Violation of the processes of repolarization of the cause and treatment

Progressive pathology is caused by:

  • Coronary heart disease.
  • Thickening (hypertrophy) of the heart.
  • Overexertion of the heart ventricles.
  • The presence of additional ventricular chords.
  • Electrolyte (calcium, potassium, magnesium) imbalance.
  • Hypersympathicotonia (disorders related to the processes of repolarization in the myocardium are explained by an increased concentration of norepinephrine, adrenaline, tissue hypersensitivity to hormones).
  • Cardiomyopathy.
  • Abuse of medications (taking medications not prescribed by a doctor, exceeding the prescribed dosage).
  • Regular drinking.
  • Complications of diseases of the neuroendocrine system involved in the regulation of vital functions of the heart and blood vessels.
  • Hormonal disruptions.
  • Impaired thyroid function, diabetes, and other diseases affecting the endocrine system.
  • Severe menopause, pregnancy. During pregnancy, the cardiovascular (as well as others) body system is susceptible to the effects of negative factors, therefore, with the first symptoms of impaired repolarization processes in the myocardium, you should consult your doctor.
  • Staying in a state of chronic stress.
  • Intense physical exertion, professional sports activities.
  • Negative effects of exposure to low temperatures.
  • Age factors.
  • Heart defects (congenital, acquired).
  • Tumor diseases.
  • Stroke.
  • Traumatic brain injuries.
  • Hereditary predisposition to cardiovascular disease.

The pathological repolarization found in children is explained by intensive growth, anatomical abnormalities, aortic blood flow deterioration, overload (emotional, physical), and poor stress resistance.

The list of adverse factors includes hypersympathicotonia, accompanied by an excess of the norms of concentration of norepinephrine, adrenaline in the blood.

The likelihood of developing pathology in childhood increases with asthma, pneumonia, neurosis, myocarditis, chronic tonsillitis, anemia, excessive or inadequate thyroid activity.

To identify the exact causes (risk factors) of the violation of the processes of repolarization in the myocardium, it is necessary to seek the help of experienced specialists in the field of cardiology.

An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a common and widely used fairly objective way to diagnose various diseases and pathologies of the cardiovascular system and heart in particular.

The ECG is a kind of record of the heart and looks like a graph of curved lines, automatically printed by the device. According to the interpretation of this graph, you can draw conclusions about the work of the heart, make a diagnosis and make a conclusion about the general condition of the cardiovascular system.

Violation of the processes of repolarization is any change in the stage of relaxation of the heart muscle after contraction. These violations can be detected only by decoding the electrocardiogram graph.

narushenie repoljrizacii ekg potencial deistvija - Violation of the processes of repolarization of the cause and treatment

The process of repolarization is a state during which the initial (before contracting) potential of the cell membrane is restored and its electric charge is restored. Nerve impulses (potassium ions) must leave the membrane, the cell accumulates energy, enzymes and oxygen saturation.

The decoding of the electrocardiogram is very individual. The specialist should pay attention to many factors and indicators. It is almost impossible to independently determine the violation of repolarization processes, since with their presence several indicators are changed at once, and these changes can be insignificant or nonspecific.

What exactly caused the violation of myocardial repolarization is not precisely determined today. Numerous studies have identified several reasons that can cause a change in the processes of myocardial repolarization:

  • the presence of diseases of the heart muscle, in particular, overstrain of the tissues of the ventricles, ischemia, electrolyte imbalance, hypertrophy;
  • the negative effect of medications when they are uncontrolled;
  • increased levels of hormones (adrenaline and norepinephrine) and sensitivity to heart tissue;
  • non-specific reasons. Stress, strong physical exertion, a general change in hormonal levels.

