Oxygen starvation oxygen deficiency causes and types of signs how to treat the consequences

  • Exogenous oxygen starvation – associated with external conditions;
  • The endogenous form – with diseases of the internal organs, endocrine system, blood, etc.
  • Respiratory
  • Circulatory – with damage to the myocardium and blood vessels, dehydration, blood loss, thrombosis and thrombophlebitis;
  • Hemic – due to the pathology of red blood cells, hemoglobin, enzyme systems of red blood cells, with erythropenia, lack of hemoglobin (anemic), poisoning with poisons that block hemoglobin, the use of certain drugs (aspirin, citramone, novocaine, vikasol, etc.);
  • Tissue – due to the inability of cells to absorb blood oxygen due to disorders in various parts of the respiratory chain under normal oxygenation;
  • Substrate – occurs due to a lack of substances that serve as a substrate for oxidation during tissue respiration (hunger, diabetes);
  • Reloading – a variant of physiological oxygen starvation due to excessive physical exertion, when oxygen reserves and respiratory system capabilities become insufficient;
  • Mixed.

According to the speed of development of pathology, a fulminant form (up to 3 minutes), acute (up to 2 hours), subacute (up to 5 hours) and chronic, which can last for years, are distinguished. In addition, hypoxia is general and local.

The development of oxygen starvation is based on exogenous and endogenous causes. External ones are caused by a lack of oxygen in the air, which can be clean, but mountainous, urban, but dirty.

Exogenous hypoxia manifests itself in:

  1. Low oxygen content in the inhaled air – highlands, frequent flights (for pilots);
  2. Being in a confined space with a large number of people, in a mine, wells, on a submarine, etc., when there is no communication with open air;
  3. Inadequate ventilation;
  4. Work under water, in a gas mask;
  5. Dirty atmosphere, gas pollution in large industrial cities;
  6. Damage to equipment for anesthesia and artificial pulmonary ventilation.

Endogenous hypoxia is associated with internal adverse conditions predisposing to a lack of oxygen in the blood:

mechanism of hypoxia in pulmonary embolism

Pathology of the respiratory system – pneumonia, pneumothorax, edema, embolism of the branches of the pulmonary arteries with a thrombus, inflammatory changes in the upper respiratory tract, emphysema, bronchial asthma, etc .;

  • Foreign bodies in the respiratory tract, which is especially often diagnosed in children and the elderly;
  • Acute hypoxia when squeezing neck structures;
  • Heart valve defects – both congenital and acquired;
  • Traumatic brain injuries with inhibition of the respiratory center, brain tumors;
  • Intoxication with neurotropic poisons with inhibition of brain stem structures;
  • Injuries to the ribs, diaphragm, respiratory muscles with a violation of the act of breathing;
  • Cardiac pathology – heart attack, hemotamponade, severe blockade, heart failure;
  • Vascular pathology – angiospasm, bypass blood from arteries to veins;
  • Venous congestion;
  • Thrombosis;
  • Poisoning with poisons that bind hemoglobin – cyanides, carbon monoxide;
  • Anemia of any origin;
  • DIC-syndrome;
  • Metabolic disorders (diabetes mellitus, obesity);
  • Terminal conditions – shock, coma;
  • Excessive physical exertion;
  • Vitamin deficiency PP, B;
  • Oncopathology;
  • Severe infections with severe intoxication;
  • Chronic renal failure;
  • Cachexia.
  • As you can see, the causes of endogenous oxygen starvation are extremely diverse. It is difficult to name an organ whose defeat in one way or another would not affect cell respiration. Particularly severe changes occur with the pathology of red blood cells and hemoglobin, blood loss, lesions of the respiratory center, acute occlusion of the arteries of the lungs.

    • Diseases of the kidney, heart, liver, respiratory system in a future mother;
    • Severe anemia of a pregnant woman;
    • Late gestosis with the pathology of hemocoagulation and microcirculation;
    • Alcoholism, addiction of the expectant mother;
    • Intrauterine infection;
    • Abnormalities of the placenta and umbilical cord vessels;
    • Congenital malformations;
    • Hemolytic disease of the newborn;
    • Anomalies of labor, labor trauma, placental abruption, cord entanglement.

    With a lack of oxygen in the tissues, characteristic ischemic-hypoxic changes develop. Brain damage is caused by microcirculatory disorders with red blood cell aggregation, plasma impregnation of the walls of blood vessels and their necrotic changes. As a result, vascular permeability increases, the liquid part of the blood enters the perivascular space, giving rise to edema.

    A severe lack of oxygen in the blood contributes to irreversible changes in neurons, their vacuolization, decay of chromosomes and necrosis. The more severe hypoxia, the more pronounced dystrophy and necrosis, moreover, cell pathology can increase even after eliminating the cause of oxygen deficiency.

    So, with a severe degree of hypoxia, several days after the restoration of oxygenation in neurons that do not have structural changes earlier, irreversible degenerative processes begin. Then these cells are absorbed by phagocytes, and in the parenchyma of the organ there are softening sites – voids in the place of the destroyed cells. In the future, this threatens with chronic encephalopathy and dementia.

    Chronic hypoxia is accompanied by a lower intensity of necrotic reactions, however, it provokes the multiplication of glial elements, which play a supporting and trophic role. Such gliosis underlies chronic cerebral ischemia.

    changes in the brain in chronic discirculatory encephalopathy

    Depending on the depth of the lack of oxygen in the tissues, it is customary to distinguish several degrees of severity of the pathology:

    1. Easy – signs of hypoxia become noticeable only with physical exertion;
    2. Moderate – symptoms occur even at rest;
    3. Severe – severe hypoxia with dysfunction of the internal organs, cerebral symptoms; preceded by a coma;
    4. Critical – coma, shock, agony and death of the victim.

