Manifestations of hypochromic anemia depend on the severity of this ailment. It can be determined by the hemoglobin content.
The first severity is hemoglobin above 90 g/l, the second severity is the hemoglobin level of 70-90 g/l, the third severity is the hemoglobin level below 70 g/l.
All hypochromic conditions are characterized by dizziness, manifestations of weakness, shortness of breath and flies in front of the eyes, decreased physical and mental activity. As well as palpitations.
The treatment of anemia is the elimination of the main cause of the ailment. The prescribed therapy depends on the type of disease. Iron deficiency anemia is treated with iron-containing drugs. High iron foods are included in the diet. The duration of treatment is six months. Iron-saturated anemia is treated with vitamin B6. And redistributive anemia – supporting vitamin therapy, as well as the elimination of concomitant diseases.
Bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract: peptic ulcer, erosive gastritis, varicose veins of esophageal veins, colon diverticulum, hookworm infestation, tumors, UC, hemorrhoids;
Long and heavy menstruation, endometriosis, fibromyoma;
Macro and microhematuria: chronic glomerulo- and pyelonephritis, urolithiasis, polycystic kidney disease, kidney and bladder tumors;
Epistaxis, pulmonary hemorrhage;
Blood loss during hemodialysis;
Small bowel resection;
1. preferential iron deficiency (lack of accumulation) – there is a decrease in the level of ferritin and a decrease in the content of iron in the bone marrow, increased absorption of iron;
2. latent iron deficiency (iron deficiency erythropoiesis) – serum iron is further reduced, the concentration of transferrin is increased, the content of sideroblasts in the bone marrow is reduced;
3. marked iron deficiency = iron deficiency anemia – the concentration of hemoglobin, red blood cells and hematocrit is additionally reduced.
During the period of latent iron deficiency, many subjective complaints and clinical signs characteristic of iron deficiency anemia appear. Patients note general weakness, malaise, decreased performance. Already in this period, a perversion of taste, dryness and pinching of the tongue, violation of swallowing with a sensation of a foreign body in the throat, palpitations, shortness of breath can be observed.
An objective examination of patients reveals “small symptoms of iron deficiency”: atrophy of the papillae of the tongue, cheilitis, dry skin and hair, brittle nails, burning and itching of the vulva. All these signs of trophic disturbance in epithelial tissues are associated with tissue sideropenia and hypoxia.
Patients with iron deficiency anemia note general weakness, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and sometimes drowsiness. Headache, dizziness appear. In severe anemia, fainting is possible. These complaints, as a rule, do not depend on the degree of hemoglobin reduction, but on the duration of the disease and the age of the patients.
Iron deficiency anemia is also characterized by changes in the skin, nails and hair. The skin is usually pale, sometimes with a slight greenish tint (chlorosis) and with an easily occurring blush of cheeks, it becomes dry, flabby, peeling, and cracks easily form. Hair loses its shine, turns gray, becomes thinner, easily breaks, thins and turns gray early.
Nail changes are specific: they become thin, matte, flatten, easily exfoliate and break, striation appears. With pronounced changes, the nails acquire a concave, spoon-shaped form (koilonychia). In patients with iron deficiency anemia, muscle weakness occurs, which is not observed with other types of anemia.
There is a decrease in appetite. There is a need for acidic, spicy, salty foods. In more severe cases, perversions of smell, taste (pica chlorotica) are observed: eating chalk, lime, raw cereals, pohofagiya (craving for the use of ice). Signs of tissue sideropenia quickly disappear after taking iron supplements.
1. The average hemoglobin content in the erythrocyte in picograms (normal 27-35 pg) is reduced. To calculate it, the color index is multiplied by 33,3. For example, with a color index of 0,7 x 33,3, the hemoglobin content is 23,3 pg.
2. The average concentration of hemoglobin in the red blood cell is reduced; normally it is 31-36 g/dl.
3. Hypochromia of red blood cells is determined by microscopy of a smear of peripheral blood and is characterized by an increase in the area of central enlightenment in the red blood cell; normal ratio of central enlightenment to peripheral dimming is 1: 1; with iron deficiency anemia – 2 3: 1.
4. Microcytosis of red blood cells – a decrease in their size.
5. The color of erythrocytes, different in intensity, is anisochromia; the presence of both hypo- and normochromic red blood cells.
6. A different form of red blood cells – poikilocytosis.
7. The number of reticulocytes (in the absence of blood loss and a period of ferrotherapy) with iron deficiency anemia remains normal.
