Cholecystitis in children is an inflammatory process localized in the gallbladder. It proceeds in two main forms: acute and chronic. In medical practice, the acute form of the disease is widespread. It develops against the background of malnutrition, an unfavorable environment and concomitant pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract.
Cholecystitis: basic information
Inflammation of the gallbladder is caused by a chronic infection in the body. Sinusitis, tonsillitis and even caries can provoke disturbances from an important connecting organ of the digestive system.
The main causative agents of the inflammatory process are bacteria that enter the body due to a decrease in its protective functions.
The main reasons for the development of pathology are:
- unbalanced diet,
- violation of the regime (long breaks between meals),
- poor quality food (fast food, carbonated drinks, sweets),
- abuse of fatty, spicy and smoked products,
- sedentary lifestyle,
- abnormalities in the development of the gallbladder,
- frequent stressful situations,
- pathology of the gastrointestinal tract,
- allergic reactions
- disorders of the central nervous system,
- surgical intervention on the gallbladder.
The development of cholecystitis in children is often due to the presence of excess weight. Pathology can appear in the early stages of obesity. The provoking factor is a decrease in the protective functions of the body.
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Forms of the pathological process
In medical practice, there are two main forms of the pathological process: acute and chronic. Acute cholecystitis in children is accompanied by intense clinical manifestations. It develops rapidly, under the systematic influence of provoking factors. The child has a fever, acute pain in the right hypochondrium (often girdle) and dyspeptic disorders.
In pediatrics, this pathology is rare, about 12% of all cases are in the acute form of the disease. It is conventionally divided into two main types, calculous and non-calculous.
The first form of pathology is accompanied by the formation of stones in the organ, the second – by damage to the walls and their complete deformation, but without any formations.
Chronic cholecystitis in children is characterized by an intense inflammatory process, against the background of a systematic detrimental effect on the organs of the gastrointestinal tract. There are no clear signs of pathology, which allows it to gradually progress, covering adjacent tissues. The development of chronic cholecystitis in children is a common process.
The disease is divided into two main forms: purulent and catarrhal. The first type is accompanied by damage to the entire organ, with the accumulation of pus in its tissues. The catarrhal form of cholecystitis covers the walls of the bladder, leading to its deformation.
An experienced specialist is able to determine the type of disease, based on clinical manifestations and diagnostic measures. According to the results of laboratory and instrumental studies, an optimal therapeutic regimen is prescribed. Self-medication in this case is unacceptable, therapy is selected on an individual basis.
Clinical manifestations of the disease
Symptoms and treatment are two interrelated processes. The optimal treatment regimen is prescribed based on clinical manifestations. So, with acute cholecystitis, the attack begins suddenly. The child experiences pain in the right hypochondrium.
The attack begins mainly at night, the baby tries to find a comfortable position to reduce the intensity of the pain syndrome. Acute pain is accompanied by repeated vomiting, which does not bring relief. It is possible that the body temperature will rise to 39 degrees.
For the chronic form, there are no obvious symptoms. Clinical manifestations are erased, more often the parents do not pay attention to the general malaise of the child. Symptoms are similar to those of a common digestive disorder (constipation or loose stools, nausea).
Generalized clinical manifestations include:
- pain syndrome,
- dyspeptic disorders,
- an increase in the size of the liver,
- emotional and nervous exhaustion,
- prolonged increase in body temperature.
When the above signs appear, experts recommend visiting a medical facility immediately. The sooner you start treating the pathology, the faster it will recede. Detection of the disease in the early stages of development helps prevent its transition to a chronic form.
Treatment of the disease begins with the appointment of dietary food. Experts recommend sticking to diet number 5. It is based on rational nutrition, with a predominance of vegetables, fruits, lean meats and fish, and dairy products. It is necessary to feed the child fractionally, the total number of meals per day is 5-6.
Attention: if the baby is breastfed, it is necessary for a nursing mother to adhere to a diet.
Treatment with dietary food alone is appropriate only before the age of one year. If the baby is doing well, feeding properly will help restore pancreatic function. In case of exacerbation of the situation, doctors insist on the use of drug therapy.
The standard treatment regimen includes:
- antibiotic therapy (Erythromycin),
- antiparasitic drugs,
- vitamin complexes,
- means for restoring liver function (Carsil or Essentiale).
Treatment of chronic cholecystitis is based on the use of drugs for the relief of pain syndrome (No-shpa). Additionally, you can use funds to restore the functions of the nervous system and choleretic drugs (Allochol).
The duration of the drug exposure is 7-14 days, depending on the general condition of the child. Treatment is carried out in a hospital or outpatient clinic. This issue is discussed with the doctor on an individual basis. The course of therapy can vary, depending on how old the child is and in what form the disease proceeds.
Gallbladder problems. Komarovsky school.