Women after 50 years often gain weight, and shortness of breath becomes their companion. Signs of it are associated with the depth and frequency of inspiration:
- Dyspnea is a breathing disorder after exercise. It all starts with the difficulties of climbing stairs or chest pain when walking uphill. Women often confuse this pressure on the chest with angina pectoris.
- Orthopnea is associated with difficulty breathing while lying down. Along with heart treatment, women often place one or two pillows under their heads and shoulders to sleep. They rise at night, hanging legs from the bed, and this improves the condition.
- Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea is a sudden episode of awakening with severe shortness of breath, coughing and wheezing. Attacks are observed 1-3 hours after going to bed. Choking resembles asthmatic attacks with wheezing.
- Central sleep apnea is a disorder in which the brain does not send signals to the muscles for breathing. It is observed in half of women with heart failure, usually against the background of overweight. If the disease progresses, then respiratory arrest in a dream provokes panic attacks.
Symptoms of female heart failure relate to changes in body weight:
- Fluid retention can cause sudden weight gain and frequent urination when treatment for kidney disease is required.
- A decrease in cardiac output and difficulties with physical activity provoke loss of muscle mass, the development of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome.
- Discomfort after eating, abdominal pain, problems with swallowing also accompany heart disease. Decompensation of heart failure can cause dramatic weight loss.
Heart failure complications
Pulmonary edema is a complication of heart failure. Signs appear either suddenly or increase over several days:
- Shortness of breath is accompanied by coughing and expectoration of pink foam.
- Bubbling sensation in the lungs, choking sensation.
- Sticky and pale, almost cyanotic skin.
How are symptoms and manifestations of heart failure in women?
As a rule, a serious heart disease affects older people, exposed to stress, alcohol abuse, smoking, suffering from atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus. Sometimes an infectious disease, such as the flu, can contribute to heart disease.
Women during the period of hormonal adjustment of the body often suffer from heart weakness. The degree of development of vascular pathology depends on concomitant diseases and the mental state of a person. Chemical reactions under stress worsen the blood supply to the heart, accelerate the pulse, and create the prerequisites for the development of myocardial infarction or acute heart failure.
In this case, the patient must be treated in time for a weakened heart in order to prevent a heart attack.
As a result of the development of myocardial infarction, the appearance of disturbances in the work of the left ventricle of the heart is observed. Blood stagnates in the vessels of the pulmonary circulation, the nutrition of the heart muscle suffers.
Often the cause of the development of insufficiency is a violation in the work of the right and left ventricles of the heart.
Arterial hypertension and excessive fluid intake into the body can also cause a malfunction of the heart muscle.
The amount of cardiac output is affected by toxins, anemia and increased thyroid function. Heart failure in women develops as a result of a persistent increase in blood pressure and prolonged arrhythmia.
Signs of heart failure appear when the body is damaged by viruses and bacteria that penetrate the myocardium and destroy the structure of cells. Poor functioning of the heart muscle leads to the development of heart failure. The size of the heart increases, the rhythm is broken, the conductivity changes. Large vessels are compressed by edematous fluid, myocardial blood supply suffers.
Many patients experience weakness during the day, increased fatigue, palpitations. The woman is especially worried about the feeling of heaviness in the heart, low-grade fever.
Often the patient draws attention to frequent and noisy breathing. A woman suffers from symptoms of intoxication:
- fainting condition;
- excessive sweating.
Physical stress causes the appearance of unpleasant sensations: arrhythmias, palpitations, shortness of breath.
Symptoms of left ventricular failure appear as cramping in the chest on the left, inability to change the position of the body, wheezing in the lungs, swelling of the cervical veins, cough. Practice shows: shortness of breath occurs in the early stages of the disease after physical exertion, and often – at rest.
Acute failure is always dangerous for the life and health of a woman and is manifested by symptoms such as:
A progressive dysfunction of the heart muscle leads to a change in blood supply, the appearance of high blood pressure, and metabolic disorders. In a sick woman, an increase in the size of the liver, swelling of the legs and in the lumbar region, swelling of the cervical veins are observed.
In HIV-infected patients, the first signs of failure are accompanied by the formation of infiltrates in the region of the cardiac conduction system and the appearance of persistent arrhythmia. Myocardium with insufficiency suffers from metabolic disorders.
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- Development of complications
- Causes of pathology in women
- Forms of heart failure
- Dyspnea is an early symptom of the disease.
- Treatment of pathology
- What are the characteristics of female heart disease?
- General recommendations
- Modern methods of early diagnosis of heart failure in women
- Features of heart failure (heart failure) in women
- The first signs, symptoms, treatment and preventive measures of heart failure in women
Development of complications
In young and adulthood, there is a difference between acute left ventricular failure in men and women. This is due to the protective effect of sex hormones – estrogen. With left ventricular pathology in women, heart valve weakness, anemia, and cardiological disorders appear.
