystole!
- With functional extrasystole, treatment is most likely not required. But in any case, there is a risk. Therefore, the patient should reduce the use of coffee, alcohol and the number of cigarettes smoked.
- If the cause is stress, then soothing drops will be sufficient. It can be tincture of valerian, motherwort or hawthorn. It is also allowed to mix them (take 40-50 drops 3-4 times a day). Drops, in addition to a sedative effect, also have a weak sedative effect, which has a positive effect in the treatment of stress.
- With extrasystole resulting from osteochondrosis, medication is necessary. It can be vascular drugs (mildronate or mexidol), drugs that relax muscles (muscle relaxants) and have a small sedative and calming effect (sirdalud). The latter are best taken before bedtime, as they can inhibit the reaction.
- If the cause of the heart rhythm disturbance is overfatigue, in this case it is worth adjusting the regime of the day, rest more and be in the fresh air. Do not forget about sleep: the optimal time for sleep, during which the human body will rest and prepare for a new day, is 8 hours. And while it is better to go to bed until 23:00.
- With organic extrasystole, the first thing to do is to find out what caused it, and then treat the underlying disease. Additionally, you will need to undergo appropriate therapy. Most often, regardless of whether it is atrial or supraventricular, the patient is prescribed beta-blockers (egiloc, metoprolol, bisoprolol). The dosage is prescribed by the doctor strictly individually. During treatment, it is necessary to monitor the pulse, as these drugs reduce the heart rate.
- Beta-blockers are not prescribed for patients with bradycardia (heart rate less than 60 beats per minute). In this case, drugs such as bellataminal will serve as an alternative. In addition, with severe extrasystole, when the patient’s condition worsens, antiarrhythmic drugs can be prescribed – cordaron, amiodarone, diltiazem, novocainamide, anaprilin, obzidan and some others. When taking medication, the patient must constantly be observed by the attending physician, periodically undergo an ECG and Holter monitoring.
Extrasystoles: how to get rid quickly and effectively
Depending on the development mechanism of such a pathology as extrasystoles, the doctor decides how to get rid of them, but this can be done with different types of therapy. Distinguish extrasystoles of the right and left ventricle. Monomorphic and polymorphic extrasystoles, paired and single, are also distinguished.
If you suspect the development of the frequency of extrasystoles, it is necessary to conduct studies so that the doctor can, if necessary, prescribe effective and adequate therapy and solve the question of how to get rid of extrasystoles.
The main symptoms of the development of pathology can be distinguished sensations in the patient, when the heart stops, there are single cases of rhythm failure, or contractions are accompanied by painful sensations.
Untimely medical care can lead to the development of chronic heart failure. atrial fibrillation. supraventricular tachycardia. The risk of sudden death is also increased.
Therapy of extrasystole is most often carried out comprehensively, various medications are used that restore cardiac activity and normalize the function of the heart and its ventricles. After conducting a thorough diagnosis, the doctor chooses the technique of how to get rid of extrasystoles effectively and correctly.
Of the drugs, a cardiologist can prescribe:
- anxiolytic and sedative;
- anti-seizure medications;
- medicines containing magnesium and potassium.
After all the causes of the factors provoking attacks of extrasystole have been established, general therapy for children and adults is also prescribed. Its essence boils down to quickly solving the situation of how to effectively get rid of extrasystoles by normalizing the daily routine, reducing mental and physical stress, taking long walks in the fresh air, and using herbal medicines with a calming effect.
Also, the choice of medications for treatment depends on the individual clinical picture, heart disease, against which extrasystole occurs.
As a preventive and restorative therapy, traditional medicine can also be used. For example, such a folk remedy as calendula, lumbago favorably affects cardiac activity. Prunes, seafood, nuts, greens and fresh fruits, and vegetables, dried fruits, high-quality meat are effectively restored from our usual foods. It is much easier to prevent a disease than to cure a disease.
Although most cases of extrasystole do not require treatment, you should not pay attention to this phenomenon. In the case of an adverse case of extrasystole, a course of treatment with the use of antiarrhythmic drugs is recommended.
It should be borne in mind that in children, extrasystole can have a recurrent nature. Therefore, children should be regularly examined and diagnosed.
Prevention of such negative phenomena is quite simple. It is necessary to observe the normal regimen of the day, sleep, do not succumb to emotional stimuli and avoid stressful situations, more likely to be in the fresh air and not apply excessive physical exertion. For children, strengthening the body is tempered by vitamin complexes, sports, cycling and swimming.
The likely consequences of frequent cardiac extrasystoles
With the frequent appearance of palpable extrasystoles in the heart, the total amount of load per heart muscle increases significantly. This leads to an increase in the rate of myocardial wear, increases the likelihood of serious consequences for health in general. Cardiological diseases caused by frequent extrasystoles in the heart are accompanied by damage to the tissues of the heart muscle, a worsening of the myocardial process and the likelihood of a negative effect on human health.