The exact cause of disturbances in repolarization processes is unknown. Pathology can develop in the following conditions:

  • Autonomous dysregulation syndrome – better known as vegetative-vascular dystonia;
  • organic heart diseases – coronary heart disease, myocarditis, heart failure, cardiosclerosis, cardiomyopathy, thickening of the interventricular septum;
  • the use of drugs that affect the excitability or metabolism of myocardial cells – antidepressants, adrenergic agonists, psychostimulants, cardiac glycosides;
  • connective tissue dysplasia is a hereditary pathology characterized by insufficiency of collagen protein production and manifested by hypermobility of joints, increased skin extensibility, metabolic disturbances in the myocardium;
  • changes in blood electrolytes – sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium;
  • excessive physical activity – SRH is common among athletes.

Pathological repolarization disorders provoke changes in the ECG curve of the height of the T wave. However, it is impossible to make a precise diagnosis – this phenomenon is observed not only with heart diseases, but also with any metabolic disorders. If the shift of the ST segment is also traced, this indicates a violation of the electrolyte balance in the cells. The process of repolarization can be disrupted by a serious pathology – hypersympathicotonia, accompanied by an increase in the level of adrenaline in the blood.

narproc repoljarizacii 3 - Violation of the processes of repolarization of the cause and treatment

Many people have pathological changes in the lower wall of the heart muscle, completely unaware of it – such processes cause heavy physical labor, constant stressful situations, hormonal disorders and aging of the body

This condition is caused by an increase in the tone of the sympathetic part of the autonomic system and causes:

  • decrease in sweating, secretion of saliva and mucus;
  • dry skin;
  • tachycardia;
  • pain in the heart;
  • noticeable change in mood;
  • increase in blood pressure.

Normal performance

An electrocardiogram is a graphic representation of the electrical activity of the heart. The P, Q, R, S, T teeth are isolated. The very first in the cycle of the heart is the P wave. It shows atrial contraction. Ventricular depolarization is reflected on the film as a QRS complex. T wave shows ventricular relaxation. Perhaps the presence of a tooth U.

Atrial muscle relaxation is indicated by Ta or Tr. They are often invisible, combined with the ventricular contraction complex and the interval P. The ST interval shows the time interval between contraction and relaxation of the ventricles. The P-Q interval shows the time interval between the contraction of the atria and ventricles. Its duration in adults is 0,12-0,20 s. The duration of ventricular contraction is 0,04-0,10 s.

The condition of the teeth is assessed in different leads of the cardiogram. These include: standard, reinforced, chest. Depending on the localization of changes in the teeth, segments, intervals, various violations of the heart can be detected.

With a moderate intensity of pathology, painful symptoms related to the work of the heart may not occur, therefore, the identification of deviations from the norm often occurs at advanced stages.

A cardiologist, conducting an examination in cases of suspected development of disturbances in the processes of repolarization in the myocardium, studies the nature of the teeth of the cardiogram, interval indicators.

Normal characteristics of teeth:

  • Tooth T. Direction up (negative VR value).
  • Q wave. The normal rate is 1/4 R (at 300 ms).
  • Tooth R. Present in all leads.
  • Tooth S. Height – 2 cm.
  • Prong P. A positive value in the first two leads, a negative value of VR (100 ms).

Interval norms: QT – up to 400 ms, QRS complex – up to 100 ms, RR – 0,62/0,66/0,6 s, PQ – 120 ms.

In the absence of pathologies, the heart rate is from 60 to 85 beats per minute (sinus rhythm).

Possible manifestations and consequences for the body

2b24e65105bbe6f190833e10accf202e - Violation of the processes of repolarization of the cause and treatment

As a rule, in violation of human repolarization, nothing bothers. Therefore, in almost all, this syndrome is detected either during a preventive physical examination, or during an examination for another disease.

If symptoms appear, then only in the event of a violation of repolarization against the background of some kind of cardiac pathology. Then the patient may complain of heart pain, dizziness, increased heart rate, etc.

I am often asked about whether impaired myocardial repolarization is dangerous, especially during pregnancy. No, but it may indicate a cardiac disease.

As for SRRG, for a long time it was considered completely harmless, it was mistaken for a “random find.” However, many years of clinical trials have cast doubt on this.

It turned out that those people who had signs of AGR in the ECG had a very high risk of developing paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, and Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome in the future (after a few years).

