Chest pain – causes, types of pain, symptoms and diagnosis

What to do with back pain between the shoulder blades? Or how to calm the muscles of the ribs if your back and chest hurt? Finding answers to these questions on their own is very problematic, especially if they appear against the background of stressful situations.

Similar diseases can occur if people are very worried. In the process, muscle compression is observed, as cramps occur in the chest.

If in the presence of such disorders people limit physical activity, for various reasons, then it is very difficult to eliminate pain in the lower chest or in the upper part of it. The fact is that it is impossible to get rid of muscle blocks while in a constant sitting position.

If one or more of the above symptoms is present, the patient will not be able to identify the cause of the discomfort without the help of a doctor. Correctly relieve pain in osteochondrosis of the spine, which has overcome the thoracic region or eliminate other pathologies, an experienced specialist will help.

There are a number of cases where you should consult a doctor immediately. Be sure to call an ambulance if:

  • piercing pain is observed, causing a feeling of loss of consciousness;
  • discomfort from the chest area is given to the shoulder or zone of the jaw;
  • there was a feeling of constriction of the chest, with instability of the pulse, vomiting, and also dizziness;
  • the pain does not disappear, and lasts more than 15 minutes;
  • unpleasant sensations in the cartilage tissue are supplemented by high temperature and unstable breathing;
  • there is a bloody cough, and chest discomfort.

There are also cases where the patient will be able to independently visit a specialist, but without unnecessary delay. Making an appointment with a doctor is necessary if:

  • after the meal there is a burning sensation;
  • when inhaling and coughing, pain appears;
  • when you change the position of the body, the discomfort becomes aggravated;
  • in the process of taking the medication, the manifestations of the disease intensify.

There are 6 main causes of discomfort in the chest area.

It develops suddenly, more often after physical exertion, due to spasm of the coronary arteries and myocardial oxygen starvation. Sensations arise directly in the center of the sternum or radiate to any point on the left side of the body. There are cases when heart pain was accompanied by tingling in the heel, dental phenomena, numbness and soreness in the hand or stomach. The nature of the pain is compressive, oppressive, often throbbing.

The result of inflammation of the large nerve trunks (and intercostal too). Unpleasant sensations occur against the background of hypothermia, intensify gradually, reach a maximum on the 2-3 day of illness. In some cases, the onset is sharp, the pain is stitching. Backache will debut at the time of physical activity, with the body tilted. It can occur in the sternum on the right and left.

Sensations are mild or moderate, aggravated by coughing. Physical activity does not affect the severity of the symptom. There are other signs of a UDT infection: shortness of breath, fever, general toxic syndrome, sputum separation.

The patient’s history has a damaging effect: strokes, foreign body jamming, falling from a height onto the chest, medical procedures (bronchoscopy). The pain is moderate, often dull. There are concomitant signs: hemoptysis, vomiting of “coffee grounds”, uncontrolled cough, acrocyanosis with damage to the SSS.

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Hypertension

Stress leads to the development of an attack, refusal to take medications prescribed by a doctor, physical activity. Chest pain is localized behind the sternum, to the left and to the right of it. The nature of the sensations is similar to a heart attack, the pain can partially be stopped with nitrates. The patient may experience nausea. Pathology is accompanied by aching headache in the back of the head. Sometimes the tide develops, a feeling of heat.

Heartburn

Reflux of gastric juice into the esophagus, irritation of the mucous membranes. It is accompanied by belching, burning behind the sternum, difficulty swallowing. The attack occurs after eating or when the patient is lying down.

It is not always possible to make an accurate diagnosis without appropriate examinations. In some cases, the symptoms are blurry or resemble another disease. If a person has a pressing pain in the sternum in the middle, first of all, changes in the cardiovascular system should be suspected.

A differential test to exclude a heart attack is a medical test. A Nitroglycerin tablet is placed under the patient’s tongue or Nitrospray (Isoket) is sprayed. If within 1-2 minutes the patient’s condition has noticeably improved, then there is a coronary pathology. The lack of effect indicates a different origin of pain.

Another symptom that makes it possible to suspect a coronary attack is the preservation of pain at rest. With neuralgia and injuries, the symptom intensifies during movement, however, it partially subsides when the patient is in a supine position. In infectious diseases, pain occurs mainly during coughing.

A characteristic sign of neuralgia is an increase in unpleasant sensations when tapping fingers along the edge of the costal arch. In addition, the intensity of pain increases when trying to stand up, sit down. Sometimes there is irradiation to the area of ​​the shoulder blades. Neuralgia does not give off to other parts of the body.

