Causes of the symptoms and treatment of discirculatory encephalopathy

Having understood the concept of what vascular encephalopathy is, we consider the causes of the ailment.

The first place in the development of DEP is occupied by ischemic changes in the brain, often resulting from atherosclerosis. Plaques clog vascular lumen, which leads to obstruction of normal blood flow. As a result, the brain does not receive the right amount of nutrients and oxygen.

The second factor in vascular encephalopathy is hypertension, which develops against the background of:

  1. Hypertension.
  2. Glomerulonephritis.
  3. Chronic kidney disease.
  4. Polycystic.
  5. Diseases of Itsenko-Cushing.

Due to trophic disturbances and a decrease in blood flow, DEP develops due to vascular spasm.

The causes of the development of the pathological process include a violation of the work of the arteries of the spinal column. They provide 30% of the blood supply to the brain.

The causes of such violations are:

  • osteochondrosis;
  • dysplasia of the cervical vertebrae;
  • spinal injuries.

Often, the impetus for the development of discirculatory encephalopathy is given by pathologies such as:

  1. Diabetes.
  2. Head and skull injuries.
  3. Systemic vasculitis.
  4. Angiopathy.
  5. Arrhythmia.
  6. Hypotension.

Comparing the above factors, we can conclude that any vascular changes left without treatment can lead to encephalopathy dyscirculatory.

Vascular encephalopathy occurs due to the deterioration of cerebral circulation, which occurs either in the veins or in the main vessels of the brain. Among the causes of encephalopathy, doctors distinguish the following:

  • arterial hypertension;
  • cerebral arteriosclerosis;
  • cerebral vasculitis;
  • alcoholism;
  • chronic ischemia;
  • neurocirculatory (vegetovascular) dystonia;
  • osteochondrosis of the cervical spine;
  • prolonged emotional distress.

Discirculatory encephalopathy develops due to such diseases and conditions in which there is a gradual decrease in the diameter of one or more arteries that carry blood to the brain.

The disease provokes pathologies and conditions, which are characterized by a gradual decrease in the diameter of the arteries that transport blood to the brain. Such diseases include:

  • Atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels. Impaired lipid metabolism in arterial vessels leads to the deposition of specific lipoproteins. These formations can increase in size and be damaged. The pathological process inevitably provokes a decrease in the lumen of the vessel, which accordingly becomes the cause of hypoxia in the brain areas.
  • Sudden increase in blood pressure (blood pressure). The state of blood pressure determines how well the brain will eat. The higher the blood pressure, the greater the likelihood that the blood will “push” into the brain. This can be avoided if the vessels of the brain contract. Since they cannot do this at the same time, violations occur in several parts of the brain at once. An increase in blood pressure occurs with pathologies such as polycystic kidney disease, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, and adrenal tumor.
  • Pathology of the vertebral arteries, which provokes the development of a discirculatory process in the vertebro-basilar basin. Arterial malformations, Kimmerly anomaly, spinal pathology, osteochondrosis, and trauma to the cervical spine can become causes of circulatory disorders.
  • Frequent changes in blood pressure, which lead to a decrease in cerebral perfusion pressure.
  • Diabetes mellitus, which provokes a violation of the structure of blood vessels, resulting in brain hypoxia.
  • Systemic vascular inflammation.
  • Smoking and alcohol abuse.
  • Endocrine diseases, the result of which is an excessive narrowing or expansion of the vessels of the brain.

The mechanism of vascular encephalopathy

After some time, the insufficiency of important components provokes degenerative changes in the tissues, a characteristic clinical picture begins to develop.

The causes of the development of vascular encephalopathy are:

  • atherosclerosis – the lumen of capillaries and larger vessels narrows due to cholesterol plaques or is completely clogged, which interferes with the blood flow;
  • violation of the blood composition – increased viscosity of the biological mass disrupts normal circulation, the lumen of the vessels of the brain is blocked by blood clots;
  • arterial hypertension – due to increased fluid pressure, the walls lose their elasticity, become permeable, burst, their lumen overlaps. Some parts of the brain do not receive the necessary substances, while others are impregnated with harmful components;
  • arterial hypotension – vascular genesis occurs against the background of weak filling of capillaries and veins with blood, its slow movement in parts of the organ;
  • osteochondrosis of the cervical spine – spasmodic muscles and bone processes pinch the vertebral artery, the blood ceases to enter the brain in the right amount;
  • injuries of the central nervous system – lead to the appearance of hematomas that disrupt metabolic processes;
  • smoking – contribute to the narrowing of blood vessels, and after some time a spasm of capillaries occurs, and their lumen is no longer restored to previous levels;
  • congenital features of the development of arteries and veins;
  • hormonal disruptions – individual chemicals produced by the body control the narrowing and expansion of blood vessels;
  • vascular diseases – VVD, thrombophlebitis and other pathologies that disrupt the blood flow in the human body, can cause discirculatory encephalopathy.

