Dopplerography of the vessels of the head and neck combines ultrasound methods and the Doppler effect. In fact, the following occurs: during standard ultrasound diagnostics, reflected waves form an image of the structure of the vascular walls. The Doppler effect allows you to see the dynamics of the movement of blood through the vessels. Computer technology allows you to combine these two images and give the final full visualization of the examined area.
In addition, the process uses color coding for greater clarity. In these studies, there are 2 main areas: transcranial ultrasound scan – this is the diagnosis of the vascular basin of the brain and ultrasound scan of the brachiocephalic vessels – this is the diagnosis of blood vessels located in the neck.
One can speak of a complete picture of cerebral circulation only if both the head and neck were examined. One of the varieties of ultrasound of the head is ultrasound MAG. This vascular ultrasound scan is a screening technique for examining the main arteries of the head.
There are several options for examining arteries and veins, depending on the capabilities of the diagnostic equipment:
- Dopplerography of the vessels of the brain and neck is focused on assessing the patency of the vascular system of the head and neck.
- Ultrasonic duplex scanning shows in detail the anatomy of the vessels and the time during which the bloodstream travels a certain distance.
- Triplex vessels of the neck and head allows you to detail the anatomy of the vessels, evaluate various parameters of blood flow, as well as vascular patency, and provides the result in color format.
If abnormalities appear in the arteries and veins (spasms, constrictions, blood clots, changes in blood flow) during the examination, this is easily diagnosed and recorded on the monitor.
Over time, serious neurological problems can develop even when blood flow disorders are mild
The initial sign of atherosclerosis that an ultrasound scan can show is not even a plaque, but a thickening of the wall of the carotid artery by only a fraction of a millimeter. With duplex scanning, this indicator is well defined. The thickness of the intima-media complex (the so-called KIM) is also called. CMM is considered to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment.
An increase in CMM greater than 1 mm is most often associated with such risk factors as: smoking, arterial hypertension, diabetes, increased cholesterol, etc.
As the disease progresses, plaques begin to form. Usually they are localized in the so-called carotid bifurcation – this is the place of separation of the common carotid artery into internal and external. The presence of plaque in this segment is a serious risk factor for stroke and myocardial infarction. Therefore, it is very important to timely detect atherosclerotic changes in the early stages.
When duplex scanning reveals the location of the plaque, as well as its shape, size, structure and degree of stenosis (narrowing of the lumen). When the lumen is already completely closed – this is occlusion.
During the BCA study, tortuosity of the arteries due to their elongation is often detected. Arteries lengthen due to atherosclerosis and high blood pressure. Curvature of the vertebral arteries usually occurs due to defects in the cervical spine. If tortuosity leads to clamping of the lumen, then this can cause a violation of cerebral blood flow.
Ultrasound scanning is also used to examine patients with traumatic vascular lesions: wall dissection or similar. The main symptom of this disease is a severe headache, which cannot be reduced with conventional painkillers.
- What is a diagnostic method?
- When not to do without diagnostics
- What is the difference between duplex and triplex scanning
- Are there any contraindications
- Signs of vascular pathology
- How the procedure proceeds
- Pros and cons of the method
- What arteries are examined
- Screening in children
- Process technology
- Need to scan
- Indications for the purpose of the study
- What is ultrasound of the vessels of the neck and head
- General information
- What does BCA ultrasound show?
- How affordable is it?
- When transcranial ultrasound dopplerography of the brain is needed
- How do diagnostics
- Data decryption
- Where can I get a study?
What is a diagnostic method?
This method of vascular diagnostics provides complete information on the entire vascular system of the human body. With its help, you can evaluate and analyze the speed and nature of blood flow, as well as determine the presence of thrombosis or other vascular pathologies.
Research usually proceeds in two stages: two-dimensional mode and duplex research.
In the two-dimensional mode, you can see the vessels and adjacent tissues, limited to only this information. He does not give any information about the blood supply.
With a duplex study, you can see the full picture of what is happening in the vessels, with a detailed description and a colored two-dimensional picture.
When not to do without diagnostics
Doppler ultrasound of the vessels of the head and neck is performed according to the following indications:
- regular headaches and cases of short-term memory loss;
- dizziness and noise in the head;
- frequent spontaneous bleeding from the nose;
- increase in total blood cholesterol;
- violation of the venous outflow from the brain;
- vegetative-vascular dystonia of various types;
- atherosclerotic disorders;
- damage processes in the cervical spine;
- brain disease associated with damage to brain tissue in the presence of chronic cerebrovascular accident;
- TIA (transient ischemic attack);
- deterioration of brain function due to weakening blood flow in the main cerebral aorta and vertebral arteries;
- history of strokes, heart attacks, diabetes mellitus.