In the absence of characteristic signs, the diagnosis is carried out according to the phenomena that are noted in the patient.

Occurs due to a mechanical obstruction in the airways. If a symptom is detected against the background of full health, the presence of a foreign body is first suspected. The gradual development of the “clinic” provides grounds for oncological alertness. In some cases, the phenomenon occurs against the background of paralysis of the diaphragm, however, pain in the sternum is absent.

An extremely nonspecific symptom is observed in patients with angina pectoris, inflammatory diseases of the UDT, tantrums, with dry cough (as well as in people suffering from vegetovascular dystonia). In combination with compressive pain, it is an indirect sign of a heart attack, if there is a cough – infection processes.

It occurs mainly in neuralgia and osteochondrosis. Lumbago indicate compression of the nerve trunks of the intervertebral hernia or spasmodic muscle layers.

Dry cough

In 90% of cases, it is evidence of infectious diseases, including acute respiratory infections, acute respiratory viral infections, whooping cough. Occurs when the respiratory tract is not completely blocked by a foreign body or tumor. It occurs in 0.5–1% of people with a heart attack.

It is a sign of stable angina (seizures only with physical exertion) or neuralgia. Symptom should be evaluated as part of the overall clinical picture. If sensations arise during physical exertion, there is a history of coronary heart disease, the phenomenon is stopped by nitrates, then a conclusion is drawn about the cardiac origin. The lack of effect from nitroglycerin, irradiation into the shoulder blades, a connection with physical activity, and recent hypothermia are evidence of inflammation of the nerve trunks.

Diagnostic methods based on external signs do not accurately determine the disease. The patient needs an objective examination, including taking an electrocardiogram at rest and under stress, sputum analysis, chest x-ray.

In the above diseases, soreness, usually localized in the middle of the chest, sometimes extends to the left side of the body (less often the right or back). Only a doctor can make a diagnosis, therefore, with the exception of cases of emergency hospitalization, it is unreasonable to postpone a visit to a specialist. It is important to track and inform the therapist about the accompanying symptoms: shortness of breath, sweating, swelling, fever, cough, the nature of the pain during exertion / rest, eating, and various body positions.

The nature of pain in various pathologies of HA

Unpleasant sensations in the chest area in the middle or any other part of it can have different features. It is important when referring to the doctor to correctly tell about the nature of discomfort, since knowledge of a clear clinical picture will allow you to quickly and accurately make the correct diagnosis.

The nature of the discomfort may be as follows:

  • Pressing pains indicate the presence of a stomach ulcer or duodenal ulcer. Typically, such sensations in the sternum are associated with impaired functioning of the digestive tract. If a person soon after eating begins to experience unpleasant pressing pains, the peristalsis of the stomach has probably weakened. If, in addition to pain, a person is concerned about nausea and vomiting, this indicates developing pathologies of the gallbladder or urinary tract.
  • A sharp and severe pain in the sternum in the middle in most cases indicates angina pectoris. The pain can be stitching and give back to the sternum. To stop the expressed symptoms, you need to take nitroglycerin and soon contact a medical institution.
  • Aching pains are familiar to all people suffering from impaired functioning of the organs of the cardiovascular system. As a rule, constant and aching pain sensations indicate coronary heart disease. The severity of symptoms increases with coughing or sneezing. The development of pathology affects people who are constantly in a state of stress and great nervous tension.
  • Severe discomfort in the left side of the chest, mainly the lower part, which can give off to the lower part of the body, giving off heat – a common symptom of the development of cancer of the digestive system, stomach ulcers or gastritis. Spasmolytic drugs will help stop the symptoms. As soon as a person begins to feel better, you should immediately contact a medical institution. To exclude the likelihood of developing oncology, the doctor must prescribe tests for tumor markers.
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The main causes of pain in the center of the sternum

Compressive (pressing, burning) pain in the middle of the chest is a common symptom of coronary heart disease (angina pectoris). Sometimes it spreads to the left half of the chest, left arm (scapula, hypochondrium, back). It occurs usually with physical exertion, stress, less often – at rest. The attack lasts up to 10-15 minutes, is removed by nitroglycerin.

Acute, sharp, intense pain in the center of the chest or to the left, accompanied by cold sweat, suffocation, nausea, a strong fear of death – this is a clinical sign of myocardial infarction. It occurs spontaneously, without reference to the load, even at night in a dream, lasts more than 15 minutes, is not removed by means of angina pectoris. With a heart attack, urgent hospitalization is required.