In patients with impaired repolarization on the ECG, you can see changes in the T wave, U, ST segment. In a healthy person, the ST segment is located on the isoline. The T wave in standard leads is positive, not very high. It is normally directed in the same direction as the main ventricular complex (QRS). It can be negative in a healthy patient in enhanced avL lead.

The causes of changes in repolarization mechanisms are as follows:

  • ischemic damage to the heart muscle;
  • hypertrophy and overstrain of the muscle tissue of the ventricles;
  • violations of the contractile mechanisms of various parts of the heart;
  • electrolyte imbalance in the body (in adolescents and pregnant women);
  • the effect of drugs on the work of the heart muscle.

Often deviations of the ST segment from its normal position occur with ischemic damage to heart tissue. With a heart attack, the ST segment rises and is slightly distorted in the form of a curved back of a cat. Damage can be detected in various walls of the body. In addition to the ST segment, you can see a deep Q wave on the ECG. The deeper it is, the greater the thickness of the wall damage.

prichiny ehkg priznaki proyavleniya narushenij repolyarizacii serdca i voprosy terapii 2 - Violation of the processes of repolarization of the cause and treatment

ECG myocardial infarction

The following types of heart attack are distinguished by localization:

  • septum;
  • diffuse;
  • front wall;
  • back wall.

ECG image (leads)

The anterior region of the ventricle.

The defeat of the left ventricle in front and left.

Anterior superior ventricular injury

Very large lesion area (diffuse infarction)

Damage to the ventricle in the back.

The apex of the left ventricle.

After a heart attack, a patient may have a repolarization disorder on the ECG. This looks like the presence of a negative T wave in all leads, where it should normally be positive. This change persists for 14 days. The ST segment returns to its original position. With angina pectoris, the ST segment may decrease, and the T wave becomes negative. If there are such changes, you must consult a doctor to prescribe the proper treatment. This will help prevent the development of a heart attack in the future.

prichiny ehkg priznaki proyavleniya narushenij repolyarizacii serdca i voprosy terapii 3 - Violation of the processes of repolarization of the cause and treatment

Electrocardiogram for IHD

In the puberty, the position of the ST segment changes due to hormonal changes. This is considered a normal value. In patients under 20 years of age, an increase in this segment can also be detected. These changes are not dangerous.

When decoding the ECG, it is possible to detect a high T wave in patients with VSD and electrolyte disturbances. T wave may be acute when dehydrated in a child. Dehydration in children can lead to serious consequences. Changes can be detected with hypertrophic, dishormonal and stressful cardiomyopathy.

Violations of ECG repolarization processes in the form of an increase in the ST segment are also possible with inflammation of the heart muscle, as well as pericarditis. With inflammatory changes, the muscle begins to contract poorly, depolarization processes may be impaired. Ionic mechanisms that accompany the process of forming the action potential do not work correctly. As a result, the nature of myocardial relaxation changes.

Signs of an improper mechanism of relaxation of the heart muscle often occurs with hypertension. At high pressure, the left ventricle experiences a heavy load. Blood has to be pushed out with more force. In hypertensive patients with extensive experience, the walls of the left ventricle thicken, which leads to changes in its work, as well as recovery processes.

prichiny ehkg priznaki proyavleniya narushenij repolyarizacii serdca i voprosy terapii 4 - Violation of the processes of repolarization of the cause and treatment

ECG changes with left ventricular myocardial hypertrophy

During pregnancy, with intensive growth of the fetus and uterus, organs rise up. In this case, the heart is slightly compressed. The ventricles begin to work as a load. During the study (ECG), the patient can detect an increase in rhythm, as well as changes in repolarization of the lower wall of the ventricles.

In addition to organ compression, impaired recovery may occur due to severe toxicosis. In this case, a woman loses a large amount of magnesium, potassium, sodium. If there is toxicosis, then the patient must be tested for electrolytes. With gestosis, hypertension develops, which also leads to pathology of the repolarization mechanism.

Medications can interfere with the repolarization of the heart muscle. In this case, the character of the formation of the T wave changes, and the ST segment also shifts. After identifying the changes, it is better to adjust the patient’s therapy.