- progressive atherosclerosis of intracranial vessels of the brain;
- narrowing of the vessels of the neck and brain;
- arteriovenous malformation of the brain;
- pathology of the vascular walls of an inflammatory nature;
- postoperative management of the patient, control of his condition;
- external compression of an artery or vein by pathological neoplasms;
- various diseases of the central nervous system (convulsions, headaches, mental instability);
- thrombosis in arteries and veins of various localization;
- injured skull and neck.
A complete picture of the state of the vessels helps to prescribe the correct treatment with mandatory objective monitoring of the effectiveness of therapy, as well as to make an individual prognosis for such pathological conditions. It is advisable to perform ultrasound scan of the vessels of the brain and neck once a year to such categories of patients:
- with heart rate disorders, diabetes mellitus, stable high blood pressure, a history of IHD;
- close relatives of the patient suffer from diseases that increase the risk of developing vascular pathologies;
- with dystrophic processes and dysfunction of the intervertebral discs in the neck, accompanied by severe headaches;
- with high cholesterol in the blood;
- after a stroke;
- with developing disorders of cerebral circulation;
- long-time smokers;
- for prevention, women over 45 years old and men over 40 years old.
Any of the three options for vascular ultrasound can be assigned to a child in any age category.
By examining vascular stenosis, it can be determined whether normal blood flow can be restored over time.
What is the difference between duplex and triplex scanning
The advantages of BCA ultrasound can be called:
- high information content;
- research efficiency;
- safety and the possibility of repeated holding;
- painless procedure.
During the study, an image similar to a conventional ultrasound is formed on the monitor, but against its background a vessel is clearly visible in which blood flow is formed. Due to the advantages of ultrasound, BCA is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of pathologies. Timely done ultrasound of blood vessels can save a life and prevent possible disability.
These diagnostic methods are very similar to each other and practically have no differences, with the only difference being that with triplex scanning vessels can be viewed in three-dimensional space. Duplex mode provides information in only two planes. In fact, triplex scanning is positioned as an additional procedure when conducting a duplex study.
And if we take into account the fact that the crystal that sends and receives the signal is used the same, then the resolution of the triplex method is considered to be slightly worse than the duplex one. The quality of work will depend entirely on the quality of the apparatus and the qualifications of the doctor conducting the research, and not on the diagnostic method.
When such a procedure is carried out, it is determined:
- The state of blood flow in the vessels of the brain
- Early stages of changes in the structure of blood vessels, such as atherosclerosis, are detected
- Vascular patency
The main advantage of duplex scanning is the ability to diagnose the early signs of a disease when characteristic clinical symptoms have not yet manifested.
Such a scan helps to identify existing pathologies associated with the functional work of the bloodstream. Verification by ultrasound diagnostics is done without the use of an X-ray unit, radiation is completely absent, such diagnostics can be carried out many times.
Ultrasound refers to a non-invasive method. In other words, there is no need to undergo a procedural examination, the use of special medicines is not required. The occurrence of allergic reactions is completely eliminated, there are no various side effects.
Today, duplex scanning of the vessels of the brain and neck is considered the most effective method of research, allowing the doctor to obtain maximum information about the condition in which the blood vessels of a person are.
For a long time this type of examination of the human body, its blood vessels in the brain, has been considered the most objective and completely safe. Of course, the result of the study largely depends on the qualifications of the specialist deciphering the study. Errors during such verification are not allowed.
Thanks to duplex scanning, many patients avoided the occurrence of dangerous diseases, were able to improve the condition of their vessels in time.
After a duplex scan, the doctor can prescribe the most suitable treatment, after which the person can live a normal full life.
Medicine constantly presents to society new methods for diagnosing serious pathologies. The success of treatment of various diseases depends on their timely detection, the appointment of the necessary therapy. Duplex scanning of the vessels of the head and neck is an innovative research method that allows you to see the smallest tubular hollow formations of the human body in a two-dimensional projection. The non-invasive nature of the technique facilitates the procedure, does not require recovery after the manipulation.
How to check the head in a non-invasive way? The unique properties of ultrasound help it to pass through the tissues of the human body and, reflecting from blood cells, send a signal in the form of an image of the studied area to the diagnostician’s monitor screen. Using a duplex scan of the vessels of the head and neck, a specialist can evaluate the hemodynamic parameters of the blood, get information about the anatomical features of veins and arteries. Different Doppler technologies equally use the properties of a sound wave, but have different functionality:
- UZDG (ultrasound dopplerography). This study helps to assess the patency of the vessels of the brain, neck, and other organs. USDG carries only one functional load – the definition of hemodynamics.
- Duplex ultrasound scanning. Using this method, you can diagnose the presence in the arteries and veins of atherosclerotic plaques, blood clots that contribute to narrowing the lumen of the vessels. During monitoring, a tubular formation with the surrounding tissues is visualized. Duplex scanning is divided into the following subspecies:
- extracranial – examines the great vessels;
- intracranial – checks intracerebral “pools”;
- transcranial – provides a color duplex scan of the brain.