The essence of the disease is that vascular pathologies gradually lead to a violation of their blood flow. Then, the brain areas that received nutrition and oxygen begin to experience hypoxia (oxygen starvation) over time. In the case of a sharp decrease in trophic areas of the brain, they gradually begin to die, and in their place there are foci of rarefaction of the tissue.

Discirculatory encephalopathy manifests as functional disorders, which, with adequate and proper treatment, can be reversed. The more the disease progresses, the stronger the persistent neurological defect is formed, which leads to the patient’s disability. In most cases, pathology proceeds along with neurodegenerative processes in the brain.

The provoking factors of the disease lead to a decrease in the blood supply to the brain. With oxygen deficiency, tissue hypoxia develops, nutrition is disturbed. The consequence of constant brain starvation is the death of healthy cells. Small foci of a heart attack appear.

Most often, the disease affects the deep parts of the brain and subcortical layers. Between the two basilar and carotid basins, foci of chronic ischemia form, which interfere with the normal interaction of the cerebral cortex and subcortical ganglia. In medicine, this concept is called the “phenomenon of separation.”

It is he who leads to personality changes and disorders of the psycho-emotional sphere. Vascular encephalopathy of the brain, in the initial stages of the course of the disease, manifests itself as minor changes, which, in most cases, are reversible. In the future, the patient has persistent neurological disorders, leading to a deterioration in the quality of life and disability.

How does the disease manifest in the initial stage

After the transition of discirculatory encephalopathy to the second or third stage, the patient’s motor and cognitive impairments are aggravated. Namely, he is diagnosed with a serious memory impairment, a decrease in intelligence, difficulties with performing feasible earlier intellectual actions. Doctors note that patients themselves cannot adequately assess their intellectual abilities, and also greatly overestimate their performance.

The more aggravated the disease, the more difficult it is for patients to communicate with other people. They also have difficulty orienting in space. At the third stage of the disease, his symptoms become very pronounced and significantly reduce the patient’s quality of life: he has personality disorder, impaired thinking, and deep dementia is gradually developing. Over time, patients completely lose their ability to work, and also lose their self-care skills.

Each of the stages of discirculatory (vascular) encephalopathy suggests its own characteristic signs of the disease. However, we can distinguish the general symptoms of DEP, which are present in varying degrees of severity with the progression of the disease:

  • dizziness, headaches;
  • attention disorder;
  • cognitive disorder;
  • loss of performance;
  • depression;
  • cognitive impairment;
  • rejection of social adaptation;
  • gradual loss of independence.

There are three stages of vascular encephalopathy:

  1. Dept 1 degree involves small brain lesions that are easily confused with the symptoms of other diseases. When a diagnosis is made at this stage, persistent remission can be achieved. The first degree is expressed by the following symptoms: noise in the head, dizziness, sleep disturbance, instability when walking.
  2. A degree 2 DEP is characterized by the patient’s attempts to blame other people for his failures, but this state is often preceded by a time of tough self-control. The second stage of circulatory changes in the brain is represented by the following symptoms: a strong decrease in memory, impaired control of actions, depression, seizures, increased irritability. Although this degree of disciplinary state suggests a disability, the patient still retains the ability to serve himself.
  3. DEP of the 3rd degree (decompensation) is the transition of pathology into the form of vascular dementia, when the patient has severe dementia. The third stage involves the presence of urinary incontinence, parkinsonism, disinhibition, and coordinating disorders in a patient. A person is completely dependent on others, needs constant care and guardianship.

The disease manifests itself in several major syndromes (their combination depends on which areas of the brain are affected). The classic symptoms of discirculatory encephalopathy are as follows:

  • 1) Personal changes: new character traits, aggression, suspiciousness, irritability.
  • 2) Speech disturbance: both understanding it and normal reproduction.
  • 3) Mental disorders: a person loses the ability to transmit information, ceases to remember, can not use existing data. He loses a penchant for cognition, awareness, information processing.
  • 4) Hearing impairment, vision, smell.
  • 5) Headache: mainly in the temples and the back of the head, while pressing may occur in the eyes, there may be nausea and vomiting.
  • 6) Vestibular disorders: dizziness, staggering, tinnitus, impaired coordination.
  • 7) Vegetative symptoms: nausea, vomiting, excessive sweating, dry mouth.
  • cool - Causes of the symptoms and treatment of discirculatory encephalopathySleep disorders: increased drowsiness, insomnia, sensitive sleep.
  • 9) Astheno-neurotic syndrome: emotional lability, that is, mood swings, tearfulness; frequent bad mood.
  • Depending on their severity, symptoms are divided into 3 stages.