Extrasystoles occur when there is an increase in the rate of occurrence of electrical impulses that arise from the outside (usually due to psychological experiences and emotional overload) and affect the myocardium. The effect of such unscheduled extarsystoles on the sinoarterial node, which is less susceptible to such effects, is considered normal.
Extrasystole is essentially an empty, idle contraction of the heart muscle, which does not lead to the release of blood into the blood vessels of the heart. This is due to insufficient filling of the heart with blood, upon receipt of an electrical impulse that is reduced without pumping blood in the right direction. At the same time, muscle contraction is noted without the necessary result.
Depending on which variety of this pathology has arisen in the body, its main symptomatology may vary. The number of contractions during the day of the heart muscle is also in accordance with the general state of human health, and with a variety of this heart disease.
Today in medical practice, two main types of extraordinary extrasystoles are distinguished:
- Supraventricular extrasystoles are extrasystoles that occur when an electrical impulse is transmitted from any part or section of the atria of the heart muscle, but not from the sinus node.
- The ventricular variety of extrasystoles is characterized by their occurrence in any part of the ventricles of the heart.
There is also a special classification of such a phenomenon in the work of the heart muscle as extrasystoles, according to the number of consecutive ineffective heart contractions, in which there is no pumping of the heart’s blood. Such a classification looks as follows:
- single extrasystoles;
- paired, or couplets;
- group, which are felt to the greatest extent. Usually observed in three (triplets) or four extrasystoles of the heart in a row.
The listed methods for the classification of extrasystoles help to make a preliminary diagnosis on the basis of ongoing examinations.
With physiological extrasystole, which proceeds benignly, without hemodynamic disturbances, complications rarely occur. But if it proceeds malignantly, then complications happen quite often. This is precisely what extrasystole is dangerous.
The most common complications of extrasystole are ventricular or atrial fibrillation, paroxysmal tachycardia. These complications can threaten the patient’s life and require urgent, emergency care.
In severe extrasystole, the heart rate may exceed 160 beats per minute, which may result in the development of arrhythmic cardiogenic shock and, as a result, pulmonary edema and cardiac arrest.
Extrasystole can be accompanied not only by tachycardia, but also by bradycardia. The heart rate in this case does not increase, but, on the contrary, decreases (it can be up to 30 beats per minute or less). This is no less dangerous for the patient’s life, since bradycardia disrupts conduction and there is a high risk of heart block.
The best prevention of pathology is the prevention of diseases of the heart and internal organs, as well as the endocrine glands, which underlie the vast majority of cases of all arrhythmias. If possible, it is necessary to prevent exacerbation of coronary heart disease, myocarditis and other pathologies, not to bring them to a neglected state without the necessary treatment. You should also prevent any type of intoxication, drug overdose, stop smoking and lead, in general, the right way of life.
Predictions for the detection of extrasystoles
If the cause is established and appropriate treatment measures are carried out, the consequences of 80–90% of supraventricular extrasystoles are neither severe nor fatal. They are cured either completely or reduce severity.
For this, conservative treatment is enough in 80–85% (taking medications for years in the form of courses of several weeks or months with exacerbation), in 15–20%, surgery is required. The latter method is 95% effective. But even he can not help with a pathology that causes irreversible changes on the part of the heart.
In 70–80%, single extrasystoles (less than 5 times per minute) are eliminated only by diet and lifestyle correction.
Not to consult a specialist or not to follow his recommendations even in the presence of rare extrasystoles is the wrong decision. Sooner or later, everything will end with the progression of the disease. Do not allow this and be healthy!
Most cardiologists agree that ventricular and supraventricular extrasystoles within the normal range are not a threat and do not impair the quality of life. At this stage, it will not be possible to achieve a serious change in state, therefore, to maintain the heart muscle in working condition, it is necessary to regularly check the functional state of the cardiovascular system.
According to statistics, a lesser risk to health is supraventricular extrasystole compared with ventricular. It also manifests itself to a lesser extent, and there is less discomfort from it. In this case, it can be noted that there is no effect on heart rate and hemodynamics.
Although ventricular extrasystole does not have a threat to life, with extrasystoles more than 3000 per day, the likelihood of developing heart failure or tachycardia increases, which can already pose a threat to health and life.
According to the majority of modern cardiologists, both varieties of extrasystoles, when their frequency of manifestations is within the established norm, does not cause pronounced inconvenience to the patient and does not harm his health. Methods of therapeutic effect in this case do not bring significant positive changes, therefore, for stable and uninterrupted operation of the heart muscle, it is enough to regularly conduct a full examination of the entire cardiovascular system.
According to studies, supraventricular extrasystole is the least harmful to health. Its manifestations are less noticeable in everyday life and do not affect either the rhythm of heart contractions or the quality of blood pumping by the heart muscle.
Ventricular extrasystole also does not pose a pronounced danger to human health. However, if the extrasystoles per day are exceeded, a full examination of the cardiac system should be carried out: there is a likelihood of heart failure and tachycardia, which already pose a health hazard, and in a neglected state, there is also a danger to the patient’s life.
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