A girl suffering from pathology of the left ventricle often develops shortness of breath, swelling of the bronchial mucosa and lung tissue. Physical activity worsens the patient’s well-being.
A woman hardly exhales air, cyanosis appears around her mouth, and the load on the heart and blood vessels increases. The progression of the disease leads to shortness of breath and at rest.
The patient can not sleep on a low pillow, wakes up at night from an attack of suffocation.
Stagnation of blood and insufficient vascular tone cause serious disorders that significantly aggravate the situation. The patient develops wheezing, a slight cough or a strong cough, and blood pressure rises.
A dangerous complication of cardiac asthma is pulmonary edema, which requires emergency medical attention.
The insufficiency associated with malfunctions of the heart muscle occurs with the rapid transfusion of blood or blood substitutes. One of the main reasons for the appearance of weakness of the right ventricle is the closure of a pulmonary artery with a thrombus or the development of diseases such as asthma, pneumothorax, pneumonia.
It should be remembered that as a result of a decrease in daily urine output, potassium is delayed in the patient’s body. This condition is very dangerous for a woman’s life. During an attack of cardiac asthma, the patient experiences significant relief while sitting on a bed or chair.
In this case, the outflow of blood from the vessels of the brain improves, the blood supply to the heart from the inferior vena cava decreases.
Often, the patient feels heaviness in the abdomen due to an enlarged liver, edema formed on the lower extremities and the anterior abdominal wall.
In the case of the development of an acute form of the disease, the patient complains of a heartbeat, swelling in the lower third of the leg, and pain in the liver.
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The first signs of heart failure of the right ventricle are replaced by more severe symptoms. Edema covers the lower back, hips, upper limbs. The patient is concerned about nausea, yellowness of the skin and sclera.
After a few days, the symptoms of insufficiency intensify, the limbs become colder, and excessive urination appears.
Urine contains a significant amount of protein, and the patient loses her appetite, refuses to take medication.
A condition that develops in a person when his heart and blood vessels work in a weakened mode is called heart failure (HF).
If adequate medical measures are not taken in a timely manner, malfunctions of the function of all organs and systems appear.
Due to the physiological characteristics, heart failure in women begins to manifest symptoms a little later than in men. But the signs and consequences of the pathology are not dependent on gender.
Starts pathological processes weakening the ability of the myocardium to contract. It can be primary and secondary.
Primary Associated with myocardial damage:
- myocardial dystrophy;
- protracted anemia.
Secondary It is associated with overwork of the heart muscle, insufficient supply of it with oxygen and energy:
- pericarditis with the formation of fluid around the heart or with the gluing of pericardial leaves;
- chronic pulmonary diseases, leading to increased pressure in the vessels of the lungs;
- heart defects;
- hypertension in the pulmonary circulation.
Primary and secondary causes can be combined with each other. For example, intoxication damages the myocardium – the primary effect and secondary fatigue of the heart, causing constant tachycardia.
- Shortness of breath on exertion or at rest.
- Weight change.
- Forced position in bed (the headboard is lifted by cushioning). Sleep half-sitting.
- Swollen neck veins.
- Wheezing in the lungs.
- Liver enlargement.
- Rapid or irregular heartbeat.
- Swelling of the lower extremities.
- Excessive fluid retention in the body.
- Restriction to physical activity.
- Lethargy, lethargy.
- Weakness, fatigue.
- Discomfort lying on the left side.
- Restriction of movement, sometimes even around the apartment.
Causes of pathology in women
The etiology of the disease associated with the ability of the myocardium to contract can be conditionally divided into primary and subsequent. Anomalies that affect the functionality of the heart:
- acute myocarditis due to infection;
- arteriosclerosis of arteries;
- dystrophy with intoxication;
- disruption of the endocrine system – diabetes, myxedema;
- lack of iron in the blood, anemia;
- damage to the heart muscle.
Secondary causes are a number of factors that can cause the disease:
- high blood pressure
- coronary atherosclerosis,
- birth defects
The main manifestation of heart failure is observed in women after 50 years during the onset of menopause, when estrogen production ceases. Without them, processes in the heart, kidneys, and liver are disrupted.
Taking into account the causes of the anomaly, it is possible to compile an average image of the patient. A woman over the age of 40 who has diabetes, hypertension due to overweight, as well as atrial fibrillation.
Heart failure in women develops under the influence of various factors. It can be the result of diseases of the cardiovascular system, as well as other pathological conditions that are not directly related to the heart. Here is a list of the most significant causes of heart failure:
- diseases of the heart and blood vessels;
- hereditary factor;
- high blood pressure;
- thyro >
Cardiovascular diseases leading to the development of insufficiency: ischemic diseases (angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia), congenital muscle pathologies (aortic valve insufficiency), cardiomyopathy (changes in the structure and size of the heart).