- Triplex scanning. Dopplerography of the vessels of the head and neck, in the implementation of which, in addition to information about the intensity of blood movement, the diagnostician receives a color image of a tubular formation with surrounding tissues.
- Ultrasound procedure. Shows the “big picture” of the structure of arteries and veins. Ultrasound Doppler helps to determine the characteristic of the movement of blood flow, to conduct an examination for the presence of pathologies.
Are there any contraindications
This technique is especially popular precisely because it is absolutely harmless and has absolutely no contraindications. This procedure can be performed for patients regardless of age: both children and elderly patients. You can repeat the procedure as many times as necessary until the diagnosis is definitely established.
In addition, a diagnostic examination does not require absolutely any preliminary preparation. But there are some recommendations that will make this procedure much more effective.
If you use any medications, such as Betaserk or Fezam, you should first notify the neuropathologist who has prescribed this procedure. Before scanning, you need to get rid of jewelry from the neck of the head: earrings, chains, hairpins and others. And at the end of the procedure, you need to thoroughly wash your hair.
The use of the device is absolutely harmless and has no effect on the human body. There are no restrictions on the use of this modern technique, and for any age group of patients.
In some cases, calcified atherosclerotic plaques can interfere with the passing ultrasound beam and interfere with diagnosis.
Do not forget that the professionalism of the doctor and good equipment play a key role in deciphering the results of duplex scanning, so if the medical organization does not have professionals in this field or suitable devices, it is better to do with other diagnostic methods.
Preparation before the study consists in the exclusion from the menu of products and dishes that can affect the tone and filling of blood vessels, which will distort the results of the study.
On the day of the study, you can not drink tea, coffee, energy, Coca-Cola, alcohol, do not overdo it with overly spicy and salty dishes. Right in front of the BCA ultrasound system, one should not be in stuffy or smoky rooms, as this can also change the blood supply to the vessels.
It is better to refrain from taking vitamins and nootropics the day before the study. Be sure to consult a specialist if you are taking medicines that affect the functioning of the cardiovascular system.
The advantage of duplex scanning is the absence of negative effects on the human body. The non-invasive nature of the study helps to diagnose blood vessels in an adult and a child without any restrictions. Relative contraindications can be considered a serious condition of the patient or the presence of diseases that prevent the patient from moving to a horizontal position.
Preparation for ultrasound dopplerography of the vessels of the brain and neck is minimal. However, there are certain recommendations that will be given to the patient before the study. For a while, it is recommended to abandon antispasmodic drugs (Drotaverin, Baralgetas, No-shpalgin) and affecting cerebral circulation (Cavinton, Visebrol, Fezam).
Immediately on the day of USDG, you should discard any drinks containing caffeine or alcohol. On the day of diagnosis, smoking is prohibited, since nicotine causes a temporary, but quite pronounced vasospasm. It is better to expect the start of the procedure in a calm atmosphere in the fresh air than in a stuffy room, as this can adversely affect the results of the diagnosis.
In the ultrasound diagnostic room, when prescribing ultrasound of the vessels of the neck and head with the patient, the following will occur. The patient is asked to sit horizontally on the couch. A roller is placed under his neck, while his head is thrown back without support. To remove the air gap between the transducer (ultrasound probe) and the patient’s skin, an acoustic gel is applied, which should be washed off well after the procedure.
The cervical vessels are examined by pressing the transducer to their surface from the side. The patient should lie silently and not move his head. During the procedure, the specialist can make several pressures with the sensor, which will assess the elasticity of the vessels. When examining the vessels of the head, those areas are used where the ultrasound signal more easily overcomes bone tissue (temple, occipital bone and its large opening, orbit).
Functional tests may be needed during the examination. In this case, the ultrasound diagnostician gives the patient a series of instructions: do not breathe temporarily or, conversely, breathe often, perform head turns. Such actions allow us to assess the functional state of blood vessels and improve the accuracy of visualization of problem areas.
The ultrasound of the vessels of the neck and head takes about 30 minutes and does not cause any discomfort to the patient.
There are no absolute contraindications and age restrictions for USDG
Signs of vascular pathology
Intracranial duplex, which involves the study of veins and arteries located in the cranial cavity, is indicated for patients who have the following complaints:
- Regular pains in the head;
- Noise in the head or ears;
The doctor for ultrasound diagnostics Murat Medzhidovich Nagaplev tells about the indications for the examination:
- Manifestations of inappropriate behavior;
- Weakness and numbness of the limbs;
- Visual impairment;
- Lack of coordination in combination with a shaky, uncertain gait;
- Deviations in the reproduction of speech or its understanding.
TKDS reveals circulatory disorders in the head. It is prescribed when the following pathologies are detected:
- Intracranial hypertension;
- Lesions of intracranial vascular canals.
