Cystography in adults and children

Today in urology there are numerous approaches of diagnostic assessment of the state of the urinary organs. One of them is cystography, which enables utilizing X-rays and initial synthetic contrasting of the cavity of the things under research study (bladder, kidneys) to get an unbiased photo of modifications in their structure and to verify or leave out the advancement of pathological procedures.

This treatment enables you to recognize a more trustworthy source of urological issues in adults and children. Let’s consider its functions.

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What is the sign for cystography

When identifying illness of the urinary system, a range of approaches of assessment of clients are performed, consisting of ultrasound. But not all of them can recognize a reputable source of pathology. To get more precise information and to verify the supposed medical diagnosis, cystographic diagnostics are recommended.

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The location of ​​her proof is really comprehensive. For adult clients, the treatment is recommended if the existence of:

  • growth illness,
  • tuberculous sores of the urinary organs,
  • numerous gotten diverticulums,
  • ICD and nephrotic syndrome,
  • growth neoplasms in the prostate,
  • incontinence (unrestrained urination),
  • if there is a suspicion of fistulous developments in between the bladder and the intestinal tract (due to injuries),
  • if there is a suspicion of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) triggered by the reverse reflux of urine from the MP into the urethra and kidney hips.


But there are a variety of causal elements in which cystography of the bladder and other urinary organs is not carried out. Contraindications are:

  • formerly moved surgical interventions,
  • the existence of severe ruptures in the organs of the urinary system,
  • private intolerance to the methods utilized for contrasting,
  • the existence of severe procedures in the kidneys, including their failure,
  • state of pregnancy,
  • indications of urinary retention,
  • the course of severe transmittable procedures in the MP.

Types of cystographic assessment

Currently, 3 primary approaches of cystography are utilized in urology:

  • Retrograde (rising).
  • Intravenous (coming down or excretory).
  • Vocal cystourethrography.

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Ascending cystography technique

Retrograde cystography (rising) is utilized to evaluate the physiological structure of the MP and to examine its stability. It is performed with the direct intro of constituent compounds into the tank cavity of the bladder, after which a variety of images are taken. The research study matters if other approaches of medical diagnosis are not helpful and it is inexpedient to utilize cystography in diagnostic search (for instance, in kids under 2 years of age).

A requirement for the assessment is the total filling of the tank cavity with a radiopaque compound. Otherwise, the bubble shadow in the image might be warped, which impacts the dependability of the medical diagnosis. When taking a look at children, an option to this technique might be urethrography.

This is a urodynamic contrast X-ray assessment technique, the urethrogram of which is typically integrated with a rising cystogram. This research study supplies the most comprehensive details on the practical state of the lower urethral canal in children.

Downward Cystographic Examination Method

The method of intravenous cystography (excretory) is based upon the intravenous administration of contrast representatives, which initially go into the kidneys, and then, with the excreted urine, relocation downward along the ureters to the MP. It takes a particular quantity of time (30-60 minutes) to attain the needed concentration of contrast in the bubble and to get premium images.

This technique is typically utilized with the offered contraindications for carrying out a study by the bottom-up technique. Informative as detection:

  • inflammatory pathologies in the urinary system and urine of the cystic structure,
  • the existence of possible urethral ruptures,
  • prostate adenoma, or persistent swelling in the prostate gland.

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The assessment can happen in mix with intravenous urography, which does not need extra administration of contrast representatives for cystography.

  • Vaginal gain access to cystostomy.

Mixing cystography technique

X-ray assessment of the urinary organs and MP in the procedure of miction (urination), this is, in essence, voiding cystography. Before the assessment treatment itself, the bladder is filled with a contrast representative utilizing a catheter. The X-ray image enables the medical professional to picture the MP. The client is asked to urinate and a 2nd image is taken throughout urination.

This diagnostic technique is a “valuable find” in the medical diagnosis of VUR – a condition triggered by the reverse “throwing” of urine throughout urination into the urethra and its go back to the kidney. This pathology provokes the advancement of persistent inflammatory procedures in the kidneys, their wrinkling and loss of performance. If the pathology is validated, the contrast in the image will show up not just in the MP, however likewise in the ureters themselves.

It is in the medical diagnosis of urological pathologies in children that micturitional cystography is thought about the “gold standard” of assessment when indications of PMR appear.

In the diagnostic look for urological illness, numerous adjustments of cystography are utilized, their option depends upon the symptoms of the medical photo of the illness and on the mix of contrast representatives (liquid or gaseous) utilized in diagnostics, which is because of the preferred accomplishment of the objective and specific jobs.

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To recognize the details needed for treatment, usage:

  • Cystography with double, often triple and integrated administration of contrast representatives (favorable and unfavorable according to the Tsetsulescu technique) – to spot neoplasms in the prostate and calculi in the urinary tank.
  • Polycystography with liquid contrast – detection of the existence of X-ray-negative calculi, injury, tuberculosis, diverticulum and abnormalities in the advancement of MP.
  • Urethrocystography (according to Janet’s method, contrast is injected through a cytoscopic tube) – a morphological and practical evaluation of the bladder.
  • Cystokinematography – detection of neuromuscular dysplasia in the urine of the vesical organ.
  • Sedimentary technique, that makes it possible to spot growth procedures in the MP utilizing a barium suspension, followed by the intro of oxygen.
  • Delayed or postponed cystography – to identify the repercussions of urinary bladder injury.
  • Antegrade urethrography (filling the MP with contrast through the epicystostomy), exposing the pathology of the posterior urethra.
  • Radionuclide diagnostics utilizing drugs identified with radionuclides. Anatomical and practical evaluation of the urinary system organs is performed.