In modern medicine, several classifications are used to determine the type of heart failure and the degree of its manifestation. In Russian clinical practice, the division into species according to N. Strazhesko is most often used. This system proposes to classify heart failure according to the stages of development of pathology and the severity of symptoms.
|Stage||Symptoms of pathological processes in the left ventricle or atrium||Symptoms of pathological processes in the right ventricle|
|I||Symptoms are absent at rest, but with physical exertion, slight shortness of breath may occur.||Symptoms are absent at rest, but with physical exertion, slight shortness of breath may occur.|
|IIA||The number of heart contractions (HR) in women increases to 82-95 beats. in min., the number of respiratory movements reaches 20-22 per min.||On palpation, the liver is palpable under the twelfth rib|
|IIB||Heart rate increases to 95-120 beats. in min., the number of respiratory movements is 22-28 per min.||There is a pathological enlargement of the liver and swelling of the cervical veins|
|III||Heart rate reaches 120-140 beats. in min., the number of respiratory movements exceeds 29 per minute||Marked hepatomegaly, ascites – accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, anasarca – total edema of the subcutaneous tissue|
With this pathology, the fluid stagnates in the pulmonary circulation, due to which tissue hypoxia develops, that is, oxygen starvation. The most characteristic sign of impaired cardiac activity in this case is shortness of breath. Initially, it appears only with significant physical or mental stress:
- playing sports, running;
- weight lifting;
- severe stress;
- fear, etc.
As the congestion in the pulmonary circulation progresses, breathing disorders begin to occur even with bending, walking, talking. The patient’s condition deteriorates sharply if she tries to lie on her back. This symptom occurs due to an increase in blood volume in the heart, which increases blood pressure in the vessels. This condition is also called orthopnea – shortness of breath, forcing the patient to constantly be in a sitting position, resting her palms on her knees.
The appearance of shortness of breath is also accompanied by other symptoms that many women do not pay attention to. In heart failure, fatigue and a feeling of general malaise develop quite quickly. At the same time, patients begin to complain of insomnia, since at night the attacks of suffocation usually sharply increase.
Since the heart muscle ceases to cope with the load attributed to it, the patient develops tachycardia, that is, a pathological heart rate. Violation of blood circulation leads to pallor and dry skin, bouts of sweating. Often, women during menopause attribute these symptoms to the onset of menopause.
Symptoms of heart failure
Gradually, the so-called heart cough joins shortness of breath. It can be dry and bruising at the initial stages of the development of pathology. As fluid accumulates in the lungs, the patient begins to be bothered by copious clear sputum. With the destruction of blood vessels, the discharge becomes rusty or scarlet in color due to an impurity of blood.
During this period, it is very important to conduct differential diagnosis in a timely manner, since heart failure is often taken for a number of other diseases:
- malignant lesions of the lung tissue and upper respiratory tract.
In most cases, in the absence of therapy, this pathology leads to the development of respiratory failure and the development of pulmonary edema.
This type of pathology develops only in 25-30% of patients, however, it poses a greater danger to health and life than left ventricular failure. The insufficiency of the right ventricle has a more malignant course, as it is characterized by the rapid progression of the pathology and the erased symptoms in the early stages.
Symptoms of right ventricular failure
The syndrome is manifested by signs that most patients do not evaluate as a pathology of the cardiovascular system. Patients are periodically disturbed by attacks of tachycardia and arrhythmia, dizziness. The skin becomes pasty, that is, pale, swollen and inelastic. At the same time, liver enlargement begins.
As the pathology develops, the formation of edema begins. Initially, they affect the lower limbs, then the hips and the back and abdomen. Over time, the process covers the entire subcutaneous tissue, leading to anasarca – large-scale edema. For a short period, 1-2 months, the patient’s weight may increase by 15-20 kilograms because of this.
Difference of edema of renal origin from edema of cardiac origin
An increase in the liver gradually leads to destruction of the stroma – a capsule of the liver, in which there is a large number of painful nerve endings. The patient begins to experience discomfort in the right hypochondrium, a feeling of heaviness and nausea. Over time, pathological changes begin to cause intense pain, which cannot be stopped with analgesics.
Clinical symptoms of left ventricular failure
Violations of the vascular system cause cyanosis, that is, cyanosis, skin and epithelium. A characteristic sign of heart disease is the blue or purple hue of the epidermis in the nasolabial triangle, lips and fingertips.
In addition, with right ventricular failure, the following specific symptoms are noted:
- oliguria, that is, a decrease in the amount of urine produced due to a decrease in the release of blood by the heart muscle;
- weight gain;
- fatigue, headache;
- decreased appetite;
- heartburn, nausea, in rare cases, vomiting.
Causes of Acute Heart Failure
This pathology is one of the most severe and life-threatening circulatory disorders. A patient with acute failure must be hospitalized in the intensive care unit of a cardiological hospital within the first hour after the development of an attack.