    The characteristic signs of discirculatory encephalopathy are a sluggish course. In the early stages of the disease, disorders associated with the emotions and mental health of the patient appear. This can be manifested by isolation, depressive syndrome, detachment and apathy to life. The patient does not notice gradually increasing changes in the psyche, and does not complain of depression and dejection.

    The human condition is similar to the symptoms of hypochondriac neurosis. Only the patient’s complaints are somewhat different. There are pains in the back, head. A person is pursued by subjective tinnitus, tingling or aching pains in various parts of the body. The clinic has absolutely no resemblance to a somatic condition. Depressants and psychotropic drugs do not have the desired effect.

    DEP at the initial stage of manifestation is characterized by:

    • irritability and temper;
    • mood swings;
    • aggression;
    • bouts of loud crying;
    • fatigue
    • distraction;
    • insomnia or drowsiness;
    • migraine pains.

    Symptoms are often similar to neurasthenia. Encephalopathy is characterized by a combination of the above manifestations with impaired cognitive function. How is it shown? A person with disorders of this kind cannot concentrate, memory is reduced, there is no opportunity to carry out and plan any kind of activity.

    With vascular changes associated with encephalopathy, the patient complains of frequent dizziness and impaired coordination of movement. Some note nausea and bouts of vomiting. These symptoms appear only when a person moves.

    At stages 2 and 3 of discirculatory encephalopathy, the symptoms are pronounced. The progressive growth of the clinic leads to significant changes in motor and cognitive function.

    1. Clear signs of amnesia appear.
    2. Attention deficit and concentration.
    3. Intellectual activity is reduced.
    4. The patient can not bear the elementary mental burden.

    The patient himself is not aware of the seriousness of the situation. He greatly overestimates his capabilities, both intellectual and physical. In the process of disease progression, a person loses a landmark in time. Such changes are characteristic for stage 2.

    In the late stages of the disease, stage 3, significant and irreversible changes in behavior, thinking and the nervous system are noted. A person develops acquired dementia – dementia. Such people cannot work. Any attempts to complete the simplest tasks are in vain. In some cases, the patient cannot serve himself, monitor the cleanliness of the body.

    Relatives and the attending physician note that the patient shows apathy to what is happening. He has no motivation for action, loss of interest in a previously favorite pastime. In the best case, the patient is engaged in an absolutely useless business. When asked to help, a person does not show interest and prefers to stay away, citing ill health.

    If the first stage of DEP proceeds without changes in motor function, then with the progression of the disease, obvious impaired coordination become apparent. A man moves in small steps, without lifting his legs from the ground. Characteristic shuffles resemble the movement of an elderly person who in ordinary life does not walk without a cane.

    Classification of Discirculatory Encephalopathy

    DEP is a chronic brain disease that can occur in several ways. Specialists distinguish three scenarios. Fast progressing – it takes about two years to complete each stage. Remitting – the symptoms increase gradually, but the intelligence decreases, despite temporary improvements. Classic – the disease lasts for many years and culminates in senile dementia.

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    Classification of pathology by type of cause:

    • hypertensive – the result of a stable increase in blood pressure;
    • atherosclerotic – a consequence of vascular lesions with cholesterol plaques;
    • venous – the cause of the disease is a decrease in the functionality of the veins;
    • mixed – a disease of complex origin, which combines several variants of the causes.

    Depending on the etiology of the disease, several varieties of it are distinguished. Namely, dyscirculatory encephalopathy is hypertonic, atherosclerotic, venous (appears due to compression of the veins by tumors), mixed (is a combination of hypertonic and atherosclerotic forms). The disease is also commonly classified according to the rate of progression.

    MR signs of discirculatory encephalopathy

    If the above symptoms occur, you should immediately contact a neurologist, who will direct you to additional instrumental studies. During the passage of the MRI, the doctor may suspect the presence of discirculatory changes on specific MR – signs:

    • vascular hypotensive inclusions;
    • signs of hydrocephalus;
    • the presence of calcifications (atherosclerotic plaques);
    • narrowing or blockage of vertebral, basilar, carotid vessels.