Pain in the sternum is localized in the middle with lung diseases (pneumonia, bronchitis, tracheitis), gastrointestinal tract (stomach and duodenal ulcer, gastritis, diseases of the esophagus), thoracic spine (osteochondrosis), peripheral nervous system (vegetovascular dystonia, intercostal neuralgia), an abscess or cancer of the chest.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease causes a constant burning sensation in the middle of the chest and throat (heartburn). If the pain intensifies when a person lies down, this indicates a possible hernia of the diaphragm. Pain symptoms in the upper chest are likely diseases of the upper respiratory tract.

Why does the chest hurt in women? The answer to this question is very simple for many, and absolutely every representative of the fair sex will immediately rush to examine the mammary glands for the presence of a malignant tumor. This pathology is not uncommon, but it should be remembered that the occurrence of pain in the right side of the chest or left, indicates that the formation is at a late stage of development. In this case, other unpleasant symptoms appear, in the form of discharge from the nipples, palpable tumors.

In addition, if it hurts on the right side of the chest or in other areas, then a woman may develop a disease that affects the thyroid gland. Many pathologies are reflected in chest pain, namely:

These diseases occur against the background of the appearance of a coma in the throat, the observation of constant heat in the head, as well as pressure drops. In addition, a woman may experience weakness, and face changes in weight.

It is worth noting that pain in the back and chest area can occur with excessive physical exertion, so if you did complex work or were actively engaged in the gym, you should not sound the alarm.

On the other hand, the occurrence of characteristic uncomfortable sensations after physical work can be observed after depression, in the presence of nervous exhaustion, injuries, bruises, etc.

Symptoms in which to call an ambulance

Emergency measures are required for patients with a non-stopping heart attack and suspected myocardial infarction. If there is a coronary artery disease in the anamnesis, and the pains are compressive in nature, it is necessary to call an SMP team, regardless of the severity of the associated symptoms. The classic signs of AMI include:

  • A sharp decrease in blood pressure to shock figures (70/40).
  • Compressive or dagger pain behind the sternum.
  • Pallor.
  • Violation of consciousness until its loss.
  • Cold sweat.
  • The lack of effect of taking nitroglycerin.
  • Swelling of the jugular veins.
  • Tachycardia over 100 beats per minute.

25% of AMI are asymptomatic or with a fuzzy clinical picture. There are gastralgic (pains in the stomach), asthmatic (shortness of breath), anginal (reminiscent of the VDP infection) course.

Help is required for patients with injuries of the esophagus and respiratory tract. A sign of a severe lesion is:

  • Black or brown vomiting.
  • Cough with a large amount of red blood.
  • Intense pain in the esophagus.
  • Decrease in blood pressure by 10–20 mm Hg. Art. relatively familiar indicators.
  • Open wounds in the sternum.
  • Crepitation of bone fragments.
  • Strong blows to the problem area in the recent past.
  • Shortness of breath, rapid breathing by 20% of normal and above.
  • Blue tint of the earlobes, lips.

In the absence of the described signs of emergency treatment for medical care is not required. The patient is recommended at the first opportunity a visit to the clinic to the local doctor.

Activities are fundamentally different for each of the considered conditions. If it was not possible to accurately determine the disease, it is recommended to provide the patient with peace, an influx of fresh air. With low blood pressure, lay the person so that the legs are above head level. If breathing problems are present, the front end of the bed should be raised. A semi-sitting position is recommended. After that, you need to call the doctors.

Heart attack

The basis of emergency events is the use of high-speed nitrates. If paroxysm developed at the time of physical activity, it is stopped. The patient is laid in bed, body position is free. A quick way to inject nitrates is to spray an Isocket spray. One press releases 1.25 mg of isosorbide dinitrate. It is better to apply the solution to the hyoid space (from 1 to 3 doses of the drug).

It is permissible to use tablet forms of drugs, nitroglycerin. Assigned to 0.5-1 mg per tongue. Before the doctor arrives, the minimum dosage should not be exceeded. If 5 minutes after taking the improvement did not occur, the introduction is repeated. The lack of effect of 3 doses of nitroglycerin indicates the development of AMI.

With a pronounced decrease in blood pressure, Nitroglycerin is not used. The tool dramatically dilates blood vessels, leading to increased hypotension and the development of a robbery syndrome. In 1/3 of patients with a healthy mind, a severe short-term headache occurs.

With AMI, assistance consists in speedy hospitalization in the ICU. At the pre-hospital stage, you should give the patient to chew ½ tablets (150-200 mg) of acetylsalicylic acid. If the arterial pressure is kept above 90 mmHg. Art., and the pulse is often 50 beats per minute, it is permissible to give 1 tablet of Nitroglycerin under the tongue (ACC / ANA recommendations from 2002).