10. Reducing the number of siderocytes until their disappearance (siderocyte is a red blood cell containing iron granules). In order to standardize the manufacture of smears of peripheral blood, it is recommended to use special automatic devices; the monolayer of cells formed in this way improves the quality of their identification.
1. Decrease in the content of iron in blood serum (normally in men 13-30 micromol/l, in women 12-25 micromol/l).
2. OZHSS is increased (reflects the amount of iron which can be connected due to free transferrin; OZHSS normally – 30-86 micromol/l).
3. Study of transferrin receptors by enzyme immunoassay; their level is elevated in patients with iron deficiency anemia (in patients with anemia of chronic diseases – normal or reduced, despite the similar indicators of iron metabolism.
4. The latent iron-binding ability of blood serum is increased (determined by subtracting the content of serum iron from the OGSS indicators).
5. The percentage of transferrin saturation with iron (the ratio of serum iron to OZHSS; normal 16-50%) is reduced.
6. The level of serum ferritin is also reduced (normally 15-150 mcg/l).
At the same time, in patients with iron deficiency anemia, the number of transferrin receptors was increased and the level of erythropoietin in the blood serum was increased (compensatory hematopoietic reactions). The volume of erythropoietin secretion is inversely proportional to the oxygen transport capacity of the blood and directly proportional to the oxygen demand of the blood.
Keep in mind that serum iron levels are higher in the morning; before and during menstruation, it is higher than after menstruation. The iron content in the blood serum in the first weeks of pregnancy is higher than in its last trimester. The level of serum iron rises on the 2-4th day after treatment with iron-containing drugs, and then decreases.
A significant consumption of meat products on the eve of the study is accompanied by hypersidemia. These data must be taken into account when evaluating the results of a study of serum iron. It is equally important to observe the technique of laboratory research, the rules of blood sampling. So, the tubes in which the blood is collected must first be washed with hydrochloric acid and bidistilled water.
reveals a moderate normoblastic reaction and a sharp decrease in the content of sideroblasts (erythrokaryocytes containing iron granules).
Iron reserves in the body are judged by the results of a desferal test. In a healthy person, after intravenous administration, 500 mg of desferal is excreted in the urine from 0,8 to 1,2 mg of iron, while in a patient with iron deficiency anemia, iron excretion is reduced to 0,2 mg. The new domestic drug is identical to defericolixes with Desferal, but it circulates in the blood longer and therefore more accurately reflects the level of iron stores in the body.
Given the level of hemoglobin, iron deficiency anemia, like other forms of anemia, is divided into severe, moderate and mild anemia. With mild iron deficiency anemia, the hemoglobin concentration is below normal, but more than 90 g/l; with moderate-grade iron deficiency anemia, the hemoglobin content is less than 90 g/l, but more than 70 g/l;
with severe iron deficiency anemia, the hemoglobin concentration is less than 70 g/l. However, the clinical signs of the severity of anemia (hypoxic symptoms) do not always correspond to the severity of anemia according to laboratory criteria. Therefore, a classification of anemia according to the severity of clinical symptoms is proposed.
1. anemia without clinical manifestations;
2. moderate anemic syndrome;
3. severe anemic syndrome;
4. anemic precoma;
A moderate severity of anemia is characterized by general weakness, specific symptoms (for example, sideropenic or signs of vitamin B12 deficiency); with a pronounced severity of anemia, palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, etc. appear. Precomatous and coma can develop in a matter of hours, which is especially typical for megaloblastic anemia.
Modern clinical studies show that laboratory and clinical heterogeneity is observed among patients with iron deficiency anemia. So, in some patients with signs of iron deficiency anemia and associated inflammatory and infectious diseases, the level of serum and erythrocyte ferritin does not decrease, however, after the exacerbation of the underlying disease is eliminated, their content decreases, which indicates the activation of macrophages in the processes of iron expenditure.
In some patients, the level of erythrocyte ferritin even rises, especially in patients with a prolonged course of iron deficiency anemia, which leads to ineffective erythropoiesis. Sometimes there is an increase in the level of serum iron and erythrocyte ferritin, a decrease in serum transferrin. It is assumed that in these cases, the process of transfer of iron to gemsynthesizing cells is disrupted. In some cases, a deficiency of iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid is determined simultaneously.