    CT signs

    Computed tomography helps determine the degree of brain damage. Pathological changes in the organ in a CT scan look like areas of low density. This may be the consequences of a cerebral infarction (incomplete type), foci of ischemic damage, cysts of post-stroke origin. A CT scan is performed to refute or confirm the diagnosis of DEP. Criteria that confirm the presence of pathology:

    • expansion of the ventricles of the brain and subarachnoid space;
    • the phenomenon of “leukoaraiosis” in the subcortical and periventricular layer;
    • lesions in the gray and white medulla, which are represented by postischemic cysts and lacunar strokes.

    Depression

    For example, more than 65% of patients at the initial stage of the pathology are diagnosed with depression. Moreover, a depressed state is almost never accompanied by depression. Its symptoms are more similar to signs of hypochondriac neurosis, as patients complain of various disorders that have a pronounced somatic character.

    Namely, often patients are diagnosed with symptoms such as back pain, tinnitus and ringing, arthralgia, headaches, pain in different parts of the body. At the initial stage of the disease in many patients, depression occurs against the background of a completely insignificant traumatic situation. Moreover, it can occur even without a pronounced reason. Doctors note that depression with discirculatory encephalopathy responds very poorly to drug therapy and psychotherapy.

    Types of disease

    Depending on the cause of the disease, there are several types of vascular insufficiency of the brain:

    • venous encephalopathy (impaired venous outflow of blood);
    • hypertensive angioencephalopathy (damage to subcortical structures and white matter);
    • discirculatory leukoencephalopathy of the brain (diffuse vascular lesions in the presence of persistent arterial hypertension);
    • atherosclerotic encephalopathy (violation of patency of arteries against the background of atherosclerosis);
    • encephalopathy of mixed origin.

    What is it and how to treat it? Various vascular pathologies lead to the fact that the blood flow in them is disturbed. Those parts of the brain that received nutrition and oxygen experience oxygen starvation (hypoxia), which increases over time. With a critical decrease in trophic areas of the brain, they die, foci of tissue rarefaction (leukoaraiosis) are formed.

    Areas of leukoaraiosis usually have a small diameter and are found in multiple numbers in different parts of the brain. Particularly affected are those structures that are located on the border of two vascular pools of the brain – originating from the carotid artery, and formed by the vertebro-basilar artery.

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    If, at the beginning of the disease, the areas adjacent to the sufferer tried to replace its function, then the connections between them are lost; in the end, they also begin to experience oxygen deficiency. A person becomes disabled.

    Thus, the mechanism of discirculatory encephalopathy somewhat resembles a stroke, only in the latter case the disease develops acutely due to the rapid closure of the arterial vessel. With discirculatory encephalopathy, the diameter of the arterial branches decreases gradually, therefore, neurological deficits progress slowly.

    The origin and development of the pathological process can proceed without pronounced symptoms. Violation of the work of individual cell colonies is not so noticeable, neighboring tissues are trying to take on their functions. The absence of treatment leads to an increase in the area of ​​damage to the organ. He no longer manages to compensate for the losses, system malfunctions become apparent.

    Apathy, indifference, lack of appetite and systematic headaches without a certain localization are the main signs of discirculatory encephalopathy.

    Signs of discirculatory encephalopathy:

    • headache – bursting type, does not have a specific location;
    • decreased activity – sleep is disturbed, daytime drowsiness, weakness, tinnitus appear;
    • changes in emotions – apathy, indifference, lack of interests are replaced by causeless laughter, tantrums;
    • disturbances in thinking – the quality of memory and attention are reduced, problems arise with the planning of actions;
    • a change in the technique of movement – the gait becomes shaky, involuntary spasms of tendons and muscles are observed;
    • oral automatism syndrome – nasal voices, problems with swallowing, twitching of the mouth;
    • visual disturbances – dark spots in front of one or two eyes, blurred images.

    The clinical picture helps in making a preliminary diagnosis. To confirm it, it is enough for the patient to pass a series of tests and go through specialized studies. There are several forms of the disease, so treatment begins only after clarifying all the nuances of the situation.

    The severity of the clinical picture of discirculatory encephalopathy (DEP) increases as the area of ​​damage to the brain increases and the functionality of its tissues decreases. In the absence of professional assistance, the patient’s condition will rapidly deteriorate.

    Stages of the disease and their characteristics:

    • first, headaches are insignificant; for the most part, patients experience only a decline in energy. Insomnia may appear, mood swings are noted. Problems with vision and speech, dizziness, weakness and deterioration of motor activity occur periodically and disappear during the day;
    • the second – the disease progresses, alarming symptoms occur more often and last longer. Weakness, memory impairment, and drowsiness reduce disability. Character changes, the quality of thinking decreases. Unreasonable anxiety and irritability appear;
    • third – the condition worsens sharply, but a person is not able to complain because of problems with thinking. Symptoms are exacerbated and interfere with the usual lifestyle. The patient loses the ability to perform simple actions and serve himself.