How to correct repolarization deviations?

Not a single doctor makes a diagnosis or prescribes treatment only by the results of electrocardiography! For this purpose, anamnesis data and a complete clinical picture of the patient’s pathological condition are collected, additional studies are performed: echocardiography, ultrasound scanning of the heart, functional stress tests.

It is difficult to unambiguously interpret the final data of the ECG curve – this is due to the heterogeneous nature of bioelectric processes. After conducting a comprehensive examination and establishing an accurate diagnosis, a qualified cardiologist prescribes a course of therapeutic measures aimed at eliminating the etiological causes of pathological changes.

A patient with a violation of the repolarization process needs follow-up, as well as:

  • regularly monitor the ECG;
  • eat rationally;
  • to carry out activities aimed at strengthening the state of health of the body and preventing the formation of pathological processes;
  • comply with the recommendations of the attending physician about the possibility of physical activity;
  • constantly take vitamins and prescribed medications.

The prognosis of the course of heart diseases when the patient fulfills all the instructions of an experienced specialist is completely favorable. The presence of deaths of close relatives from sudden cardiac arrest is very important – this phenomenon significantly complicates the prognosis. The absence of a burdened family history has a more favorable meaning.

The main and only method for the diagnosis of ventricular repolarization disorders is electrocardiography. On the film, nonspecific changes of the T wave (mainly in the chest leads) are visible – it becomes high, pointed, or, conversely, its amplitude decreases, it can be negative.

Of much greater interest is the ECG diagnosis of SRGR, in which the following main signs are noted:

  • ST segment lift;
  • point j, “camel hump”, “Osborne wave” – notch on the descending part of the ST segment;

Shortening of the PQ and QT intervals may also be observed.

Decoding a cardiogram requires special care from a doctor, since an ST segment elevation occurs in other, more serious pathologies, such as angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, pericarditis, etc. Most often, the clinical picture does not help in differential diagnosis, because Anemia is not accompanied by any symptoms.

However, if I find the above changes on the film in an adult (especially after 40 years), then I additionally prescribe stress tests, i.e. ECG removal at a time when the patient performs moderate physical activity – on a bicycle ergometer or treadmill (treadmill). With ATS, the cardiogram returns to normal. This helps me make a differential diagnosis with a painless form of angina pectoris and heart attack.

In the case of an uncertain ECG picture, I use special tests with drugs. The patient is injected with potassium chloride or Novocainamide. After 30 minutes, the ECG is removed. With ATS, the symptoms become more distinct.

To detect possible arrhythmias, I conduct my patients daily (Holter) ECG monitoring.

Since ATS can develop amid organic heart diseases, I prescribe echocardiography to assess the morphological structure of the myocardium.

Symptoms of the disease

Violation of the processes of repolarization – the main symptoms:

  • Headache
  • Weakness
  • Dizziness
  • Increased temperature
  • Cardiopalmus
  • Dyspnea
  • Memory impairment
  • Heart rhythm disturbance
  • Rap >chem opasno i kak lechitsya narushenie repolyarizacii miokarda - Violation of the processes of repolarization of the cause and treatment

Violation of the processes of repolarization is a disease during which the phase of repolarization shortens or becomes longer in time. Such a violation can be symptomatic, but this can only be determined by conducting the necessary diagnostic measures.

In most cases, failure of the processes of repolarization of the heart muscle does not have pronounced symptoms. Often, the pathology is recorded accidentally during routine examinations or during examinations, to confirm another diagnosis – when conducting a graphical recording of the heart (ECG).

If the violation of repolarization processes occurs in the myocardium as a whole, i.e. diffuse, it provokes a change in blood circulation, which affects the general condition of the body. In this case, symptoms appear that are also characteristic of any other cardiac pathologies:

  • change in heart rate;
  • chest pain;
  • change in emotional state (tearfulness, excessive irritability);
  • fatigue.

In addition, there are signs that reflect the area of ​​the heart muscle where a violation of repolarization processes is observed. In particular, left ventricular myocardial repolarization is accompanied by a malfunction of the heart rhythm.