Aching pain behind the sternum on the right

There are many reasons for feeling pain on the right, both easily removable and very serious:

  1. Intercostal neuralgia or panic attack.
  2. If the heart contracts very quickly with pain on the right, then this can become a signal about the development of cardiac pathologies.
  3. Concomitant cough, sputum production, and fever may indicate lung problems.
  4. Burning in the chest and rapid breathing indicate tracheitis.
  5. With pathological processes in the stomach and esophagus, the eaten food will cause discomfort.
  6. If you feel pain when swallowing and squeezing the chest in the upper right, then this may be a symptom of normal laryngitis. Visit the otolaryngologist to confirm the diagnosis.
  7. Right-sided fracture of the ribs is also the cause of discomfort in the chest.

Here you will find in more detail the answer to the question of what can hurt in the right hypochondrium?

Pericarditis (inflammation of the lining of the heart), as a rule, is accompanied by constant moderate (sometimes intensifying) aching pain that bothers in the region of the heart and above it, sometimes spreading to the right half of the chest, as well as the epigastric region and left shoulder blade. If a person lies on his back, pain intensifies.

Other diseases with a characteristic pain symptom in both the right and left side of the sternum can be neurological problems. Inflammation, abscess, swelling of the right lung is accompanied by a diverse pattern of constant pain (aching, pressing, dull, burning), sometimes with radiation to the healthy side, stomach, neck, shoulder, and aggravated by coughing.

Pressing pain on the left

If you feel pressing pain in the left side of the chest, you need to see a doctor immediately.

The main reasons for its development:

  1. Aortic aneurysm. A very serious illness. There is an accumulation of blood in the vessel as a result of the fact that their shells are stratified.
  2. Myocardial infarction or angina attack. The condition requires immediate hospitalization. Pain in this condition indicates a problem with a large muscle.
  3. Stomach ulcer. The pain occurs after eating. Often the usual antispasmodic drug (no-spa) is able to alleviate the human condition.
  4. The inflammatory process in the pancreas (pancreatitis). The pain in this organ is projected onto the left side of the chest and is pronounced. In most cases, discomfort provokes food intake.
  5. Hernia in the diaphragm. This pathology occurs due to the loss of intestinal loops through weak points in the diaphragm into the chest cavity. As a result, the patient is very difficult to breathe.

In this article, we have already examined in detail the question of what can hurt in the left side.

In addition to such typical myocardial diseases as heart attack and angina pectoris, problems with other organs can disguise themselves as heart diseases. So, problems with the pancreas located on the left side of the abdominal cavity can cause pressing dull pain in the sternum on the left. Another possible cause is a hiatal hernia. Aching, pressing pain on the left side is a symptom of vegetovascular dystonia, inflammation of the left lung or pleura.

Causes of appearance

There are physiological and pathological causes of soreness in the chest.

The main factors that are not diseases are the following:

  • Long stays in an uncomfortable position.
  • Muscle spasm.
  • Nervous disorders.
  • Deficiency of vitamins and minerals, especially B vitamins.
  • Long and heavy physical exertion.
  • Regular overwork.
  • Poisoning by decay products of ethyl alcohol.
  • Regular overeating, provoking distention of the stomach.
  • The abuse of alcohol and cigarettes on an ongoing basis.

Other causes can also be a predisposing factor to the development of the disease. In addition, bruises and other injuries of the chest and spinal column often provoke soreness.

What does pain during inhalation and exhalation mean?

Pain in the sternum during exhalation or inhalation is not directly related to the myocardium, but is a sign of the following diseases:

  • intercostal neuralgia (pain is localized more often on the left, unpleasant sensations intensify when trying to take a deep breath or when coughing);
  • pneumothorax (when air accumulates between the chest wall and the lung, it is characterized by pain on the left, which intensifies when a person breathes deeply);
  • precordial syndrome (severe pain suddenly occurs during inspiration, is repeated several times a day, is not associated with stress, does not require specific treatment).
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Cough pain in the sternum

If a pain symptom in the chest occurs or intensifies when coughing, this may be a sign:

  • pleural diseases (membranes of the internal surfaces of the chest cavity);
  • disorders of mobility of the thoracic spine and ribs;
  • intercostal neuralgia;
  • colds of the respiratory tract (tracheitis, bronchitis);
  • renal colic;
  • pneumothorax;
  • lung oncology;
  • chest injuries.