    If you timely detect the initial manifestations of discirculatory encephalopathy and proceed with profile therapy, the development of pathology will noticeably slow down. Ignoring the symptoms will cause irreversible consequences in which even radical methods of therapy will not give a therapeutic effect.

    DEP is not a natural consequence of aging. The development of pathology can be prevented. Particular attention to their condition should be paid to people with excess weight, lack of physical activity and excessive mental stress.

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    Prevention of discirculatory encephalopathy:

    • blood pressure control, the fight against hypertension and edema;
    • monitoring blood sugar and cholesterol;
    • quitting smoking and systematic drinking;
    • the introduction of physical activity corresponding to age and condition;
    • rejection of rigid diets, control of body weight;
    • regular routine checkups.

    The prognosis for DEP is serious – if untreated, the disease can lead to disability. Moreover, the situation is not hopeless. Today, there are a number of effective approaches aimed at preventing the disease and improving the quality of life of people with a diagnosis.

    With an early diagnosis of the disease, the outcome of the disease is usually favorable. Identified symptoms and treatment prescribed by a doctor helps not only slow down the process of pathology progression, but also fully recover.

    In some cases, it is possible to slow down the second stage of encephalopathy. The process can be slowed down for 5 to 10 years. Timely therapeutic measures, diet, work and rest do not allow pathology to go to the last stage.

    Fighting the third stage is almost impossible. Frequent survey of patients with a diagnosis of dyscirculatory encephalopathy of the 3rd degree: how much can you live? If treatment is carried out in a timely manner, all the doctor’s recommendations are followed, you can live more than one five-year period.

    A sharp deterioration in the condition is usually associated with the development of diabetes, impaired cerebral blood supply, an increase in areas of ischemia in the brain.

    If the patient makes no attempt to improve his condition and neglects the recommendations of the doctor, the transition to the next stage occurs after 2 years.

    It will not be possible to completely defeat the disease, but it is quite possible to improve the quality of life using the latest treatment methods.

    Adhere to a healthy lifestyle, move more and give up addictions. If these rules become the credo of a person, the risk of developing any disease is minimized.

    Diagnostics

    With discirculatory encephalopathy, such studies are carried out:

  • oculist examination;
  • lipid profile;
  • coagulogram;
  • MRI of the brain;
  • Dopplerography of the vessels of the head and neck;
  • cardiologist consultation;
  • if necessary – daily monitoring of ECG, blood pressure;
  • nephrologist examination.
  • The diagnosis is made according to the following criteria:

  • 1) Inspection data of a neurologist who identifies neurological and neuropsychological syndromes;
  • 2) These symptoms developed after confirmed atherosclerosis;
  • 3) A tendency to progression of symptoms is revealed;
  • 4) CT or MRI does not reveal other diseases that may explain the symptoms.
  • In addition to CT and MRI of the brain, doctors confirm the diagnosis of DEP with a visual assessment of the neurological manifestations of the disease and studying the patient’s neuropsychological examination. The degree of discirculatory changes detected by REG (examination of the vessels of the brain), as well as recorded by ultrasound dopplerography and in the analysis of the patient’s blood, is taken into account. Based on all the data, a general picture of encephalopathy is compiled, its stage is established, and the treatment strategy is determined.

    Timely and accurate diagnosis of the disease plays a decisive role in its further treatment, since it allows you to start vascular therapy of cerebral circulation in time. An important diagnostic method is regular neurological examination of people at risk (for example, diabetics and hypertensive patients). Regular examination by a neurologist is advisable to undergo elderly patients. In neurology, it is customary to distinguish several diagnostic criteria, upon detection of which they are diagnosed with dyscirculatory encephalopathy:

    • Pronounced neurological and neuropsychological symptoms (in descending order of importance – cognitive impairment, impaired coordination of movements and walking).
    • Symptoms of cerebrovascular disease and damage to brain structures, as well as vascular changes in the brain.
    • Other neurological diseases with similar symptoms are excluded.

    In the initial stages of the disease, it is difficult for the patient to notice cognitive impairment on his own. To identify them, you must pass a series of diagnostic tests. To make a diagnosis, a neurologist may need to consult an ophthalmologist who performs an ophthalmoscopy. Instrumental techniques play an important role in the diagnosis of pathology: REG, EEG, Echo-EG, MRA and duplex scanning of cerebral vessels.