Acute heart failure develops as a complication of any disease of the cardiovascular system, including chronic failure. With this pathology, the contractility of the myocardium is sharply reduced, which leads to severe hypoxia of all organs and tissues of the body.
Symptoms of Acute Heart Failure
It develops within a few months, more often the culprit is the course:
- Arterial hypertension.
- Atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis.
- Myocardial disease
- Aortic malformations.
It is characterized by venous congestion in the lungs. Gradual increase in shortness of breath with habitual exertion and a tendency to tachycardia. Additional load can lead to acute left ventricular failure in the form of cardiac asthma or pulmonary edema.
Forms of heart failure
Pathology is classified according to the intensity of the ejection, has an acute and chronic (CHF) form, is systolic and diastolic.
Depends on a number of related factors:
- coronary artery disease
- arterial hypertension,
- valve anomaly.
With these pathologies, the release will be underestimated:
- Paget’s disease
- arteriovenous shunts.
An attack occurs in women with an extensive heart attack or rupture of the heart valve. The condition lasts 20-30 minutes and is accompanied by:
- a sharp decrease in pressure,
- the acquisition of a blue tint of the lips and fingers,
- panic attack
- lack of puffiness.
The situation is a consequence of heart failure. With a prolonged course of heart failure, the arterial index is normal, but the fluid accumulates in the tissues, manifesting as edema. Having different symptoms, acute and chronic forms require the same measures to limit the blood volume or increase it. Salt-free diets and diuretics are prescribed.
The mechanism that caused the abnormality in the ventricles is the same. The difference is that at the time of the ejection, the muscle cannot cope and the volume is insufficient (systolic). Violations are manifested by rapid fatigue, weakness, hypotension. In the case of diastolic anomaly, the ventricle is in good shape without the necessary relaxation, the incoming blood does not completely fill it. Signs are high blood pressure, arrhythmia. Both manifestations of pathology can lead to pulmonary edema.
Most often joins the left ventricular due to impaired pulmonary circulation, increased pressure in the pulmonary artery system and overloads of the right heart.
Isolated right ventricular heart failure can occur:
- In chronic lung diseases.
- Heart defects.
- Significant obesity.
- Severe kyphoscoliosis.
It manifests itself mainly stagnation in the veins of a large circle of blood circulation.
- General weakness.
- Heaviness in the liver.
- Persistent tachycardia.
- Swelling of the legs, especially towards the end of the working day.
- Swelling of the cervical veins.
- Liver enlargement.
- Decreased appetite, nausea, pain in the epigastric region.
- Signs of brain hypoxia.
Dyspnea is an early symptom of the disease.
Diagnosis of heart failure is based on the taking of an anamnesis, conducting an examination, including measuring blood pressure, pulse, auscultation of the heart and lungs. The doctor will examine the legs and stomach for swelling. He will send for a blood test to detect anemia and an inflammatory process, as well as a urine test for protein and salt, which will indicate kidney function.
An electrocardiogram is performed, which reveals an atrium affected by heart failure. An echocardiogram visualizes the heartbeat, the size of the ventricles, the amount of ejection. At a young age up to 40 years, stress tests are carried out that determine the response to stress, and also determines the pumping function of the heart.
Heart treatment in women should be comprehensive, including management of hormone levels after menopause. Training to respond to stress and the prevention of depression are necessary conditions for a healthy heart after 40-50 years. Regular physical activity helps control blood pressure, reduce weight and risk of diabetes, and increase stress resistance.
Patients note changes in their condition:
- weakness throughout the day;
- accelerated heartbeat;
- dull pain in the left half of the chest;
- a change in the shade of the skin around the mouth to a bluish color;
- a sense of causeless anxiety;
- bursts of fear;
- rapid surface breathing – shortness of breath;
- increased functionality of sweat glands – excessive sweating;
- fainting state;
- sharp outbreaks of headaches.
Any physical effort causes arrhythmia, increased heart rate and shortness of breath. Signs of heart failure in women appear with the progression of the disease – the primary stages are latent.
In case of suspicion of the development of a pathological condition, the cardiologist directs the patient to diagnostic tests:
- clinical blood and urine tests;
- chest x-ray;
- CT, MRI of the heart muscle;
- Ultrasound of the kidneys and liver.
Additional tests depend on the severity and characteristics of the disease, the accompanying ailments. After receiving all the data, the specialist makes a final diagnosis.
With heart failure, the heart muscle is not able to pump the necessary volumes of blood. As a result, organs and tissues experience oxygen starvation, as a result of which stagnant phenomena develop. Symptomatic deviations in the children’s age period have their own manifestations:
- soreness in the chest;
- frequent, shallow breathing; shortness of breath – forming with short-term physical exertion.