The form of this disease, which is often fixed in young people, is the syndrome of early repolarization of the myocardial ventricles. Today it is considered only as an electrocardiographic concept that does not affect the functioning of the heart.

Interesting! Such a phenomenon, according to statistics, is registered in 8% of people, most of whom have excellent health and exercise regularly.

The pathological processes accompanying violations of myocardial repolarization are manifested:

  • Decreased disability, fatigue, weakness.
  • Painful sensations in the heart.
  • Arrhythmias (ventricular, supraventricular, tachyarrhythmias).
  • The instability of the pulse frequency.
  • Shortness of breath observed with increased physical exertion.
  • Irritability, mood instability.
  • Cardiogenic shock, hypertensive crisis, pulmonary edema (with heart dysfunction).

Symptoms of pathology in children and adolescents are supplemented by tachycardia, neurocirculatory dystonia. Also, a violation of the repolarization processes in a child is manifested by an increased tone of the vagus nerve.

A disease affecting the myocardium is often detected by chance, during medical examinations, which is explained by the asymptomatic course of the disease.

Treatment and proper observation

There is evidence of the use of so-called “energetic” drugs (Karnitin, Kudesan), which normalize metabolic processes in the myocardium. However, repolarization disorders themselves, as a rule, do not require treatment.

I prefer to pay more attention to the conditions and pathologies that caused the occurrence of disorders, and if they are detected, direct therapeutic measures (medication and non-medication) to eliminate them.

In the absence of any disease, it is necessary in the future to be regularly observed by a doctor. Undergo a minimum cardiac examination at least once a year – full-time examination, ECG removal, Holter monitoring.

In the course of prolonged course of SRGR, to prevent the occurrence of arrhythmias, I use magnesium preparations, less often – antiarrhythmic drugs (Amiodarone).

When life-threatening arrhythmias appear, radiofrequency ablation may be needed.

Advice from a specialist

The phrase “violation of repolarization” should not scare the patient. But to ignore it is also in no case worth it. In the presence of this pathology, an examination should be examined to determine the cause.

In view of the potential danger of SRH (the appearance of arrhythmias) as a preventive measure, I recommend that my patients give up smoking, intense physical exertion and the use of drugs that slow the pulse.

Clinical case

Recently, I observed a patient who came to me with complaints of difficulty breathing, aggravated by walking, climbing stairs, and at night. Several years suffering from arterial hypertension. I have not received any treatment. During a general examination, an increase in heart rate up to 126 per minute, high blood pressure up to 150/95 mm RT. Art., swelling of the feet and lower third of the legs, an increase and pain in the liver during palpation.

An ECG was performed. decoding – sinus tachycardia, diffuse disorders of the processes of left ventricular myocardial repolarization, signs of left ventricular hypertrophy. The patient is referred for echocardiography. Holter monitoring did not reveal other pathological abnormalities. The result – hypertrophy and dilatation (expansion) of the left heart, a decrease in the ejection fraction of the left ventricle – 55%. Clinical diagnosis was made: “Chronic heart failure stage IIB, II functional class according to NYHA. Background disease: Stage III hypertension, grade 2 arterial hypertension. ” Prescribed treatment: limiting salt intake to 3 g per day, Bisoprolol 5 mg 1 time per day, Perindopril 10 mg 1 time per day, Amlodipine 5 mg 1 time per day.

How is the disease identified on the ECG

Violation of ventricular myocardial repolarization during graphical recording is manifested in a change in the T wave. In addition, the doctor must monitor the changes in the P wave, which reflects the presence of atrial depolarization and the QRS complex, showing ventricular depolarization. In this case, the Q and S teeth are usually negative, and the R wave is positive, sometimes it can be more than one.

The syndrome of early myocardial repolarization during an ECG is usually displayed as follows:

  • the appearance of additional small teeth in the descending knee of the R wave;
  • the formation of concavity (upward) in the segment of the ST segment, which goes up from point J;
  • narrowness and asymmetry of tooth T.