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    Brain MRI is usually prescribed to distinguish the disease from neurological diseases such as disseminated encephalomyelitis, Alzheimer’s disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. It is also extremely important to establish the etiological factor that caused the disease. For this, the patient is assigned a consultation with a cardiologist, a blood test for sugar, determination of cholesterol, lipoproteins. According to the indications, patients can be prescribed a consultation by an endocrinologist and a neurologist, daily monitoring of blood pressure, ECG for the diagnosis of arrhythmia.

    If DEP is suspected, it is necessary to visit a local therapist. He will conduct an initial examination and refer you to a neurologist. Depending on the type of ailment, its causes and manifestations, you may additionally need consultations with a cardiologist, ophthalmologist, endocrinologist. In addition to general and biochemical blood tests, the patient will have to undergo a CT or MRI scan, an EEG, a scan of the brain vessels and their ultrasound with doppler, ophthalmoscopy.

    Motor disorders

    In addition to all the disorders described above, patients may also complain of movement disorders. In particular, doctors note such manifestations as instability when walking and severe dizziness. Vomiting and nausea may occur. It is necessary to differentiate dyscirculatory encephalopathy from vestibular ataxia, since dizziness in the first case is observed only during walking.

    If at the initial stage of the disease motor disorders are almost invisible and do not disturb the patient, then in the future they become more noticeable to others. The characteristic signs of such violations are slow walking and shuffling gait. Patients are usually quite difficult to start walking and just as difficult to stop.

    At the last stage, severe symptoms such as paresis, speech impairment, tremor, urinary incontinence, pseudobulbar syndrome are observed in patients. Rare epileptic seizures are also possible. Patients often fall due to movement disorders, especially when turning and stopping. During such accidental falls, they can get a severe bruise or even a fracture of the limb.

    Treatment of cerebral dyscirculatory encephalopathy

    The standards for the treatment of discirculatory encephalopathy are based on adherence to diet therapy, lifestyle changes, medical treatment and physiotherapeutic methods.

    Diet is to limit high-calorie foods, plant-based fats, eggs, and fried foods. In general, diet therapy is aimed at eating low-fat foods.

    With the patient, classes are required to help develop intelligence and mental function. Occupational therapy, based on the simplest housework, has a beneficial effect on the nervous system and emotional background.

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    The patient should move regularly. Hiking in the fresh air helps eliminate spasm of blood vessels and normalize blood flow.

    Necessarily with discirculatory encephalopathy, treatment is aimed at eliminating vascular spasms and reducing the risk of thrombosis.

    Only course medication can reduce the risk of the disease becoming more severe.

    The patient is recommended to take drugs:

    1. Stabilizing blood pressure.
    2. Providing a preventive and therapeutic effect against atherosclerosis.
    3. Preventing platelet subsidence on vascular walls.
    4. Antioxidant action.
    5. From the group of nootropics.
    6. Vascular
    7. Influencing the metabolism of neurons.
    8. Stabilizing membranes of neurons.

    The treatment methods for discirculatory encephalopathy are selected by an experienced doctor based on the results of diagnostic studies. Activities will be aimed at normalizing cerebral circulation, eliminating the causes of its violation, stimulating the functioning of intact organ tissues. The decrease in intellectual abilities and memory does not allow most sick people to independently engage in their health. They need the support of loved ones and their control over the implementation of doctor’s prescriptions.

    Severe stages of discirculatory encephalopathy or its progressive course are indications for the use of radical methods of therapy. After a stroke or narrowing of the lumen of blood vessels by 70% or more, surgical operation is recommended. Installation of an anastomosis (connecting element) or stent (scaffolds), removal of vascular plaques helps restore blood flow in the problem area.

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    In old age, surgery is rarely resorted to due to the high degree of risk to the patient. Doctors try to get by with non-invasive approaches. They include taking medications, diet, physiotherapy, the use of traditional medicine.

    An important role is played by the proper nutrition of the patient. It is aimed at getting rid of excess weight and cleansing blood vessels. Patients with DEP are shown low-fat food of natural origin. It is better to exclude meat from the menu, preferring fish and vegetable fats. Additionally, the amount of salt in the diet is cut. This will get rid of edema and high blood pressure.

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    Preparations

    Drug therapy for DEP is not limited to taking only tablets, the approach should be comprehensive. It is important to clearly follow the doctor’s recommendations and monitor the patient’s compliance with his prescriptions. If there is no effect, it is forbidden to adjust the treatment regimen on your own, you must inform the specialist about this.

    The basic list of groups of drugs used in the treatment of DEP:

    • antihypertensive drugs – diuretics (Veroshpiron, Hypothiazide), calcium antagonists (Verapamil, Nifedipine), beta-blockers (Anaprilin, Atenolol);
    • means for lowering cholesterol – nicotinic acid, vitamin E, fish oil, statins (Leskol, Simvastatin), fibrates (Fenofibrate, Gemfibrozil);
    • vasodilator – Trental, Cavinton;
    • neuroprotectors and nootrops – Piracetam, Cerebrolysin.