An important symptom for parents is respiratory failure in a horizontal position – rapid and uneven. Physical weakness, night sleep failures, and fatigue report problems in the cardiovascular section.
Disruption of the cardiovascular department is more difficult to establish without a diagnostic examination. In the chest period, symptomatic manifestations are determined:
- on attacks of causeless anxiety;
- at the time of crying, cold sweat appears on the baby’s body;
- skin integrates a distinct pallor.
All these signs inform parents that the child has a severe degree of damage to the cardiovascular system. Stagnation, in the form of accumulated blood, is reflected in the condition of the baby:
- refusal to eat;
- Slow weight gain
- lagging behind in standards of psychophysical development.
External manifestations in the chest age practically do not differ from the symptoms of adults:
- severe blue skin, especially noticeable in the lips;
- local and general puffiness – as a result of accumulated excess fluid.
Pathology begins from the lower leg segments and gradually captures the upstream areas, slowly moving along the patient’s body. After the infant reaches the age of four months, it shows signs of myocardial damage – the formation of large swelling in the heart. The manifestation is often called the “cardiac hump.”
This condition is recorded in 30% of the total number of sick women. Right-sided lesion is considered more dangerous than left-sided and poses a greater danger to the patient’s life and health. The disease refers to malignant forms – with rapid progression and undetectable symptoms in the initial phases of development.
The ailment has distinctive features that are mistakenly mistaken for other forms of cardiovascular disease. Patients complain:
- for an accelerated heartbeat and irregular heartbeat;
- occasional dizziness;
- integuments become pronounced pallor;
- in the dermis, elasticity decreases, swelling appears.
In parallel with visual signs, spontaneous enlargement of the liver begins. It is impossible to determine this symptom independently – a diagnostic study is necessary together with a physical medical examination. The absence of pain receptors in the liver tissues leads to a lack of discomfort in the initial stages of the disease.
Its subsequent increase affects the capsules, in which there are a large number of nerve endings. Over time, a woman begins to experience discomfort in the right hypochondrium, a feeling of nausea and a feeling of constant heaviness. Further progression of the pathological condition leads to intense pain syndrome, which is not suppressed by analgesics.
The formation of puffiness begins with the lower parts of the legs, gradually capturing the femoral and lumbar regions. As it grows, the patient has large-scale swelling of the subcutaneous tissue. Within a short period of time – up to two calendar months, body mass indicators can increase by 20 kilograms.
On palpation, the sites of edema are cool, with pronounced blue and immobility when trying to move. These signs make it possible to separate cardiovascular failure from other lesions of the urinary and other systems.
An insufficient supply of oxygen with blood flow causes the formation of a bluish tint of the skin. The main characteristic of chronic heart failure is a clear blue at the fingertips of the hands and feet, in the region of the nasolabial triangle.
The lack of functionality of the right ventricle has specific symptomatic manifestations:
- a decrease in the volume of excreted urine – due to a decrease in the release of blood by the heart muscle
- a sharp increase in body weight;
- sudden headaches;
- complete lack of appetite;
- nausea and rare vomiting.
Primary – rarely recorded, has blurry or absent symptoms. It is determined by the insufficient supply of oxygen at the time of physical exertion – severe shortness of breath. The condition goes away at rest, does not require auxiliary medications. The functionality of the organs and the functioning of the circulatory system are not affected.
Secondary – characterized by clear signs of a lesion present:
- discoloration of the skin;
- hemodynamic impairment;
- the appearance of shortness of breath against a background of minor exertion;
- dry cough, with the release of sputum, blood particles are detected in it;
- significant reduction in the level of disability;
- swelling of the lower extremities;
- an increase in the boundaries of the liver.
Tertiary – shows symptoms of decompensated heart failure. At this level, irreversible lesions of internal organs are recorded:
- cirrhosis of the liver;
- pneumosclerotic changes.
With any treatment option, the probability of recovery is reduced to zero. Most often, therapy is futile and useless.
The condition can progress over several days or develop instantly – in a matter of minutes. Most often fixed at night or in the morning hours. The patient wakes up abruptly and occupies a forced, half-sitting position. Panic attacks are associated with a sensation of near death.
The total duration of the attack does not exceed half an hour. The onset of the syndrome is characterized by symptomatic manifestations:
- a sharp drop in blood pressure;
- the appearance of severe pressing pain in the chest area or a sensation of unbearable burning sensation;
- uneven contractions of the heart muscle;
- sharp pallor of the skin;
- limb cyanosis;
- the release of cold sweat over the entire surface of the dermis;
- fainting state;
- periodic attacks of suffocation;
- cough with bloody foam;
- short-term loss of consciousness.
In rare cases, a heart attack ends safely – without emergency care, cardiac arrest occurs. Pulmonary edema, cardiac asthma, cardiogenic shock state often cause death.