Scanning of extracranial vessels located outside the skull and supplying blood to the brain is carried out with the following pathological signs that appear in the patient:
- Impaired ability to remember information;
- Inability to concentrate on anything;
- Dizziness, intense headaches;
- Coordination disorders.
Duplex scanning of the vessels of the brain and cervical spine is a procedure that should be performed as planned (once a year), even in the absence of any complaints, in the following cases:
- If the patient is older than 40 years (men) or 45 years (women);
- In the presence of close relatives who have diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary disease;
- If the patient is a smoker with experience;
- With previous surgical interventions on the spinal cord or brain;
- With a stroke or a violation of cerebral circulation in the anamnesis;
- In the presence of .
Ultrasonic duplex scanning is used to diagnose the following pathologies:
- Vein thrombosis, thrombophlebitis, pulmonary thromboembolism;
- Anomalies and injuries of veins;
- Varicose veins;
In more detail about the aneurysm of the brain, the doctor-rehabilitologist Sergei Nikolaevich Agapkin tells:
- Degree of blood flow deficiency;
Such a method as ultrasound testing is characterized by high information content, painlessness, and the absence of harmful effects on the body, since the equipment does not require radiation during the manipulation.
Ultrasound helps to identify pathological changes in the venous system, give it an accurate diagnosis. Most often identified:
- Arteriovenous malformations
- Varicose veins
If there is a non-stenotic atherosclerosis, violations of the main arteries, a decrease in the lumen, and thickening of the walls of the arteries are detected.
Identification of plaques indicates stenotic atherosclerosis.
Ultrasound can detect an inflammatory process, a change in the thickness of the walls of blood vessels, the appearance of vasculitis.
Temporal arthritis is characterized by diffuse thickening of arteries located in the temporal region, low echogenicity is determined. In the case of a prolonged inflammatory process, the appearance of an atherosclerotic lesion is possible.
For diabetes, the appearance of signs of macroangiopathy is characteristic.
Very often abnormal phenomena occur in the region of the vertebral arteries, the so-called hypoplasia. In other words, there is a decrease in the diameter of the artery. Sometimes it becomes less than 2 millimeters.
Ultrasonic symptoms of hypoplasia depend on its severity. Ultrasound detects the appearance of abnormal phenomena at the junction of the vertebral main artery with the vessels of the cervical vertebrae. Typically, such an anomaly does not affect hemodynamics.
Ultrasound shows the available extravasal compression, that is, squeezing the walls of the vessel. The reason for this compression of the vessels of the neck is:
- Thyroid inflammation
- Highly enlarged lymph nodes
How the procedure proceeds
This diagnostic method is absolutely painless and does not require general or local anesthesia. The patient is examined standing, lying or sitting, depending on which organ needs to be examined.
When duplex scanning of the brain, the sensor is applied to places of the so-called “ultrasound windows” – the foci of the cranium, where the bones are thinner or where holes are located in them.
Through such zones, the ultrasound beam freely enters the cranial cavity.
During the procedure, the patient may be required to take a more comfortable posture for examination. Your doctor may also ask you to hold your breath or take any other similar actions. This examination lasts about half an hour and does not cause absolutely any discomfort.
Pros and cons of the method
Like any diagnostic method, duplex scanning has positive and negative sides. Let’s start with the pros:
- Complete safety. Medical ultrasound does not have any damaging or ugly effects on the human body, so this study can be done for young children and pregnant women.
- Painless and non-invasive. The duplex scan procedure is completely painless and does not bring any discomfort to the patient.
- High diagnostic accuracy. Considering that the doctor sees the examined vessel in two projections, simultaneously registering blood flow in it, the information content of such studies is comparable to angiography.
- The relative simplicity of the study. Ultrasound scanning takes 20 minutes on the strength, does not require bulky devices, the help of additional medical staff, but it requires the most detailed knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of blood vessels from a research doctor.
- The absence of contraindications and complications of the procedure – a study can be assigned to all categories of patients, and no serious consequences have been recorded in the entire history.
- No special preparation for the study is required, such as diet, cleansing enemas, the use of certain drugs and the introduction of solutions.
We list the disadvantages of the methodology:
- The relative high cost of the method. The fact is that for duplex studies, special ultrasound machines are needed, which are often inaccessible to small clinics and public institutions.
- The possibility of research “here and now.” This is a common drawback of all ultrasound studies, since the “picture” can only be evaluated in real time, in motion, and not by frozen pictures.
- Narrow research area. It is important to understand that scanning of brachiocephalic vessels only indirectly indicates blood circulation in the brain. Ultrasonic waves cannot penetrate the adult’s cranium, therefore the brain itself and its vascular system are h >
Ultrasound with Doppler is performed according to certain rules.