With osteochondrosis

An exacerbation of osteochondrosis of the thoracic spine is sometimes mistaken for a pathology of the cardiovascular system, because the pain accompanying it in the sternum is localized, as a rule, in the region of the heart, sometimes with radiation to the right half, to the back or side. A pain symptom occurs suddenly, paroxysmally, or is characterized by a non-intense prolonged course. The intensification of unpleasant sensations occurs during inhalation, exhalation (it is difficult to breathe during an attack), coughing, and movement of the arms and neck.

The similarity of symptoms with heart attack and angina pectoris leads to the fact that patients unsuccessfully try to alleviate their condition with medications for these diseases. With improper treatment or its absence, internal organs (pancreas, liver, intestines) are affected, the occurrence of malfunctions of the cardiovascular system is not excluded, therefore, a visit to the doctor should not be postponed.

When moving

In many diseases (angina pectoris, heart attack, myocarditis, pleurisy, osteochondrosis, injuries of the sternum, rib fracture), pain in the sternum increases with movement. Sometimes unpleasant sensations are disturbing only with certain movements, for example, with bends, sharp turns, lifting weights, pressing on the sternum.

If severe pain arose suddenly and is accompanied by a lack of air, shortness of breath, blurred consciousness, nausea, you should immediately seek medical help.

Emergency hospitalization is indicated for diseases that have, without timely assistance, a high percentage of deaths, such as:

  • myocardial infarction;
  • pulmonary embolism;
  • spontaneous rupture of the esophagus;
  • stratifying aortic aneurysm;
  • coronary artery disease (angina pectoris);
  • spontaneous pneumothorax.

Myocarditis

This inflammation of the heart muscle is characterized by various (stitching, aching, pressing) chest pains on the left and in the middle, shortness of breath, weakness, arrhythmia. People with such clinical symptoms should consult a doctor immediately, because some types of myocarditis can provoke a more serious disease – dilated cardiomyopathy and even lead to death.

Rheumatic heart disease

If you do not treat rheumatic myocardial damage (rheumatic heart disease), then 20-25% of cases result in the formation of heart disease. Symptoms depend on the type of disease, severity and are not always expressed. The following signs may indicate the possible development of rheumatic heart disease (especially if they appeared 2-3 weeks after an acute nasopharyngeal infection): chest pain (severe or severe) in the heart, shortness of breath, tachycardia, leg swelling, coughing during exertion.

Methods of diagnosis

The sooner you carry out all the necessary diagnostic measures, the faster the doctor will be able to make the correct diagnosis.

First, it is necessary to exclude the most serious and life-threatening diseases:

  1. An electrocardiogram is taken. It will help identify problems in the heart.
  2. X-ray or chest x-ray.
  3. Ultrasound examination of the heart makes it possible to exclude hidden heart diseases.

If a heart attack, tuberculosis and pleurisy is excluded, then it is necessary to proceed to the following diagnostic methods. The attending physician prescribes the patient an MRI of the chest to confirm the diagnosis of osteochondrosis, intercostal neuralgia and thoracalgia.

After carrying out all possible types of diagnostics, the patient is sent to a specialist to prescribe treatment.

Pain in the sternum in the middle can be a sign of a serious disease, so it is better to visit a doctor who, using several effective methods, will identify the cause of the disorder and prescribe the appropriate treatment.

MethodDescriptionVenue and price
Survey and general inspectionThe first stage in the diagnosis, allowing to identify the conditions for the appearance and disappearance of pain, as well as related symptoms. The specialist not only listens to complaints, but also examines the patient, listens to the lungs, bronchi and heart, measures blood pressureHeld in a public clinic for free
Clinical and biochemical blood testsA mandatory diagnostic method, involving the collection of blood from a vein and a laboratory study. The method allows to detect signs of inflammation in the body, and biochemical diagnosis additionally helps to identify pathologies of the heart and bloodExamination can be done at any clinic. In private, the price is approximately 500 rubles.
ECGAnother mandatory survey method. Detects signs of heart attack, angina pectoris, and coronary heart diseaseUsually performed in a public clinic and does not require payment
X-ray of the spinal columnOne of the important diagnostic methods in which the thoracic spine is examined. Typically, the method is used for suspected osteochondrosisConducted in clinics equipped with special equipment, costs about 300-400 rubles.
USHardware diagnostics, in which the heart is examined, as well as the digestive system. The method is effective and helps to detect abnormalities in the work of organsThe examination is carried out in private offices or clinics, the price is approximately 800 rubles.
EGDFFibrogastroduodenoscopy is a study in which a probe with a camera is inserted into the patient’s stomach and mucous membranes are examined. Diagnosis for suspected peptic ulcer or gastritis is used.It is carried out in a state clinic and costs about 300 rubles.
MRIThe most effective method to identify any deviations from the internal organs. When diagnosing, special attention is paid to the heart, digestive organs and spinal columnSuch an examination can only be done in a clinic that has the appropriate equipment.