It need to be kept in mind: the approaches of cystographic assessment do not constantly provide an efficient photo. There are specific points in which this test will provide a 100% incorrect outcome. This occurs with hematuria – the existence of blood in the urine (on an x-ray, embolism will appear like calculi).

  • Cystometry.
  • Bladder catheterization.
  • Cystoscopy in adults and children.
  • What does the color of urine show?

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Such an assessment is not performed for neoplasms and inflammatory procedures in the genitourinary system (pyelonephritis, prostatitis, urethritis, cystitis, glomerulonephritis).

The particular diagnostic method, the dose of contrast representatives and their mix are chosen by the medical professional, according to the age and physiological attributes of the client.

How to get ready for the assessment

Today there is no single algorithm for preparing clients for assessment. In numerous healthcare facilities or healthcare facilities, physicians might advise a comprehensive summary of their suggestions. We will explain the most basic and not troublesome for the client.

  • Before cystography (2 hours prior to the assessment), it is needed to clean the intestinal tracts from gases and feces with a cleaning enema.
  • It is preferable to lower the drinking program 24 hours prior to the cystography. This procedure increases the concentration of urine and increases the contrast of the X-ray image.
  • In the early morning, on the eve of the treatment, drinking is typically not suggested, given that contrast representatives have diuretic residential or commercial properties. But the client can revitalize himself with a light breakfast.
  • As a preventive procedure, on the eve of the assessment, it is needed to make an iodine tolerance test. This will assist to prevent unanticipated problems after the intro of X-ray contrast representatives. It deserves paying unique attention to this when cystography is carried out in children.
  • The client should be notified about the development of the research study treatment. Inform him about the experiences that he can observe with intravenous contrast injection. This is specifically needed when taking a look at clients with an unsteady mind. Sometimes the existence of any unknown experiences triggers worry in them, which might impact the quality of the cystogram of the MP structural tissues.

Adult assessment

Consider the method of the most regular cystographic assessment – the rising (retrograde) technique. The technique includes the injection of a contrast representative (approximately 0,2 l – a specific indication) straight into the tank cavity of the bladder in the supine position of the client.

To avoid distortion of the assessment results, females require to eliminate all precious jewelry from themselves. During the assessment, physicians advise that clients become unique underclothing or totally free the location under research study from clothing.

After the contrast representative is injected into the urine, the catheter is secured to avoid leak of the drug. X-ray images are taken in various forecasts – resting on the back, on the side, at the time of the miction or after it. The medical professional then makes a visual contrast of the images taken prior to the X-ray assessment and the images acquired throughout the cystogram. Identification of specific distinctions enables the medical professional to develop the appropriate medical diagnosis and recommend the needed treatment.

Examination of children

Carrying out cystography in children is just an extra diagnostic technique that enables the medical professional to properly recognize the illness. For this, numerous approaches of cystography are utilized. Since the treatment is accompanied by an uncomfortable syndrome, anesthesia is utilized when taking a look at young children.

This kind of medical diagnosis can be appointed to infants from the age of 5 months. The factor is suspicion of genetic physiological abnormalities – atresia (lack of holes, narrowing or obstructing in the canals of the tubular structure), the existence of a two-chambered urine of the vesical organ or genetic protrusions (diverticulums) in the walls of the MP.

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Older children are analyzed for urological pathologies. In order to mentally properly change the kid for the assessment, moms and dads need to understand how cystography is done in children. Tell why this treatment is performed, how crucial it is, and how one need to act. The method is not really various from cystography in adults.

Before the treatment, the physiological area of the stomach organs, salt concentration and the existence of gas build-up are evaluated. To do this, X-rays are taken of an empty blister tank. It is then filled with contrast mix utilizing a urological catheter. Its quantity is computed according to the age of the kid.

In this case, the client rests on his back with bent at an angle of 90 degrees. feet. Pictures of the genitourinary organs are drawn from the back, sides and abdominal area. The child is then sent out to the toilet to urinate, and the images of the empty bladder are taken once again.

After completion of the treatment, children require consistent tracking of their condition. In the existence of bladder ruptures, the contrast representative can go into the blood stream, which is laden with the advancement of sepsis.

How long does the treatment take and healing after it

With any adjustment of cystography, it takes a minimum of 2 hours. For example, with the coming down technique – an hour is invested in the development of the contrast medium to the bubble cavity. Up to half an hour is invested in preparation and the very same quantity for decoding. Total – 2 hours.

With retrograde cystography, you do not require to wait an hour for the contrast to pass, however it takes no less time – approximately 40 minutes for the preparation and setup of the urethral catheter, the remainder of the time for the research study itself and its decoding.

As such, the time to recuperate after the treatment might not be required at all, although the client is recommended to rest in bed for a day to totally eliminate the contrast representative from the body.

Possible repercussions

According to many client evaluations, one can right away comprehend how risky and severe it is. Among the possible repercussions of a cystographic assessment, the most likely are because of:

  • drift of infection into the urinary system throughout catheter insertion,
  • unintentional injuries of the mucous membrane of the urethral canal and bladder,
  • the advancement of extreme kidney intoxication,
  • provoking convulsion of the sphincter, which causes severe ischuria (hold-up in urine output).

Such repercussions speak eloquently about the lack of experience of the medical professional and the requirement to choose tested diagnostic centers in such circumstances. Prices for cystography (with a comprehensive description, 3 images in various forecasts, however leaving out contrast) variety from 2000 to 3700 rubles.

Only mindful and excellent preparation for cystographic medical diagnosis can be the secret to its effective execution.

Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.