The cardiogram shows changes in the T waves (shape distortion, base expansion, asymmetry), P, R (positive), Q, S (negative). The ST line rises above the contour by 1-3 mm, a notch appears before the ST increases. The ST shape becomes rounded or convex downward.

Failures regarding the processes of left ventricular myocardial repolarization are identified by a complex of QRS teeth: Q, S – negative, R – positive. The ST-segment rises from point J, notches are noticeable in the descending segment of the R wave.

For a more detailed study of violations and monitoring of the patient’s condition, diagnostic procedures are periodically repeated, supplemented by supporting measures.

Additional examinations

  • Ultrasound examinations (heart, other internal organs).
  • Daily ECG monitoring.
  • Electrophysiological examination.
  • Coronarography.
  • Load tests.
  • General, biochemical analyzes of urine, blood (allow >prichiny ehkg priznaki proyavleniya narushenij repolyarizacii serdca i voprosy terapii - Violation of the processes of repolarization of the cause and treatment

Before carrying out diagnostic measures, it is necessary to exclude physical activity in order to avoid distortion of the results.

Clinical case

Recently, I observed a patient who came to me with complaints of difficulty breathing, aggravated by walking, climbing stairs, and at night. Several years suffering from arterial hypertension. I have not received any treatment. During a general examination, an increase in heart rate up to 126 per minute, high blood pressure up to 150/95 mm RT. Art., swelling of the feet and lower third of the legs, an increase and pain in the liver during palpation.

An ECG was performed. decoding – sinus tachycardia, diffuse disorders of the processes of left ventricular myocardial repolarization, signs of left ventricular hypertrophy. The patient is referred for echocardiography. Holter monitoring did not reveal other pathological abnormalities. The result – hypertrophy and dilatation (expansion) of the left heart, a decrease in the ejection fraction of the left ventricle – 55%.

Clinical diagnosis was made: “Chronic heart failure stage IIB, II functional class according to NYHA. Background disease: Stage III hypertension, grade 2 arterial hypertension. ” Prescribed treatment: limiting salt intake to 3 g per day, Bisoprolol 5 mg 1 time per day, Perindopril 10 mg 1 time per day, Amlodipine 5 mg 1 time per day.

Violation of the processes of repolarization in the myocardium

Therapeutic procedures include the use of:

  • Mineral and vitamin complexes (contribute to meeting the needs of cells of a vital organ in essential substances).
  • Cocarboxylase hydrochloride (provides normalization of carbohydrate metabolism, prevents neurological disorders, improves the condition of the heart and blood vessels).
  • Corticotropic hormonal drugs (due to the content of cortisone, cardiac pathologies are eliminated).
  • Beta-blockers (eliminate concomitant diseases that affect the heart).

To increase the effectiveness of the treatment of diffuse disorders of the processes of repolarization in the myocardium, it is advisable:

  • Minimize consumption of fried, fat-rich foods, give up alcohol.
  • Vitaminize the diet.
  • Optimize the day (exclude physical overload, eliminate sleep disturbances).
  • Avoid stress, stabilize the psycho-emotional background.

In the absence of severe symptoms, as prescribed by the doctor, the treatment course is limited to organizational measures, potent medicines are not used.

If the prerequisites are created for the development of unsafe ventricular tachyarrhythmias, the QT interval shortening syndrome progresses, and conservative methods do not lead to improved dynamics, there is a need to install an electric pacemaker.

Violation of myocardial repolarization, the treatment of which completely depends on the root cause of the disease and is aimed at eliminating it, is not rarely considered as normal options, especially in young people. For people over the age of 50, this pathology, combined with complaints about the work of the heart muscle and the corresponding history, can be a manifestation of hypertension or coronary artery disease.