Causes of Anemia
The etiology of anemia is diverse, but it all fits into a group of three types of risk factors. These include blood loss, a lack of red blood cell formation, or their increased destruction (hemolysis). The latter type of factor refers only to hemolytic anemia. The most common cause of iron deficiency anemia is the insufficient formation of red blood cells – red blood cells, which is manifested by a hemoglobin deficiency. This can happen under the following circumstances:
- Increased need for iron with:
- pregnancy, childbirth, lactation – on average, a woman needs 2-3 years to restore iron stores;
- puberty – especially in girls at the beginning of the production of female hormones and the beginning of menstruation;
- under the age of one year due to the intensive growth of organs and tissues;
- in the presence of anemia with vitamin B12 deficiency due to treatment and the regular intensification of normoblastic hematopoiesis;
- when doing heavy sports and building muscle, especially in men with a previous iron deficiency.
- Inadequate intake of iron with nutrition (alimentary anemia), especially when following a strict vegetarian diet. Often this type of anemia occurs in older people, with mental anorexia, with a low socio-economic standard of living.
- Impaired absorption of iron. The pathology development mechanism is triggered due to chronic lesions of the small intestine – enteritis, with malabsorption syndrome and enteropathy (for example, with celiac disease), after resection of the small intestine, stomach, and in violation of receptor sensitivity. This type of pathology is most often combined with folic anemia.
- Iron transport failed. A great influence on the body is exerted by a decrease in the level of transferrin in the blood, which is responsible for the transport of iron, which can happen with atransferinemia, hypotransferinemia, various hypoproteinemias, and autoimmune diseases.
- Other iron losses – with exudative diathesis, in the presence of foci of chronic infection, with organic damage to the nervous system, neurodystrophy.
In children, by the year the body weight should increase twice, therefore, iron reserves must also increase. But there is still little iron in the child’s diet, so iron deficiency occurs when there is a shortage of it in mother’s milk or artificial mixture. Children under 3 years old should consume 8 mg. iron daily, but many do not eat enough meat and fish to cover this need.
Separately, it should be said about pseudo-iron deficiency anemia, when the iron in the blood is in sufficient quantity, but it cannot be absorbed in the bone marrow. This can occur with hypothyroidism, heavy metal poisoning. Such anemia is resistant to iron supplementation.
The main link in the pathogenesis is the lack of iron in the body. Initially, its reserves in the liver, bone marrow and spleen fall, as a result of which ferritin in the blood decreases. There is a compensatory increase in the absorption of the element in the intestine, an increase in the level of transferrin. Further, depleted iron depots cannot provide normal erythropoiesis in the bone marrow, therefore, the stores of transport iron are reduced, as is the production of hemoglobin.
Most often, modern IDA therapy allows you to quickly adjust all the pathological changes that occur. But with an unrepaired cause, the pathology progresses and gives relapses. Iron deficiency anemia is very dangerous and can cause unpleasant complications. It reduces the protective capabilities of the immune system, thereby contributing to the development of chronic diseases and frequent infections.
Very often it gives unpleasant consequences that can cover the heart, lungs, muscles and bones. In young children, IDA can even cause mental retardation. In pregnant women, anemia increases the risk of miscarriage, premature birth, low fetal body weight, and a decrease in all aspects of the baby’s development at birth.
Anemia develops against the background of other diseases, acting as a pathological symptom of many disorders in the body. However, it is always accompanied by a decrease in hemoglobin in the blood. As a result of such changes, organs and tissues begin to suffer from a lack of oxygen. Oxygen starvation is called hypoxia.
Normally, in adult men, the hemoglobin level should vary between 130-180 g/l. In women, this figure is 120-150 g/l.
If these values begin to decline, then doctors talk about anemia, which can have 3 degrees of severity:
The first severity of anemia is characterized by a decrease in hemoglobin level to 90-120 g/l. This condition can be corrected with proper nutrition; hospitalization of the patient is not required.
Anemia of moderate severity develops when the hemoglobin level drops to 70-90 g/l. in this case, it will no longer be possible to get rid of the violation only with the help of a diet; medication is required. If a person feels satisfactorily, then he will not be hospitalized.
The third severity of anemia is characterized by a decrease in hemoglobin level of less than 70 g/l. In this case, the person is placed in a hospital, where they carry out complex treatment. Depending on the cause of the development of anemia, the therapy can be either conservative or surgical.
If a person develops mild anemia 1, then any symptoms of a violation are usually absent. Therefore, the patient may not even suspect that he has pathological changes in the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood. This can be determined using laboratory tests.
Symptoms that may occur with mild anemia:
Weakened attention span.