    In addition, symptomatic therapy is performed. It is aimed at combating depression, impaired memory, motor functions and reduced intelligence.

    Physiotherapy

    Some types of ailment, in particular, vertebrogenic encephalopathy (against the background of osteochondrosis) are treated with the help of exercise therapy, galvanotherapy, UHF, massage, therapeutic baths, electric sleep. The optimal effect is given by the systematic passage of courses of established procedures several times a year.

    Alternative medicine approaches do not give pronounced results against the background of a vivid clinical picture. Usually, doctors recommend resorting to them as a prophylaxis of DEP or when there are suspicions of minor changes in the brain. Treatment of discirculatory encephalopathy with folk remedies will give the desired effect only with an integrated approach to solving the problem. Drinking drinks based on hawthorn, propolis, Crimean and sedative herbal supplements can benefit.

    The treatment of the disease must necessarily be comprehensive: include drug therapy, physiotherapy, dieting and other methods. The main goal of drug therapy is to improve blood flow to the brain, as well as normalize the nervous system and restore the normal functioning of blood vessels. That is why in most cases, patients are prescribed a complex of medicines. The following drugs are prescribed for the treatment of discirculatory encephalopathy:

    • Lisinopril. Used to lower the pressure. It is prescribed if hypertension has become the cause of the disease. The drug acts as follows: it does not allow a particular enzyme to increase pressure, and also helps to relax smooth muscles in the vessels.
    • Chimes. This drug is able to effectively strengthen and protect blood vessels, expand capillaries, while increasing their lumen, and does not allow platelets to stick together.
    • Nimodipine. It is a calcium inhibitor that blocks its entry into the smooth muscles of blood vessels. Due to this, the vascular tone decreases, they relax, become wider, which entails the activation of blood flow to the brain.
    • Atenolol The drug belongs to the group of beta-blockers. It reduces heart rate and pressure, and also normalizes the heart, helps to remove excess water from the body.
    • Aspirin. It makes the blood fluid, does not allow blood clots to stick together, therefore, clogging of blood vessels with blood clots can be avoided.
    • Veroshpiron. This is an effective diuretic that activates the process of removing sodium and water from the body, and also retains useful potassium in it. So it is possible to lower blood pressure and blood volume.
    • I got it. Significantly improves blood flow to the brain, improves metabolism, restores brain functions, reduces the likelihood of clot formation, strengthens the walls of blood vessels.
    • Ginseng tincture. A natural blood cholesterol lowering agent. The drug also improves the functioning of blood vessels, brain and heart, lowers blood cholesterol, increases working capacity and reduces fatigue.

    With discirculatory encephalopathy, it is imperative to follow a low-calorie diet with a small amount of animal fats and fried foods, eggs. For treatment to be effective, it is imperative to lead an active lifestyle, maintain intellectual activity, and not step back from doing homework.

    1421594862 discirkulyatornaya encefalopatiya 2 - Causes of the symptoms and treatment of discirculatory encephalopathy

    Drug therapy is carried out repeatedly, in courses.

  • 1) Therapy aimed at reducing pressure: “Enalapril”, “Nifedipine”, “Nimodipine.”
  • 2) Treatment of atherosclerosis: “Lovastatin”, “Probucol”, “Gemfibrozil.”
  • 3) The use of medications, the action of which is aimed at preventing the deposition of platelets on the walls of blood vessels: “Clop .
  • Additionally, physiotherapy methods are used:

  • UHF to the cervical region;
  • electric;
  • impact on the collar zone with galvanic currents;
  • laser therapy;
  • acupuncture massage;
  • baths.
  • Exercise therapy is also mandatory, including stabilometric training to reduce dizziness; psychotherapy.

    If dyscirculatory encephalopathy is rapidly progressing or at least one episode of acute circulatory disturbance has been observed, surgical treatment is indicated, consisting in creating an artificial message between the vessels so that the ischemic areas receive normal blood supply.

    Prevention

    In order to prevent DEP:

  • control blood pressure;
  • maintain blood sugar levels at normal numbers;
  • control cholesterol (see how to lower cholesterol) and low-density lipoproteins;
  • quit smoking and drinking alcohol;
  • keep track of weight.
  • If, after reading the article, you assume that you have symptoms characteristic of this disease, then you should

    Therapy for patients with DEP includes measures aimed at correcting the vascular pathology of the brain, preventing relapses, improving blood circulation and normalizing impaired brain function. The main principles of complex treatment:

    • decrease in overweight;
    • refusal to consume saturated fats;
    • restriction of salt intake to 4 g/day;
    • appointment of regular physical activity;
    • refusal of alcohol, smoking.