Treatment of pathology
Patients with heart failure should be registered with a cardiologist. Periodic consultations are carried out to adjust the prescribed treatment regimen. As the main therapy drugs are used:
- cardiac glycosides;
- calcium antagonists;
- medications that improve metabolic processes;
- potassium preparations;
- nitrates and other vasodilators;
The selection of drugs is carried out individually, taking into account the condition of the patient, the degree and stage of the pathological process.
Chronic insufficiency of the cardiovascular department refers to lifelong diagnoses. With timely treatment of the disease, its definition, the strict implementation of the recommendations of the cardiologist on lifestyle and diet, the progression of the disease slows down. The extension of the number of years a patient’s life largely depends on himself.
The diagnosis is based on:
- Complaints: (they listen to the patient, look, ask questions).
- Clinical manifestations (wheezing in the lungs, enlarged liver, edema).
- Objective signs.
- ECG (electrocardiogram). If the patient has a normal ECG, you need to double-check the diagnosis.
- A blood test for the content of leukocytes, platelets, hemoglobin (anemia exacerbates the course of heart failure in women.).
- An analysis is made for hematocrit (pulmonary origin of dyspnea, a consequence of cyanotic malformations).
- Analysis of potassium in the blood (applies to diuretic therapy, as well as ACE therapy).
- The sodium content is very important (hyponatremia, decreased renal function indicates a poor prognosis).
- ECHO (echocardiography).
What are the characteristics of female heart disease?
Stress often causes heart disease in women. An example is stressful cardiomyopathy, which in 90% of cases develops precisely in the female sex amid high levels of adrenaline (panic, stress, fear), arrhythmias, and heart failure. Loss of elasticity of the walls of the heart occurs in women who have suffered an early menopause as a result of removal of the uterus and appendages or for genetic reasons.
Stress often causes heart disease in women. An example is stressful cardiomyopathy, which in 90% of cases develops precisely in the female sex amid high levels of adrenaline (panic, stress, fear), arrhythmias, and heart failure.
Loss of elasticity of the walls of the heart appears in women who have had an early menopause as a result of removal of the uterus and appendages or for genetic reasons. Treatment will include hormone replacement therapy.
Signs of stagnation in the large and small circle of blood circulation.
- Anatomical and functional changes in organs occur due to their hypoxia (oxygen starvation).
- Heart enlargement.
- Fibrosis of the liver.
- Trophic leg ulcers.
- Pressure sores.
- Poor tolerance and ineffectiveness of drug treatment.
If a woman has heart failure, the following methods of physical rehabilitation are used:
- daily walking for 25-30 minutes,
- Bicycle ergometry for 15–20 minutes with a gradual increase in time,
- alternating loads (5 minutes of movement, as much rest) lasting a quarter of an hour.
It is necessary to pay attention to the diet. The amount of food should be reduced to a reasonable amount, divided into 7-10 receptions per day. With edema, a salt-free diet is recommended. It should exclude the use of alcoholic beverages, stop smoking. Subject to preventive measures and therapy, the quality of life in the presence of heart failure will be fully restored.
Modern methods of early diagnosis of heart failure in women
Echocardiography (or ultrasound of the heart). This method of research will be able to find out the cause of the development of heart failure, as well as determine the quality of the contractility of the ventricles. Echocardiography determines the presence of congenital or acquired heart defects, ischemic pathology, arterial hypertension. X-ray.
Radiographic examination of the chest organs will help to detect congestion in the pulmonary circulation, hypertrophy of the heart cavities (cardiomegaly). Like heart ultrasound, X-rays can be used to monitor the effectiveness of the prescribed treatment. Ventriculography. This is a radioisotope research method, which makes it possible with a high percentage of probability to evaluate the contractility of the heart and determine the amount of blood contained.
The essence of the procedure is as follows: a conductor is introduced into the lumen of the vessel with a special needle, which moves to the heart. Then a contrast agent is injected into it and several shots are taken. These images will help the doctor to examine everything that happens in the chambers of the heart. Positron emission tomography. This type of diagnosis is based on the introduction of a radioactive chemical (radiopharmaceuticals) into a vein.
The labeled substance spreads through the body and accumulates in certain places of the body. These compounds emit positrons, which are captured by the camera and then converted into a picture on a computer. The method helps determine the presence of diseases of the coronary arteries, affected areas of the heart. Every woman should know the signs of heart failure, given that at a certain age the risk of this pathology increases.
The following sources of information were used to prepare the material.
Heart treatment in women should be comprehensive, including management of hormone levels after menopause. Training to respond to stress and the prevention of depression are necessary conditions for a healthy heart after 40-50 years. Regular physical activity helps control blood pressure, reduce weight and risk of diabetes, and increase stress resistance.
- Pass a general urine test.
- Donate blood for general and biochemical analysis.
- Make an electrocardiogram.
- Ultrasound of the heart and abdomen.