If the exact causes of the appearance of violations of repolarization processes in the heart are not established, then complex therapy with the following drugs is carried out:

  • vitamin complexes that will provide the cardiovascular system with the necessary trace elements and vitamins, thereby supporting its full-fledged work;
  • cocarboxylase hydrochloride, which helps restore carbohydrate metabolism and heart function, as well as normalizes trophic processes in the peripheral and central nervous system;
  • hormones of the corticotropic series, the active substance of which is cortisone. Its main function is to stimulate the synthesis of carbohydrates from proteins, which is necessary for the normal functioning of the body as a whole;
  • panangin or anaprilin, which belong to the group of drugs of β-blockers. They are used to treat this disease extremely rarely, only in cases where there is a real threat to the patient’s health.

The selection of drugs and their dosage for each patient is carried out individually, after a detailed study of the results of analyzes and examinations.

Drug therapy for repolarization disorders is aimed at eliminating the cause. If changes in the ECG are caused by taking medications, then it is better to cancel the treatment or change the drug. During pregnancy with toxicosis, therapy consists in replenishing the electrolyte balance. With a simple compression of the heart by the uterus after childbirth, all changes disappear on their own.

prichiny ehkg priznaki proyavleniya narushenij repolyarizacii serdca i voprosy terapii 5 - Violation of the processes of repolarization of the cause and treatment

The question of the need for treatment of disorders of repolarization processes is resolved after further examination of the patient

The presence of signs of repolarization changes in healthy patients under 20 years of age and in adolescents is not dangerous. It can also occur in a healthy pregnant woman. These conditions do not require corrections; they pass on their own. Serious pathologies must be treated:

  • myocardial infarction;
  • angina pectoris;
  • hypothyroidism;
  • gestosis;
  • toxicosis;
  • electrolyte deficiency;
  • dehydration;
  • rhythm disturbances.

Correct diagnosis of the causes of changes on the ECG will help to successfully cure the patient.

Everyone knows: his health and life expectancy largely depend on how well the heart works. Therefore, if in the decoding of the ECG in an adult, instead of the word “norm”, the entry “violation of the processes of repolarization” appears, then he begins to feel anxiety. What does such a verdict mean and how dangerous is it?

What is the violation of repolarization processes on the ECG? In adults, this can be either a variant of the norm that does not require medical attention, or a warning about a serious pathology. Let’s try to describe the essence of the phenomenon in simple language.

The heart is based on the alternation of excitation (depolarization) and relaxation (repolarization). The work of this body is controlled by the brain. He sends him electrical pulses. They are captured by nerve cells and transferred to the appropriate receptors.

With the passage of such a signal, the structure of the cell membrane at the molecular level changes – without this, sodium ions simply cannot move freely through it. Repolarization is the process of restoring the electric charge of a cardiomyocyte (muscle cell of the heart) after a nerve impulse passes through it, causing it to be excited.

It occurs in those short moments when the heart rests before the next contraction.

Violation of repolarization can be triggered by a number of factors. This phenomenon is often lead to increased physical exertion – intense training or just a quick climb up the stairs. Deviation on the ECG may also occur because a person drank cold water or was worried before it.

Signs of repolarization are often found in women during pregnancy and during menopause. But cardiac pathologies (coronary heart disease, cardiosclerosis), disorder of the activity of NS, kidney disease, hormonal imbalance are also capable of causing such a violation. Similar deviations sometimes occur while taking adrenomimetics.

During repolarization, the heart muscle is at rest. On the cardiogram, this is reflected in the QT segment. Its duration, if everything is normal in a person, is 0,3-0,4 s.

A decrease or increase in the duration of this period indicates that the repolarization process is impaired.

However, the diagnostic doctor takes into account not only this indicator – it also evaluates the shape and size of the teeth, the presence of additional waves.

An increase in QT often accompanies congenital pathologies that are associated with gene disorders. An extended QT interval appears on the cardiogram, the T wave changes. Such a deviation can manifest itself with the following symptoms:

  • sudden rapid heartbeat of intense emotions or physical overload;
  • fainting.

If QT is shortened, it is usually associated with impaired functioning of potassium channels. In this case, you can notice on the graph that the interval is less than or equal to 0,33-0,35 s. What can the patient feel? Sometimes this is not manifested by external signs, but such warning signs may be noted:

  • slow heart rate at any time of the day;
  • pulse acceleration in the form of an attack of atrial fibrillation or tachycardia;
  • loss of consciousness.