The most effective and informative method is magnetic resonance imaging, as well as ECG. Thanks to a comprehensive diagnosis, you can identify the cause of the deviation and prescribe the appropriate treatment.

In order to identify what exactly causes pain, breast chondrosis, or other pathologies, a series of examinations should be taken, this will allow the specialist to understand which medicine to prescribe, as well as how long the therapeutic course should last.

The main diagnostic methods include:

  • ultrasound examination;
  • fluorography, as well as the passage of an electrocardiogram;
  • gastroscopy and fluoroscopy.

The attending physician may recommend making an appointment with other highly specialized specialists, as well as appointing the passage of other procedures.

When there are pains in the sternum, the patient’s condition is assessed on an outpatient or inpatient basis, it all depends on the condition of the patient and the intended phenomenon.

For the diagnosis, the following types of instrumental and laboratory studies are prescribed:

  • Measurement of heart rate and blood pressure.
  • Echocardiography allows you to study the anatomical state of the heart, as well as the surrounding tissues. During the examination, the sites are visualized, which allows to determine the degree of violations.
  • Electrocardiography is used to assess the functional position of cardiac structures. Based on the results of the examination, it is possible to calculate the typical features of a heart attack and arrhythmia.

In difficult situations, doctors are forced not to wait for the results of diagnosis, but to urgently stabilize the patient’s condition and only after thinking about long-term treatment.

As additional measures, the doctor prescribes daily ECG monitoring, magnetic resonance imaging of the heart, general and biochemical blood tests, coronography and stress tests with extreme caution. The individuality determines the feasibility of imaging vertebral structures, endoscopic assessment of the state of the esophagus and gastric mucosa (FGDS).

Doctor’s opinion

With the frequent appearance of pain in the sternum, you should not postpone the visit to the doctor. It is better to visit a therapist who will schedule an examination, as well as consultations of other specialists. Usually requires a visit to a cardiologist, neurologist, gastroenterologist. Surgeon consultation is sometimes indicated.

Soreness in the chest area is a serious symptom requiring careful differential diagnosis. It must be borne in mind that some deadly diseases appear externally harmless. Therefore, self-medication is not worth it. The patient should be given first aid, then consult a doctor. Only a specialist with diagnostic equipment at hand will be able to pinpoint the causes of pain and prescribe treatment.

Prevention

Pain in the sternum is quite difficult to prevent, since it can occur in a healthy person and against the background of any disease. If discomfort is localized in the middle, it is recommended to pay attention to food, as well as lifestyle.

Attention should be paid regularly to sports, hiking or cycling, and attending group classes. This will keep the myocardium in good shape and prevent heart pathology. Do not overload the body, but regular training will be useful.

In addition, it is necessary to enrich the diet with lean meat, fresh herbs and vegetables. This will allow you to get enough vitamins and minerals for normal heart function. It is also important to consume adequate amounts of calcium-fortified dairy products. You should pay attention to the regime of the day, devote more time to rest, normalize night sleep.

Patients with a tendency to heart disease are advised to undergo regular examinations to identify pathologies at an early stage. The most important method for the prevention of complications is considered to be a timely visit to a doctor when the first symptoms of the disease appear.

Methods of diagnosis

Treatment begins only after the attending physician makes a diagnosis.

Depending on the causes of pressure behind the sternum, the following drugs are used:

  1. Angina pectoris. It is possible to relieve the attack with nitroglycerin.
  2. Cerebral atherosclerosis. First aid to reduce high blood pressure is Pharmadipine drops, and Glycine is prescribed for normal blood circulation in the brain.
  3. Myocardial infarction. It is forbidden to take drugs at home. The patient must be urgently placed in a hospital. Often these patients end up in the intensive care unit.
  4. Osteochondrosis. In this disease, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac, ibuprofen), muscle relaxants (midcalm) are used. Actovegin is prescribed to improve blood circulation. Also, a positive effect in the treatment of this ailment produces massage and acupuncture.
  5. Intercostal neuralgia. Often this disease is confused with a heart attack. For the relief of pain, muscle relaxants (tizanidine), corticosteroids (dexamethasone) are used, a warming patch is glued to the rib area or rubbed with an anesthetic ointment.
  6. Gastritis in the acute stage. First aid will be antispasmodics (no-shpa, bellastesin), sorbents (smecta, enterosgel, phosphalugel).
  7. Angina. When treating angina, it is important to provide the patient with comprehensive treatment: antibiotics (Flemoxin, Summamed), gargling (Givalex), use sprays (Bioparox, Septolete).
  8. Pulmonary embolism. First aid is provided only by the ambulance team. In case of untimely treatment, it will not be possible to save the patient.
  9. Depression, stress, hysteria. It is necessary to reassure a person with special medicines (persen, dormiplant), provide psychological assistance.
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Summarize all of the above and find out what needs to be done to provide first aid:

  1. Call an ambulance.
  2. While the team is on, give the patient a half-sitting position. Never place it on your back or stomach.
  3. Help breathe smoothly and calmly.
  4. For cardiac abnormalities, put a tablet of validol or nitroglycerin under the tongue.
  5. If the patient faints, soak a cotton wool with ammonia and hold it up to the nose.
  6. Do not leave the person alone, wait for the doctors to arrive together.
  7. Never adjust fractures and dislocations yourself.
  8. If the cause of the pain behind the sternum is not known, then warming compresses cannot be used.

It is worth noting that among the listed symptoms of chest pain there are very serious and life-threatening. Do not self-medicate, consult a doctor for advice. Only he can give practical advice and make a diagnosis. Do not rely on the old woman at the entrance, according to the stories of which she had the same symptoms. Think for yourself and take care of your life.

Since heart diseases are the most serious, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures to prevent them:

  1. Lose weight.
  2. To refuse from bad habits.
  3. Be physically active.
  4. Hardened.
  5. Regularly take vitamin complexes and monitor nutrition.

Subject to these rules, no pain behind the sternum will bother.

Depending on the disease that causes the pain, treatment is prescribed. Medicines are used, as well as folk remedies and alternative methods of therapy.

Pain in the sternum in the middle will help eliminate medications from different groups, which are selected depending on the underlying disease.

The most effective remedies:

  • Nitroglycerin is the most popular drug prescribed for an attack of heart disease. Helps to normalize the work of the body and eliminate the severity, pain in the sternum. When a symptom occurs, put 1 tablet of the drug under the tongue. If there is no effect, re-taking the medicine is allowed after 40 minutes. The drug is not used for course treatment. Cost – from 50 rubles.
  • Barboval is a drop-shaped remedy used for pain in the sternum provoked by angina pectoris or other heart pathology. When discomfort occurs, you must take 25 drops of the drug, it is allowed to repeat 2 times a day for 7-10 days. The drug has a sedative property and eliminates pain. Price – from 120 rubles.
  • Validol is the most popular medication used for pain in the sternum, as well as heart rhythm and tachycardia. Helps to quickly eliminate the manifestation, not used in courses. If pain occurs, put 1 tablet under the tongue, repeat if necessary after 2 hours. The cost of the medicine starts from 20 rubles. for 10 tablets.
  • Atenolol is a drug from the group of beta-blockers, which is prescribed to eliminate pain in the sternum, provoked by heart disease. The medication reduces the heart rate by reducing the oxygen demand of the myocardium, this allows you to reduce the load on the muscle, slightly lower blood pressure. It is necessary to take tablets in courses of 2-3 weeks. The patient should take 1 tablet in the morning and evening. The price of the product is approximately 80 rubles.
  • Spasmalgon is an antispasmodic, used for pain that is triggered by muscle spasm or intercostal neuralgia, osteochondrosis. The patient is prescribed tablets, which he should take 2 pieces per day. The duration of the course should not exceed 10 days. The price of the drug starts from 60 rubles.
  • Rennie is a remedy for reducing the acidity of gastric juice, which is used when pain is associated with exacerbation of gastritis or peptic ulcer. Helps to quickly eliminate heartburn and discomfort, improves body function. The patient is prescribed chewable tablets, which he takes 1 piece 3-4 times a day for 3-5 days. Price – from 150 rubles.
  • Omez is a medicine that blocks the production of hydrochloric acid and protects the walls of the stomach from its negative effects. The patient is recommended to take it in case of pain in the sternum associated with pathologies of the stomach. The course lasts 3 weeks, should be taken 1 tablet 3 times a day. The price of the product is from 100 rubles.
  • Ketorol is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic properties. Helps to eliminate pain provoked by osteochondrosis, additionally eliminates discomfort in the thoracic spine. Use of tablets is allowed no longer than 7 consecutive days, 2 pieces per day. The cost of the drug is approximately 130 rubles.