- Take a chest x-ray.
There are 3 stages of chronic heart failure:
- The first is the initial stage, signs of heart failure are noticeable only with exercise.
- The second – moderate heart failure, appears already at rest, but the functions of other organs do not change significantly.
- The third stage – severe, far-reaching heart failure, with changes in the functions of other organs, cardiomegaly, cachexia.
They also pay attention to the circle of blood circulation where stagnation is expressed and how it manifests itself.
General measures for treatment:
- Exclude all loads that increase tachycardia and shortness of breath.
- With a far-reaching form of the disease, bed rest is indicated, and it is better to stay in a comfortable chair.
- In order not to get a complication in the form of bronchopneumonia or thromboembolic complications, bed rest should not be constant.
- Useful breathing exercises and physical education for the legs.
- Reception of salt is reduced to 2-5 g / day.
- The amount of fluid taken, depending on the severity of the condition, can be 1-1,5 liters / day.
- Food should be frequent and low-calorie. Potassium-rich foods are helpful.
- Hypothiazide, triampur, furosemide, ethacrylic acid. Assign in doses that take into account the patient’s condition, swelling and shortness of breath. All diuretics cause a loss of potassium, and this badly affects the condition of patients (tolerance of cardiac glycosides worsens, arrhythmias develop). Potassium-sparing diuretic: triamteren. It is important to follow a diet enriched with foods containing potassium (apricots, apples, raisins, dried apricots, beets).
- If the potassium diet is not prescribed enough drugs: potassium chloride, panangin.
Drugs in this group facilitate the work of the heart, reducing blood flow to it and peripheral vascular resistance.
- Nitroglycerin, nitrosorbide.
- Captopril (initial dose of 6,25 mg 1-2 times a day).
- Enalapril (initial dose of 2,5 mg).
- Perindopril (initial dose of 2 mg).
Absolute contraindications: bilateral renal artery stenosis. All vasodilators reduce blood pressure, they are not prescribed for hypotension.
- Digoxin (initial dose of 0,25 mg 2-3 times a day)
- Intravenously (digoxin, strophanthin, korglikon).
Cardiac glycoside treatment is more effective if heart failure is combined with atrial fibrillation with a frequent ventricular rhythm.
There is a high probability of intoxication from taking these drugs.
If you have any:
- Loss of appetite.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Diarrhea, impaired vision.
- Violation of the central nervous system (central nervous system).
- Bradycardia (rare pulse).
- Extrasystoles (interruptions in the work of the heart).
These symptoms indicate discontinuation of the drug. Need help from doctors. Be sure to seek medical help.
- With cyanosis in connection with the pulmonary heart, oxygen therapy is indicated.
- Assign: Riboxinum.
- Light sedatives.
- If there is a suspicion of infection or pneumonia, antibiotics are prescribed.
- B-blockers: verapamil, disopyram >
After the attack, it’s good to take:
- Infusion of spring adonis or adonis they contain cardiac glycosides:
To prepare the medicine, pour and boil 1 cup of water in a saucepan. Add 5 grams of grass, keep on fire for 3 minutes, insist 20 minutes and take a tablespoon 3 times a day.
For heart rhythm disturbances:
- Tachycardia, angina pectoris, atrial fibrillation:
- Liquid extract of hawthorn fruit or tincture of hawthorn flowers helps a lot, it’s better to buy it at a pharmacy, it’s inexpensive.
Whatever the reasons for heart failure in women, it is now your companion, and you can’t launch it in any way.
If not treated, over time you will have a deterioration in health, if everything can be controlled, you can live with it.
Reasonable people do this, well, we are not fools, we will monitor our health in both. Therefore, I can only wish you a healthy heart.
Treatment of acute heart failure is carried out in a hospital in the intensive care unit or in intensive care units.
In chronic pathology, outpatient treatment is prescribed. When the condition worsens, hospitalization is indicated. Drugs are selected individually depending on the stage of the disease, the severity of the course and the degree of heart damage.
The goal of therapy is to reduce the symptoms of the disease, such as shortness of breath, edema. Protect internal organs from insufficient blood circulation. Reduce the risk of acute heart failure.
After 50 years, women are more likely to have HF, as estrogen levels drop, other concomitant pathologies appear or are aggravated. Doctors say that women who have an increased risk of heart failure
- arterial hypertension;
- arrhythmia (especially atrial fibrillation, more dangerous in combination with smoking);
- myocardial infarction (occurs in women at a more advanced age, when compensatory opportunities are limited);
- increased blood creatinine (hypoxia and impaired renal function);
The average patient with chronic heart failure is a full-blown diabetes old woman with hypertension and atrial fibrillation. Emergency doctors and cardiologists in the hospital begin to deal with an acute form of pathology. They correct the condition by the introduction of cardiac glycosides, diuretics and provide oxygen through the respiratory tract.