Ultrasound scanning does not require special preparation, there are no contraindications for it. The examination is carried out in a specially equipped room with ultrasound equipment.
The video in this article shows how to scan the vessels of the head and neck. The patient lies on the couch, a roller is placed under his head. A small amount of gel is applied to the skin of the neck, along which the transducer sensor will move.
The instruction prescribes the following sequence of actions:
- the patient is offered to relax the muscles, take a comfortable position on the couch;
- For children, the procedure is carried out according to the same technique.
- First of all, a carotid artery is examined on the right or left with a sensor;
- the patient turns his head depending on which side the scan is performed;
- pulsation of the carotid artery is checked, its location, depth;
- the doctor pinches with a finger the individual branches of the carotid artery, checks their blood flow;
- the patient is offered to move his head to the sides, forward and backward;
- advancing the sensor, check the speed of blood flow through the carotid arteries;
- the volume of blood flow and the tone of the vascular walls are measured;
- blood flow intensity is checked by venous circulation in the brain;
- arteries of the brain are viewed through the bones of the skull, placing the sensor in the temples and above the orbits;
- placing the sensor in the occipital bone area, the features of blood circulation in the depths of the brain are examined;
- reveal the degree of tortuosity of the vessels, the presence of collaterals between the veins;
- determine the degree of patency of arteries and veins, the completeness of their filling;
- according to the results of the survey, a protocol is compiled, where the decoding of the indicators is given;
- the protocol gives digital data, indicators, gives an interpretation of the results;
- a diagnosis of the disease is formulated if it is detected;
- the protocol indicates the general condition of the patient, prescribes medications and recommendations;
Doppler ultrasound differs from conventional ultrasound in that the protocol always provides digital characteristics of the state of the vessels.
This allows you to compare the data with the norm and identify the degree of disturbance or apparent pathology. A phlebologist, a specialist in dopplerography undergoes compulsory training and receives a specialist certificate with the assignment of qualifications. The method enjoys well-deserved popularity due to its diagnostic value.
Duplex of cerebral vessels plays an important role in determining the diagnosis.
So, in a transient ischemic attack, it is necessary to obtain data on the degree of narrowing of the arteries and blood flow disorders.
The Doppler method can determine the cause of the disease and draw conclusions how severe its consequences will be.
With vasculitis, it is very important to understand whether the central nervous system vessels are harmed. If the answer is yes, then the treatment regimen will be changed. The forecast will also change.
Atherosclerosis is dangerous for damage to individual blood areas, and it is important to decide how affected they are.
It will depend on which treatment to choose, whether it is possible to get by with conservative methods without resorting to surgery.
Many vascular diseases are insidious in that they do not clinically manifest themselves for a long time.
And you can learn about them only using the DS technique. Having the necessary data for making a diagnosis, the doctor can prescribe the necessary treatment.
In different places, the cost of the procedure can vary, the patient can always go to where he will be served with high quality and inexpensive.
The advantages of this examination technique include the identification of vascular diseases, such as thrombophlebitis or atherosclerosis, in the early stages, the most reliable data on the state of blood flow and the vascular system of the brain, an easy way to diagnose vascular patency pathologies, and the detection of thrombosis.
The main advantage of this method is the detection of diseases at a very early stage, when the first clinical signs have not yet manifested.
This method is safe, it can be carried out as many times as needed. In addition, it is non-invasive, which means that it does not need to use any medications. This is also a significant advantage, as it obviously excludes the presence of possible allergic reactions or side effects.
Duplex scanning of the vessels of the neck and head is one of the most effective and at the same time the most informative diagnostic method. It is absolutely harmless and safe and does not require any special preparation for its implementation. This modern research method allows you to identify diseases and vascular pathologies at the very early stages of their development and cure them in a timely manner.
What arteries are examined
Duplex scanning of cerebral vessels is done to study vascular patency. An ultrasound scan gives very accurate results about the state of the human blood arteries.
Ultrasound helps to study the condition of the main arteries, to check the speed of the blood flow. A vessel surrounded by tissues is clearly visible on the display. This diagnosis allows you to determine the causes of poor patency of the arteries. Visually you can see:
- Blood clots
Triplex research of an organism gives very good results. A colored vessel is visible on the display, and its color depends on the speed of the blood stream.
Screening in children
An ultrasound scan is mandatory for all infants aged 1 month. This allows you to identify a violation of the blood supply to the brain at the earliest stages and correct it. Without timely diagnosis and treatment, this condition will lead to serious neurological problems and impaired intelligence in the child.
Older children are prescribed ultrasound vessels for complaints of pain in the head, fatigue, mental retardation, decreased attention and memory. The study allows you to prescribe appropriate therapy and improve the condition of the child.
Duplex scanning of the vessels of the head and neck, as well as their ultrasound examination, is done without special preparation. Before starting the study, you can not use:
Some types of drugs can also distort the results of ultrasound:
- Antihypertensive drugs.