Fatigue, a feeling of constant fatigue, despite a good rest.
Pale skin and mucous membranes.
Orthostatic hypotension may be a sign of first degree anemia. At the same time, a person’s blood pressure drops with a change in body position (with a sharp rise from the bed), which is reflected in the darkening in the eyes. Also at this time, an increase in heart rate is possible. This symptom is called orthostatic tachycardia.
Periodically, a person may be dizzy. Fainting is not characteristic of the first degree of anemia.
Causes. The causes of the development of anemia can only be determined by a doctor. To install them, you will need blood donation. More often than others, iron deficiency anemia occurs in people, when a lack of iron leads to a decrease in hemoglobin level. After all, it is this trace element that is necessary for the normal production of Hb. According to average data, up to 50% of young children, up to 15% of women in the child-bearing period of their lives and up to 2% of adult men suffer from iron deficiency anemia. As statistics analysis shows, every 3 inhabitants of the Earth have latent tissue deficiency of iron. Of all types of anemia, it occupies about 80-90%.
Iron deficiency anemia is rare. First, a person has a so-called pre-latent iron deficiency. Trace elements are depleted only in the tissues. As the disease progresses, the level of not only deposited, but also transport, as well as erythrocyte iron, decreases. The severity of iron deficiency anemia can be minimal, or completely hidden.
Treatment. Treatment of mild anemia requires nutritional correction, although it all depends on the reasons that triggered this disorder. However, the patient’s diet will need to be followed without fail. It is adhered to until the hemoglobin level in the blood returns to normal. Be sure to include in the menu products that are rich not only in iron, but also in vitamin B.
Such products include: red meat, fish, eggs, nuts, spinach, beets, pomegranates. Be sure to include tomatoes, carrots, fresh herbs, legumes (peas, lentils and beans), oatmeal, buckwheat, bread, honey. To iron is better absorbed by the body, you should enrich your menu with foods that are rich in vitamin C.
It increases the bioavailability of this trace element, which makes it easier to penetrate the blood. In addition, citric and succinic acid improves iron absorption. Succinic acid is present in sufficient quantities in kefir, yogurt, sunflower oil, in sunflower seed, barley, Borodino bread, green gooseberries, apples, cherries, grapes.
There are also products that, on the contrary, slow down the absorption of iron. These are those drinks and dishes in which the content of tannin, polyphenols and oxalates is exceeded. Therefore, it is recommended to refrain from drinking coffee, tea, soy protein, whole milk, chocolate.
If anemia of the first severity is detected, treatment should not be delayed. Otherwise, the violation will progress and lead to serious consequences for the body. Self-selection of therapy is not permissible.
As a rule, medications for mild anemia are not required. They are prescribed only if the correction of nutrition does not eliminate the existing problem. The doctor can prescribe medications for a minimum period of 1,5 months and in minimum dosages. If, after the indicated time, the hemoglobin level returns to normal, then the dose is halved and treatment is continued for another month.
Often, patients with mild anemia are prescribed drugs such as:
Ferro-foilgamma containing not only iron sulfate, but also ascorbic acid, folic acid and cyanocobalamin. With mild anemia, 1 capsule is prescribed 3 times a day. Take the drug after meals.
Ferroplex is represented by a complex of ascorbic acid and iron sulfate. In case of mild anemia, 1 tablet is taken 3 times a day.
Hemofer Prolongatum is prescribed 1 tablet 1 time per day.
Features of the disease
Treatment of iron deficiency anemia should be pathogenetically substantiated, comprehensive and aimed not only at eliminating anemia as a symptom, but also at eliminating iron deficiency and replenishing its reserves in the body.
Elimination of the cause of iron deficiency anemia;
Patients with iron deficiency anemia are recommended a varied diet, including meat products (veal, liver) and vegetable products (beans, soy, parsley, peas, spinach, dried apricots, prunes, pomegranates, raisins, rice, buckwheat, bread). However, it is impossible to achieve an antianemic effect only with diet.
Even if the patient eats high-calorie foods containing animal protein, iron salts, vitamins, trace elements, iron absorption can be achieved no more than 3-5 mg per day. It is necessary to use iron preparations. At present, the doctor has at his disposal a large arsenal of iron medications, characterized by different composition and properties, the amount of iron contained in them, the presence of additional components that affect the pharmacokinetics of the drug, various dosage forms.