- Diuretics – also reduce the load volume on the heart, relieve swelling. Precautions are prescribed for renal pathology.
- ACE inhibitors – to reduce the load on the myocardium.
- Beta-blockers – help with reduced cardiac output.
- Antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants prevent the formation of blood clots, reduce the likelihood of thromboembolism.
- Cardiac glycosides have a good effect on the heart when combined with heart failure and atrial fibrillation.
Chronic heart failure cannot be cured, so after a diagnosis is established, you should change your lifestyle, following the recommendations of a cardiologist. In order for the condition not to worsen, it is necessary to follow the treatment regimen, be attentive to changes in symptoms and regularly undergo examinations.
Features of heart failure (heart failure) in women
The occurrence of heart failure in women is usually noted at the age of 50 years and older. This can be explained by the fact that up to forty years they have a kind of protection, which is provided by female sex hormones – estrogens. With the onset of menopause, their production gradually ceases, immunity decreases, the heart muscle weakens.
Particularly risky are childbirth after forty years. In this age period, the woman’s body begins hormonal restructuring, preparing for menopause, which already increases the load on the heart. In addition, bearing and giving birth to a child is a very difficult test, it also does not help strengthen the heart muscle.
A condition that develops in a person when his heart and blood vessels work in a weakened mode is called heart failure (HF). If adequate medical measures are not taken in a timely manner, malfunctions of the function of all organs and systems appear. Due to the physiological characteristics, heart failure in women begins to manifest symptoms a little later than in men. But the signs and consequences of the pathology are not dependent on gender.
The first signs, symptoms, treatment and preventive measures of heart failure in women
Signs of heart failure:
- Blood stasis in the large and small circle of blood circulation.
- Slowing blood flow in organs and tissues. Because of this, a lot of liquid (water) accumulates in the tissues – this can be seen immediately.
- A person gains weight dramatically, and then swelling of the trunk and legs is added.
- Edema in heart failure is a very serious symptom.
- Certain areas of the skin acquire a bluish tint and visible mucous membranes.
- In this condition, the usual dose of salt in food creates an excess of it in the body and swelling is aggravated.
Heart failure is a clinical condition associated with a decrease in the ability of the heart to pump blood. A decrease in the pumping function of the heart develops after 40-50 years, along with the weakening of other muscle tissues of the body, accompanied by pallor of the face, drowsiness in the evening, poor blood circulation in the hands. But the symptoms of heart failure in women can be blurry, reminiscent of depression and loss of strength.
- rapidly developing shortness of breath (sometimes with signs of suffocation), forcing a woman to take an orthopnea position;
- swelling of veins on the neck;
- blueness syndrome (cyanosis) of the tip of the nose, lips, ears, fingers;
- noticeable enlargement of the liver;
- pulmonary wheezing, paroxysmal cough, unproductive or with foaming sputum (cardiac asthma).
Symptoms of acute heart failure include foamy discharge from the nose or mouth (they are pink), mild jaundice (yellowing of the skin, eye sclera). If signs of acute heart failure are detected, emergency medical care must be called for. The principles of treating heart failure in women vary depending on the form of its course. Urgent conditions involve hospitalization and the use of a set of therapeutic measures in accordance with the reasons.
Therapeutic nutrition for heart failure in women is designed to reduce the load on the heart muscle. To this end, the development of the diet should adhere to the following principles:
- cooking without salt; to add salt to ready-made dishes, the patient should be given 4-6 g of salt per day, and with severe edema, not more than 3-4 g;
- reduction in the consumption of indigestible food – fatty varieties of meat and fish, mushrooms (including broths from these products);
- refusal of spicy food;
- reduced consumption of products that have an exciting effect on the cardiovascular system (coffee, strong tea);
- enrichment of the diet with foods rich in potassium compounds, vitamins C and group B.
A sparing, fractional, diet is recommended, as with most chronic diseases. Clinical recommendations for drugs prescribed for heart failure, there are several pharmacotherapeutic groups:
- prolonged action nitrates – to expand the lumen of the coronary vessels, increase cardiac output, improve blood filling of the ventricles;
- cardiac glycosides – to improve contractility of the heart muscle, exercise tolerance, stimulation of the pumping function of the heart;
- diuretics (diuretics) – to combat fluid retention in tissues;
- ACE inhibitors and vasodilators – to reduce vascular tone, widen the lumen of arteries and veins, increase cardiac output;
- anticoagulants – to prevent the development of blood clots;
- beta-blockers – to reduce the frequency of contractions of the heart and improve its blood supply during fibrillation (arrhythmias);
- potassium preparations, inosine, vitamins C and group B – to improve metabolism and gas exchange in the myocardium.
In severe cases, for medical reasons (with mechanical obstacles to normal hemodynamics), surgical treatment may be required to eliminate heart failure.
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