Before starting the examination, there should not be any jewelry on the neck and head. After completing such an examination, you must wash your hair.
Dopplerographic research, as well as ultrasound, is done according to one principle. The patient should lie on his back. A solid pillow is placed under the head, it can be replaced by a roller.
The patient turns his head, opening the opportunity to examine the neck. A special gel is applied to the skin to facilitate the movement of the transducer. Thus, the doctor checks the condition of the arteries, makes the necessary measurements.
Diagnosis of extracranial vessels of the brain is carried out through the cranial bones. The sensor is located on the head, in the area of the temporal areas. These places are covered with a water-soluble gel, which helps to obtain the most objective ultrasound results.
In addition to visual inspection of the arteries, the doctor makes special functional tests, for example, asks the patient to hold his breath. Thus, he can check whether there are violations of autonomic regulation.
Need to scan
A study of the state of cerebral vessels using the duplication method is prescribed when signs of chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency appear. This also includes the occurrence of frequent headaches.
The doctor prescribes such an examination before conducting operations associated with the presence of cardiac arterial pathology. First of all, this applies to coronary heart disease.
Transcranial scanning of arteries is performed before the stenting procedure. An ultrasound examination is prescribed if there is a risk of cerebrovascular pathologies. The reason may be:
- Arterial hypertension
The results of extracranial studies of the work of the great vessels help the doctor determine the type of blood flow, available speed, and defects in the filling of arteries are revealed.
Ultrasound of the venous bed makes it possible to determine:
- Anatomical structure
- Blood speed
- Intraluminal formations
After checking the vessels, the conclusion of the ultrasound does not show any digital data. Doppler scanning of arterial vessels allows for digital analysis, it is possible to compare research data with the norms.
Indications for the purpose of the study
A study of blood vessels of a planned nature should be carried out without fail once a year. The detection of anomalies at an early stage of development helps to avoid the negative consequences associated with the progressive form of the disease, and take measures to prescribe the necessary therapy. A duplex scan of the patency of the vessels of the head and neck is often prescribed to verify the results obtained with MRI, ultrasound of the vessels of the neck and head. Indications for duplex are the following symptoms:
- numbness of the hands;
- lack of coordination;
- memory loss;
- history of strokes;
- cervical osteochondrosis;
- arterial hypertension ;
- previously identified vascular dystonia;
- family ties with hypertensive or diabetic;
- vasculitis (vascular inflammation).
What is ultrasound of the vessels of the neck and head
Doppler ultrasound is an instrumental method of research using ultrasound.
Ultrasonic waves are able to penetrate into the tissues of the body and reflected from structures of various densities, which is recorded by a special sensor. The signals from the sensor are processed by a computer and the doctor sees on the monitor an image of organs and internal environments.
Dopplerography is an additional function of ultrasound diagnostics, which allows you to evaluate the nature and speed of blood flow in arteries and veins.
If the blood moves toward the sensor, the computer turns it red in the image. If in the opposite direction, then blue.
The brachiocephalic arteries include the carotid, subclavian, vertebral and the place of their connection, which forms the brachiocephalic trunk. The listed vessels and some others near the base of the brain form the Willis circle, which is responsible for the distribution of blood flow throughout all parts of the brain.
If any pathology has formed in one of the vessels, it can lead to disruption of the rest, which in the end is fraught
What is it – duplex scanning of brachiocephalic arteries, and what is the basis of the technique?
The apparatus for examining the BCA is based on the principles of echolocation. The working surface emits and then picks up ultrasonic pulses. Information is converted to a digital signal. Thus, the image appears on the monitor.
The method is based on the combination of the advantages of the B-mode – a visual interpretation of the state of blood vessels and adjacent tissues and Doppleroscopy – qualitative and quantitative properties of blood flow. The Doppler spectrum can also be supplemented by color mapping.
What does BCA ultrasound show?
First of all, a duplex head examination is prescribed for those patients who have suspicions of atherosclerotic processes, aneurysms and deformities, and other pathologies, and is aimed at identifying functional and structural arteriovenous disorders. During the study, a specialist can recognize the presence of plaques, blood clots, thickening or reduction of the vascular walls, violation of the normal anatomical integrity of the walls, see crimp, surrounding tissues, and blood flow velocity.
BCA ultrasound shows:
- lumen of blood vessels;
- blood clots, plaques, exfoliation;
- stenosis, wall expansion;
- tears, aneurysms, deformities.
With the help of the ultrasonic diagnostic system, BCA can diagnose
- vascular pathologies;
- hypoplasia of blood vessels;
- violation of the tone of the wall during the IRR;
- arterial aneurysms;
- fistulas between the vessels;
- vascular injuries;
- varicose veins.