In the blood there is an increased content of calcium and potassium. In addition, an increase in the acidity of the pH of the internal environment of the body is detected.

narproc repoljarizacii 1 - Violation of the processes of repolarization of the cause and treatment

Another violation is early repolarization.

The main signs of such a deviation, which are visible on the graph, are additional notches and waves on the descending part of the R wave (it is called “pseudo-tooth R”), a change in the ST segment, which is expressed in its oblique or horizontal rise above the contour (this forms a bend, downward).

If repolarization has affected the entire myocardium, then this negatively affects the general state of health, which is manifested as follows:

  • change in heart rate up or down;
  • stitching, aching, or cutting pain in the heart;
  • decrease in working capacity;
  • dizziness;
  • fainting;
  • “Quick tears”, irritability.

If a certain area of ​​the heart muscle is affected, then any one symptom prevails. So, if the patient often jumps in the pulse, then it can be assumed that this is a violation of the processes of repolarization in the myocardium of the left ventricle.

If there is a violation of the processes of repolarization in the lower wall of the left ventricle, this is manifested by the fact that when performing work that requires physical effort, a person begins to feel dizzy, flies float before his eyes, blood pressure rises. Then shortness of breath develops and swelling on the legs appears.

Violation of the processes of repolarization in the anterior septal region, due to hyperactivity of nerve fibers passing in the anterior wall of the myocardium and interventricular septum, is often recorded during VVD.

Treatment will depend on how serious the cause of the pathology is. If it could not be found, then the following treatment regimen is used:

  • multivitamin and mineral complexes;
  • corticotropic hormones;
  • cocarboxylase hydrochloride (restores carbohydrate metabolism, normalizes the functioning of CCC);
  • in the most severe cases – beta-blockers Anaprilin, Panangin.

No one will argue that it is best to have a perfect cardiogram. But if you have found violations of the processes of repolarization, then do not make hasty conclusions.

narushenie repoljrizacii deti - Violation of the processes of repolarization of the cause and treatment

Undergo an ultrasound of the heart to make sure there is no coronary heart disease, do a stress test. If, according to the results of such a diagnosis, everything is normal, then the worst can be ruled out.

Most often, to normalize the condition, it is enough to revise your regimen and drink vitamins.

Impaired myocardial repolarization

Myocardial repolarization is called the process of restoring the structure of the membrane of a nerve cell.

When a nerve impulse passed through it, under its action the natural state of the membrane was disrupted. It should normalize during the reverse movement of ions.

Forecast

narushenie repoljrizacii ibs - Violation of the processes of repolarization of the cause and treatment

The prognosis for impaired repolarization processes in the myocardium is determined by the list of negative factors, accompanying symptoms.

With heart disease, heart attack, ventricular ailments, unfavorable history, the probability of irreversible consequences reaches a maximum. The benign course of the pathology detected at an early stage is characterized by insignificant risks of irreversible pathologies. There is no serious threat to the life of the body.

In order to avoid complications, it is necessary to optimize (improve) the nutrition system, the mode of work and rest, and abandon addictions. With a clear implementation of the doctor’s recommendations, the normal functioning of the myocardium is restored, favorable dynamics are observed, confirmed by periodic examinations.

Detonic – a unique medicine that helps fight hypertension at all stages of its development.

Detonic for pressure normalization

The complex effect of plant components of the drug Detonic on the walls of blood vessels and the autonomic nervous system contribute to a rapid decrease in blood pressure. In addition, this drug prevents the development of atherosclerosis, thanks to the unique components that are involved in the synthesis of lecithin, an amino acid that regulates cholesterol metabolism and prevents the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.

Detonic not addictive and withdrawal syndrome, since all components of the product are natural.

Detailed information about Detonic is located on the manufacturer’s page www.detonicnd.com.

Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.

Detonic
Ventricular anterior wall, septum
V3 – V4
I, aVL, V5, V6
I, II, aVL, V5, V6
aVL, V1 – V6
II, III, aVF
II, III, aVF, V3 – V6