According to the recommendations developed by WHO, when prescribing iron preparations, preference is given to preparations containing ferrous iron. The daily dose in adults should reach 2 mg/kg of elemental iron. The total duration of treatment is at least three months (sometimes up to 4-6 months). An ideal iron-containing preparation should have a minimum number of side effects, have a simple dosage regimen, the best ratio of effectiveness/price, optimal iron content, it is desirable to have factors that enhance absorption and stimulate hematopoiesis.
Indications for parenteral administration of iron preparations occur with intolerance to all oral preparations, malabsorption (ulcerative colitis, enteritis), gastric and duodenal ulcer during exacerbation, with severe anemia and the vital need for rapid replacement of iron deficiency.
Given the prooxidant and lysosomotropic effects of iron preparations, their parenteral administration can be combined with intravenous drip administration of reopoliglucin (400 ml once a week), which protects the cell and avoids the overload of macrophages with iron. Considering significant changes in the functional state of the erythrocyte membrane, activation of lipid peroxidation, and a decrease in the antioxidant protection of red blood cells during iron deficiency anemia, it is necessary to introduce antioxidants, membrane stabilizers, cytoprotectors, antihypoxants such as a-tocopherol to 100-150 mg per day (or ascorutin, vitamin A, vitamin C, lipostabil, methionine, mildronate, etc.), as well as combine with vitamins B1, B2, B6, B15, lipoic acid. In some cases, the use of ceruloplasmin is advisable.
Sorbifer durules (Sorbifer durules);
Ferrum lek (Ferrum lek).
Normally, about 30-50 mg of iron should be present for every kilogram of body weight.
The metal in question in the human body is present in the form of compounds that have a different structure, are characterized by a different role and activity. The most important of them are hemoproteins – hemoglobin, cytochromes, myoglobin, etc. There are iron-containing enzymes in our blood and tissues, as well as ferritin, transferrin, hemosiderin and other compounds of this metal. Hemoproteins account for the largest share – up to 70% of the total iron content. Another classification of this substance includes two types:
- Hemic iron – is part of hemoglobin, is in some foods (mainly in meat), can be easily absorbed.
- Non-heme iron – exists in free form, is in vegetables, is absorbed worse than heme iron. Vitamins, in particular ascorbic acid, are required for the absorption of non-heme iron.
Ferritin and hemosiderin proteins are responsible for the accumulation of iron. As red blood cells form during erythropoiesis, iron begins to release these proteins: quickly – from ferritin, much slower – from hemosiderin. In medicine, there is such a condition as latent anemia, when it is still in sufficient quantity in the body, but there is already a decrease in the concentration of ferritin.
Iron deficiency conditions are very common in medical practice, especially in pediatrics and in pregnant women. Daily requirement, that is, the amount of iron that a person needs, varies depending on age, gender. Among newborns, the highest need is characteristic of premature babies. Also, a lot of biometal is required for the body of infants and young children (up to 2-3 years), adolescents.
Iron deficiency can occur more quickly in women of reproductive age who are losing an element with menstrual periods. More iron is needed during pregnancy and feeding, because its lack threatens serious consequences for the fetus and infants. With normal nutrition, 2–2,5 mg is supplied with food.
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA, in color – hypochromic, microcytic anemia) is a syndrome whose main characteristic is a violation of hemoglobin synthesis, which occurs due to a decrease in iron stores in the body. With anemia, a decrease in hemoglobin and red blood cells is observed. Among all anemia, which is inherent in 15% of the population, it is IDA that is more common (according to statistics – up to 80% of the total number of such pathologies).
Up to 50% of young children suffer from latent anemia, and latent iron deficiency can even be detected in every third person who lives on the planet. Since the causes of the disease are diverse, the relevance of this patient problem will be high for gastroenterology, hematology, gynecology, traumatology and other branches of medicine.
The following types of iron deficiency anemia are distinguished:
- Normoblastic. It is characterized by a lack of red blood cells with a low hemoglobin content. In this case, normal mature red blood cells are produced in the body, and the color index is reduced (hypochromic anemia).
- Hyporegenerative. It is the final stage of chronic posthemorrhagic anemia, which occurs for a long time and causes depletion of the substances necessary for the formation of red blood cells. With this type of anemia, degenerative changes in red blood cells are observed, hemoglobinized normoblasts can almost completely disappear in the myelogram.
The severity of IDA is classified as follows:
- Mild anemia – hemoglobin is in the range of 90-120 g/l.
- Moderate severity anemia – hemoglobin content of 70-90 g/l.