The vessels of the brain are a complex system that is capable of self-regulation and the maintenance of cerebral blood flow. Only a comprehensive diagnosis, which includes ultrasound scanning, CT, MRI, allows you to accurately and timely choose a treatment, and then evaluate its effectiveness.
UZDS helps to evaluate the anatomy of the vessels of the neck and head, to determine the characteristics of blood flow, to assess the condition of the walls and lumen. So you can diagnose atherosclerotic plaques, blood clots, arterial tortuosity and their stratification at an early stage.
An ultrasound scan primarily measures vascular patency in response to red blood cell movement. The image on the screen is one-dimensional; according to the patency, one can judge the presence or absence of vasoconstriction, atherosclerosis, and other causes of stenosis. Examination is usually cheaper than ultrasound.
Duplex scanning of the vessels of the head and neck together with conventional Doppler imaging visualizes the vessels in the B-mode, shows the localization of atherosclerotic plaques and thrombotic masses on the inner walls of the veins, their morphological features and the degree of the process. The picture is two-dimensional, in combination with the CDK (color Doppler mapping) – color.
Such possibilities of ultrasound examination are its indisputable advantage, because the method not only saves time on the diagnosis of the disease, but also gives a wider picture of changes in the vessels. However, such a study, respectively, is more expensive.
How affordable is it?
Such diagnostics require the use of expensive specialized equipment and specially trained medical personnel, therefore, the research prices do not differ in their liberality.
In large cities of the Russian Federation, the average cost of a duplex is from 2000 to 5000 rubles. In areas more remote from the capital, you can do the procedure for 800-1500 rubles. Abroad, you can undergo color duplex scanning of the main arteries of the head and blood vessels of the neck for $ 500-600.
We summarize. Ultrasound diagnostics of BCA is a special type of ultrasound diagnostics of blood vessels that provide nutrition to the brain, other organs of the head, neck, and belt of the upper extremities.
This is an accessible, safe, detailed and informative study, which in ten minutes can show the state of the vessels and identify the cause of some unpleasant symptoms. The annual examination will allow 90% to predict the development of cerebral stroke.
When transcranial ultrasound dopplerography of the brain is needed
Duplex scanning, also called vascular ultrasound scan, is prescribed by a doctor if there is a suspicion of a violation of cerebral circulation. The following symptoms indicate this pathology:
- bursting pain in the head;
- dizziness, especially when changing the position of the body and throwing the head back;
- periodic darkening and flickering of flies before the eyes;
- progressive impairment of memory, attention, thinking;
- noise in ears;
- paroxysmal numbness, weakness in the limbs.
Some systemic diseases occur with vascular damage and poor circulation. Therefore, to assess their progression and treatment effectiveness, the doctor prescribes an ultrasound examination of the vessels. It is shown with:
- diabetes mellitus;
- after a stroke of the brain;
- elevated blood cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia);
- cervical osteochondrosis;
- systemic vasculitis;
- heart defects;
- neurocirculatory dystonia;
- long history of smoking tobacco;
- arterial hypertension;
- head and neck injuries;
- coronary heart disease.
All people over 55 years of age should have an ultrasound scan of blood vessels once a year if their immediate family has had a heart attack, stroke, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, or hypertension. This indicates a hereditary predisposition and a high risk of developing such conditions.
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The study does not violate the integrity of the tissues, painlessly and does not adversely affect the body. Therefore, there are no absolute contraindications to its implementation.
Difficulties arise only if a person for some reason cannot take the position necessary for research.
The equipment for ultrasound examination of the state of blood vessels, speed and volume of blood flow includes an additional Doppler element. What is a duplex scan of cerebral vessels, and how does it differ from conventional ultrasound?
The principle of operation of ultrasound with Doppler is based on the effect of changing the frequency of ultrasound waves with a change in the speed of blood flow through arteries and veins. The combination of ultrasound and Doppler effect is called duplex scanning.
It is used to detect such diseases:
- varicose veins;
- inflammation in the places of blood clots;
- damage to the vascular walls in diabetes and endarteritis;
- detection of atherosclerotic plaques;
- ischemic manifestations of the heart and brain;
- disturbances in the development of blood vessels;
- detection of thrombosis in the veins;
- the formation of aneurysms in the walls of arteries;
- after traumatic effects;
- the appearance of blood clots in the pulmonary artery;
- when monitoring the progress of operations on the organs of the chest, neck and abdominal cavity;
- screening to identify the causes of organ diseases;
- manifestations of angiopathy;
- thrombosis of the abdominal and thoracic aorta;
- the phenomena of atherosclerosis with the formation of plaques.
Duplex transcranial scanning of cerebral arteries is used to detect diseases in which the blood supply to the brain is impaired.