    Treatment standards

    If lifestyle correction is ineffective, the standard of treatment in neurology prescribes medications that lower blood pressure, suppress manifestations of atherosclerosis and drugs that affect brain neurons. When drug therapy does not help eliminate or slow down the development of encephalopathy, surgery is performed on the walls of the main cerebral vessels.

    Folk remedies

    At the initial stage of the development of discirculatory changes in the brain, the following alternative recipes can be effective:

    1. Rosehip infusion. Reduces capillary permeability, improves cerebral circulation. Dry fruits (2 tbsp. L.) Should be chopped, pour boiling water (500 ml), insist 20-30 minutes. Next, you need to drink instead of tea 2-3 times/day throughout the course of treatment.
    2. Infusion of clover flowers. Saves noise in the head. For cooking, you need 2 tbsp. l pour raw materials 300 ml of boiling water, insist 1 hour. Take 3-4 times a day for half an hour before eating. Infusion should be drunk during exacerbation of symptoms.

    Prevention

    With a slowly ongoing disease, the prognosis is more favorable than with a rapidly progressing disease. The older the patient’s age, the more pronounced symptoms of vascular encephalopathy. For a long period of time, the course of the disease can be stopped only at the first stage of the development of discirculatory changes in the brain. The second degree of the disease also often allows you to achieve remission.

    In order to prevent the development of discirculatory pathology of the brain to the last stage, it is necessary to take measures to cure it immediately after diagnosis. Prevention includes:

    • maintaining a healthy lifestyle;
    • following the recommendations of the attending physician;
    • proper nutrition;
    • regular exercise;
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    Correct and timely treatment can significantly slow down the progress of the disease. However, do not forget that sometimes the disease develops extremely quickly – its stages replace each other every two years.

    The most unfavorable prognosis for patients is a combination of pathology with degenerative changes in the brain, acute circulatory disorders, hypertensive crises, hyperglycemia.

    In case of serious complications, a certain disability group may be assigned to a patient with discirculatory encephalopathy. Disability is usually given when it is difficult for a patient to take care of himself, and he cannot perform labor duties due to illness. Depending on the condition of the patient, he may be assigned one of three disability groups:

    • Group III – the patient is diagnosed with stage 2 disease, disabilities are moderate, but it is difficult for him to perform professional duties. A person may sometimes need outside help.
    • Group II – the patient has a 2 or 3 stage of the disease, memory impairment is observed, strokes occur, there are neurological abnormalities. Moreover, he is not able to carry out his work without assistance.
    • Group I – the disease has reached the third stage. The patient has dementia, memory loss, circulatory disturbance.

    In order to prevent the disease, it is necessary to regularly monitor weight, reduce alcohol consumption, stop smoking, control cholesterol, maintain normal blood sugar, and monitor blood pressure. Normalization of lipid metabolism is considered the best prevention of pathology, antihypertensive therapy, regular medical examinations are effective.

    Physiotherapy

    Of great importance in the treatment of the disease is physiotherapy, which provides a therapeutic effect on the body due to physical factors. Usually physiotherapeutic procedures are carried out in courses of 10-20 procedures. For the treatment of the disease, a technique such as electrosleep is well suited. It allows you to stimulate the brain by exposing it to currents of low frequency and strength.

    Galvanotherapy

    In the treatment of pathology, galvanotherapy is actively used, which provides for the impact of low currents on the collar zone. Due to this, the capillaries expand and the blood movement in them improves. This procedure allows you to eliminate pain, improve cell nutrition and metabolic processes.

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    Another effective treatment technique is considered to be UHF. This method involves the influence on the body of a high frequency electromagnetic field due to which an ion current appears in the blood. Due to this, blood begins to move more actively through small capillaries, supplying much more oxygen to the cells.

    Massage and bathtubs

    Therapy of discirculatory encephalopathy also involves the appointment of a bath and massage. The ideal solution is carbon dioxide, oxygen and radon baths, which expand blood vessels and normalize blood circulation. In the treatment of pathology, a variety of massage techniques are used. For example, acupuncture massage can improve brain function.

    Special diets

    Doctors may advise the patient to adhere to a special diet during treatment. The most effective diets are considered Mediterranean and low-calorie. The main principles of the Mediterranean diet are the inclusion of vegetables and fruits, rice, seafood, low-fat cheese, nuts and sour-milk products in the diet.

    Svetlana Borszavich

    General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
    Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
    The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
    The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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