- Severe anemia – hemoglobin is present in the blood at a concentration below 70 g/l.
The stages of IDA are differentiated in this way:
- Pre-latent iron deficiency – depletion of deposited iron in normal hemoglobin and transport iron.
- Latent (latent anemia) – a disease without clinical manifestations, in which iron in the blood plasma decreases.
- IDA with a detailed clinical picture and a characteristic blood picture, in which the transport, deposited, erythrocyte iron decreases.
- take iron and vitamins with an increased need for them;
- prevent the presence of helminthic invasions and the presence of foci of chronic infection;
- Healthy food;
- treat all diseases that can lead to anemia in time;
- to be observed and treated by a gynecologist and other specialists in the presence of regular blood loss;
- take blood tests at the time indicated by the doctor.
Laboratory diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia is carried out using:
- general blood test performed by “manual” method;
- blood test performed on an automatic blood analyzer;
- biochemical research.
When diagnosing any anemia, a general blood test with a determination of the number of reticulocytes is mandatory. The doctor focuses on the hypochromic and microcytic nature of anemia. In a general blood test performed by the “manual” method, the following is revealed:
- decrease in hemoglobin concentration (
- normal or reduced (12/L) red blood cell count;
- color reduction (
- normal (rarely slightly increased) content of reticulocytes (0,2-1,2%);
- increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (gt; 12-16 mm/h);
- anisocytosis (characteristic of microcytes) and poikilocytosis of red blood cells.
The error in determining the parameters can reach 5% or more. The cost of one general blood test is about $ 5.
An accurate and convenient method of diagnosis and differential diagnosis is the method of determining red blood cell counts on automatic blood analyzers. The study is carried out both in venous and capillary blood. The error in determining the parameters is much lower than with the “manual” method, and is less than 1%. With the development of iron deficiency, the severity of erythrocyte anisocytosis – RDW (the norm
Biochemical indicators confirming iron deficiency in the body are informative, but they require blood sampling from a vein and are quite expensive (the cost of a single determination of SJ, OZHSS, SF is more than 33 US dollars). The most important criterion for iron deficiency is considered to be a decrease in the concentration of SF (
Transferrin cannot be saturated with iron by more than 50%, which is due to its biochemical structure, most often saturation is from 30 to 40%. With a decrease in transferrin saturation with iron below 16%, effective erythropoiesis is not possible.
The consequences of untreated anemia
The consequences of untreated anemia can be very diverse, ranging from mild, barely noticeable hypoxia of organs and tissues to death. This largely depends on what exactly caused the hemoglobin to fall in the blood, as well as on the severity of the disease.
With anemia of the first degree of severity, the following health disorders are possible:
Decreased blood pressure.
Increased load on the heart and blood vessels.
The occurrence of nosebleeds, which is more often observed in childhood.
Immunity decline, which can be expressed in the frequency of acute respiratory viral infections in adults and children.
For the fetus, maternal anemia is associated with a risk of intrauterine growth retardation. A baby can be born ahead of schedule.
A woman who suffers from mild anemia may have a weakened labor. During pregnancy, toxicosis can chase her. Also increases the likelihood of bleeding.
Untreated moderate anemia can lead to the following complications:
Myocardial dystrophy. Symptomatically, this is manifested by shortness of breath, tachycardia, arrhythmia, expansion of the borders of the heart to the left, deafness of heart sounds, systolic murmurs.
Prolonged and severe anemia can lead to severe circulatory failure and heart failure.
Brain hypoxia leads to depression. The quality of life of the patient is significantly reduced, he does not get enough sleep at night, feels tired during the day.
The third degree of anemia is a formidable violation in the body, which can lead to serious consequences:
With a third degree of anemia, the likelihood of death is increased. All organs suffer from hypoxia, their performance is impaired. In addition, a weakened immune system becomes unable to resist infections. All of them have a protracted and prolonged course. Therefore, assistance to the patient should be provided on an emergency basis.
Severe anemia in pregnant women threatens with premature birth, preeclampsia, placental abruption, bleeding and other complications during labor.
Most often, anemia is well treated, but you need to seek medical help in a timely manner. If this is not done, then the violation will progress. In childhood, anemia is dangerous delayed mental and physical development.
In order to timely detect the existing problem, you should regularly donate blood to determine the level of hemoglobin, do not refuse dispensary observation. If a person is at risk for developing anemia, the doctor may prescribe him a prophylactic intake of iron preparations.
Article author: Shutov Maxim Evgenievich | Hematologist
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