A detailed study of the cerebral vessels is prescribed when the following symptoms appear:
- impaired coordination of movements with dizziness (see. An effective medicine for dizziness and cerebral vasospasm);
- prolonged depressed mood;
- flickering before the eyes;
- short-term frequent loss of consciousness;
- headaches of a constant nature;
- concentration disorders;
- forgetfulness, lethargy;
- the appearance of hearing problems;
- unexplained anxiety, anxiety, aggression;
- buzzing and tinnitus;
- heaviness in the head;
- inadequate behavior;
- unsteadiness of gait;
- impaired reproduction or understanding of speech;
- limb weakness;
- numbness of the hands.
The use of instrumental diagnostic methods when examining the vessels of the neck, head, brain allows you to determine:
- causes of cerebral hemorrhage;
- narrowing of the gaps of the arteries that are characteristic of risk groups (in smokers, with diabetes, suffering from atherosclerosis).
Duplex transcranial scanning is performed in two ways:
- Two-dimensional scanning allows you to see the movement of blood through the arteries inside the skull.
- Ultrasonic double scanning, carried out in spectral and color modes, depicts blood vessels in various angles, gives an estimate of the speed of blood flow, the volume of blood flowing, allows you to find out the degree of tissue supply with nutrients and oxygen. Ultrasound examination is used:
- in the detection of pathological disorders of cerebral circulation;
- detection of ischemic manifestations in the brain;
- detect angiospasm;
- with intracerebral hematomas;
- with vasculitis caused by endocrine diseases, arterial hypertension;
- with the formation of clots of clotted blood in the brain;
- when examining the state of brain tissue after a hemorrhage;
- with suspected vascular changes inside the skull;
- complaints of persistent head pain.
The set of symptoms indicating vascular disorders is an indication for ultrasound scanning using the Doppler effect. Duplex scanning of extracranial arteries is a reliable method for the diagnosis of atherosclerotic pathologies, pathological narrowings and spasms, as well as aneurysms.
How do diagnostics
For research, a person is laid on his back on a soft couch. A roller is placed under the neck, the head lies without a pillow. The doctor applies a special gel to the sensor and skin – this is necessary for the passage of ultrasonic waves into the internal environment of the body.
The vessels of the neck are examined by pressing the sensor to its lateral surface. At this moment, you can’t move your head, talk. During the procedure, the doctor presses the sensor several times to assess the elasticity of the vessels.
The vessels of the head are examined through the thinnest areas of the cranial bones: the orbit, temporal bone, occipital bone and large occipital foramen. The sensor is installed on the closed eye, above the auricle and posterior to it. After this, the patient is seated and the neck area is examined and the place where the neck connects to the head.
Thus, the doctor examines all the vessels that bring blood to the brain and carry it back to the heart.
The procedure takes about half an hour and does not cause any discomfort. During it, the diagnostician may ask you to hold your breath, breathe often, turn your head. This is necessary for the best image accuracy and assessment of the functional state of blood vessels.
On the day of the study, you should not take medications that affect blood pressure. It is advisable to refrain from drinking strong coffee, nicotine and alcohol – all these substances change the state of the vascular bed and can distort the results of the study.
The normal results of an ultrasound examination of the vessels of the neck and head are as follows:
- common carotid artery (OCA) on the left departs from the aorta, on the right – from the brachiocephalic trunk;
- spectral wave in the common carotid artery (OCA): the rate of diastolic blood flow is the same in the external and internal branches of the carotid artery (HCA and ICA, respectively);
- the internal branch of the carotid artery has no branches until the entrance to the skull;
- a large number of additional branches depart from the external branch of the OSA;
- the waveform in the internal branch of the OCA: monophasic, the speed of blood flow during diastole is greater than in the OCA;
- waveform in the external carotid artery: three-phase, blood flow during diastole is less than in the OSA;
- the thickness of the vascular wall is not more than 0,12 cm
A thickening of the vascular wall indicates incipient atherosclerosis. With obvious atherosclerosis, the doctor sees plaques, indicates their location and size. Vasculitis (vascular inflammation) leads to diffuse thickening of the vessel wall and blurring of its layers.
The presence of messages between the venous and arterial beds is called arteriovenous malformation. Damage to blood vessels in the presence of diabetes indicates its advanced stage and decompensation.
Where can I get a study?
To date, the study is carried out in almost all clinics equipped with an ultrasound machine.
You can go it for free in the direction of your doctor.
The disadvantage of this option is a large line – sometimes you have to wait for several weeks. In addition, the patient cannot choose a convenient time for the study.
The study is carried out during the examination and treatment in hospitals of neurological, cardiological and other profiles.
Private clinics offer to make an ultrasound scan for money, but at the same time quickly and at any convenient time. Their selection is wide enough, which makes the study accessible to most people.
The cost depends on the level of the clinic and the qualifications of the diagnostician. The price range ranges from 500 to 6000 rubles. The average price is 2-3 thousand rubles.
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