The patient may be prescribed one or more drugs, depending on the severity of the underlying disease.

Folk methods

The pain in the sternum in the middle can be eliminated with the help of alternative medicine recipes with sedative properties. Typically, recipes are used for suspected pathologies of the heart and digestive organs.

  • A decoction of hawthorn is the best way to strengthen the heart muscle and eliminate pain in the sternum. For 2 l of water, you need to take 200 g of pre-chopped hawthorn fruit, cook for 10 minutes, insist for at least 4 hours. Ready and filtered medicine to use 150 ml 2 times a day. The course lasts 2 weeks.
  • A tincture based on valerian rhizomes is also cons />

Alternative medicine prescriptions can be used only in the absence of contraindications, and also after consulting a doctor.

Other methods

Among alternative methods of treatment, dietotherapy and relaxation therapy can be distinguished. These methods have a beneficial effect on the entire body, improve well-being, facilitate heart function and reduce the frequency of symptoms. The main advantage of the methods is that they are effective for pain of any origin.

Diet therapy involves the exclusion of the following products from the menu:

  • Canned food.
  • Marinades.
  • Smoked meats.
  • Confectionery.
  • Fat meat.
  • Fatty dairy products.
  • Alcoholic beverages.
  • Carbonated drinks.
  • Fast food.

In addition, do not abuse caffeinated drinks. The diet should consist of a small amount of cooked or stewed meat, fish, fresh and stewed vegetables. It is useful to include cereals, boiled potatoes, greens. Among dairy products, preference should be given to those that contain a minimal amount of fat. Such a diet is recommended to adhere to constantly.

Relax therapy involves daily relaxation using appropriate music. After a hard day, the patient is recommended to take a comfortable position, turn on the sounds of nature and breathe deeply for 20-30 minutes, feel the tension go out of the body and the brain is freed.

After 2-3 lessons, relaxation will come faster, and overall well-being will improve significantly. The minimum course consists of 20 daily sessions, but it is better to use the technique constantly.

Chest Pain Video

The causes are inflammatory processes that affect the walls of the stomach. This leads to the release of the contents of the organ directly into the esophagus. These conditions can lead to:

  • Stressful situations.
  • Abuse of alcohol.
  • Smoking, as well as addiction to spicy foods.

It’s a dull pain

If the pathology of the LC tract became the cause of the pain, then the following symptoms can be observed:

  • aching squeezes in the left and central region;
  • uncomfortable aching sensations in the upper abdomen;
  • the appearance of heartburn and constant heat in the larynx;
  • nausea with pain in the middle of the chest, in some cases, vomiting.

Sore throat and lump

Such symptoms also appear with the development of diseases that affect the LCD tract. Problems during swallowing (sensation of a coma in the throat), if there is a serious disorder inside, can be eliminated only by complex treatment, revealing the type of developing disease.

Diseases of the esophagus

Failures in the functioning of the LCD tract are accompanied by pain in the central part of the chest. Unpleasant sensations arise due to cramping of the esophagus, as well as the stomach and even the gall bladder. In this case, there will be no burning sensation behind the sternum, as with osteochondrosis.

The patient will experience dull, aching pain, which will intensify its manifestation with pressure on the epigastric zone. Often, uncomfortable feelings are given to the back.

When a bone in the middle of the chest hurts, we can almost always determine the probable causes of such sensations. But when the disease affects the lower part of the diaphragm (a muscle tube located between the abdominal and chest cavity), it is difficult to find intelligible answers.

This pathology is called the “subphrenic abscess”, during which purulent formations appear in the cavity. The fight against such a disease is often carried out by the surgical method.

If there is a need to immediately eliminate pain, you should give preference to a medication of the NSAID category (Ketanov, Ibufen, etc.). To prevent infection of nearby healthy tissues, Ciprolet is most often used.

Dull painful “bells” appearing in the chest area may indicate the presence of diseases affecting the respiratory system. This symptom often appears during development:

  • tracheitis;
  • pneumonia;
  • pleurisy, as well as bronchitis.

If pain is observed on the left side in the upper chest or on the right side, you should also beware.

It is very easy to explain the occurrence of these pathologies. Inflammatory processes in the lungs can affect the intercostal muscles, as well as the diaphragm zone. That is why the patient notices that the chest may hurt in the left side. Moreover, pain can appear in other areas, and they occur with any muscle contraction.

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Additional symptoms include fever. In addition, a prolonged cough often appears.

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Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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