    Clinical signs of oxygen starvation are characteristic for all varieties of the course of the pathology, while fulminant hypoxia may not have time to manifest itself with any symptoms due to the sudden (in a few minutes) death of the victim.

    • Bradycardia
    • Lowering blood pressure;
    • Irregular, superficial, rare breathing or its pathological types.

    If oxygen deficiency is not eliminated at this moment, then irreversible ischemic-dystrophic changes in vital organs will develop, the victim will sink into a coma, agony and death from multiple organ failure, cerebral edema, cardiac arrest will occur.

    Subacute and chronic varieties of oxygen deficiency in the body of an adult or child are manifested by hypoxic syndrome, which, of course, affects the organ most vulnerable to oxygen deficiency – the brain. Against the background of oxygen deficiency in the nervous tissue, ischemia and death of neurons begin, circulatory disorders with microthromboses and hemorrhages occur, edema progresses.

    Symptoms of oxygen starvation of the brain are:

    1. Euphoria, agitation, unmotivated anxiety, anxiety;
    2. Motor excitement;
    3. Decreased criticism of one’s state, inadequate assessment of what is happening;
    4. Signs of inhibition of cortical structures – drowsiness, lethargy, cranialgia, noise in the ears or head, dizziness, lethargy;
    5. Impaired consciousness up to a coma;
    6. Spontaneous urination and defecation;
    7. Nausea, vomiting;
    8. Lack of coordination, inability to go and make purposeful movements;
    9. Convulsive muscle contractions with irritation from the outside – begin with the facial muscles, then the muscles of the limbs and abdomen are involved; the most severe form is opisthotonus, when all the muscles of the body contract, including the diaphragm (as in tetanus).

    Cardialgia joins neurological symptoms as hypoxic-ischemic disorders in the tissues deepen, a pulse of more than 70 heart contractions per minute increases, hypotension increases, breathing becomes irregular, shortness of breath increases, and body temperature decreases.

    Against the background of metabolic disorders and disorders of peripheral blood flow, cyanosis (cyanosis) of the skin develops, however, in case of intoxication with cyanides, carbon monoxide, nitro compounds, the skin of the victim can turn pink.

    Chronic oxygen starvation with constant hypoxia of the brain is accompanied by mental disorders in the form of hallucinations, delirious state, agitation, disorientation, loss of memory and dementia. With severe hypotension, perfusion of already suffering tissues decreases, a coma develops with inhibition of vital nerve centers and death.

    The milder course of chronic hypoxia observed in residents of megalopolises, office workers and other closed poorly ventilated rooms is accompanied by drowsiness, weakness, rapid fatigue, headaches, mood swings, a tendency to depressive disorders, a decrease in the ability to concentrate on work, dizziness.

    • Exogenous oxygen starvation – associated with external conditions;
    • The endogenous form – with diseases of the internal organs, endocrine system, blood, etc.

    Definition

    The most difficult (severe) conditions are brain hypoxia, in which coma and death can even occur, as well as fetal hypoxia, which is also extremely fraught with negative consequences. Of the other organs, for which a sufficient supply of “vital gas” is very important, we can distinguish the liver and kidneys.

    How can one determine if there is a lack of O2? Firstly, with the help of analyzes. They show the content of red blood cells (they carry oxygen with the help of the hemoglobin contained in them, which can bind (retain) oxygen); oxygen saturation (determined by color).

    Secondly, the electrocardiogram, brain tomography, and electroencephalogram are tools for determining the presence of such problems. As a result of such studies, doctors can establish the presence of hypoxia, severe cases of which need treatment in a hospital setting.

    At the same time, indicators of heart rhythms, blood pressure are constantly monitored, and treatment in such conditions is carried out medically, comprehensively. It is aimed at supplying the missing trace elements, vitamins, minerals, improving the operation of systems.

    If the reason for the lack of oxygen is external, that is, it depends on external circumstances, oxygen masks, cylinders are used. Other means are used to correct the “long-playing” shortage.

    If the problem is hemopoiesis or processing, carrying oxygen, then means that stimulate hematopoietic function, as well as oxygen treatment, are used.

    If the heart does not work correctly, doctors prescribe glycosides, corrective surgery on the heart or blood vessels, cardiotropes. If the disease state is caused by toxic substances, then it makes sense to use antidotes.

    As for non-drug remedies for solving the problem, there is also a fairly large selection of agents that have a therapeutic effect with repeated use. Birch sap is one such remedy. It should be noted that this refers to a natural product taken from the wood of the corresponding tree.

    Alternative medicine – lingonberry

    In addition to this natural component, you can try to use lingonberry (tea leaves from dry lingonberry leaves).

    It is necessary to take dry material in an amount of twenty grams and pour a glass of boiling water.

    After half an hour of insisting under the lid, this alternative medicine becomes ready for use (you need to drink three times a day after eating one third of a glass).

    The tincture of hawthorn showed its effect perfectly.

    To prepare it, take the leaves of this plant and fill it with alcohol, moonshine in the amount of about one hundred milliliters. Its use is also associated with the use of food, but only you need to drink it before meals for thirty to forty minutes, forty drops, although this is not an exact dosage.

    Treatment of a condition of lack of air (oxygen) always depends on additional factors and circumstances of the occurrence of an unhealthy dangerous illness. Both medicines and folk remedies are used.

    Hypoxia is a condition in which the body is deprived of oxygen supply at the tissue level. Hypoxia is classified as generalized, affecting the whole organism, or local, affecting certain organs. Although hypoxia is a disease of a pathological nature, various levels of arterial oxygen concentration are acceptable in the case of certain physical conditions, for example, when learning hypoventilation or active exercise.

    Exogenous or hypoxic hypoxia is associated with elevations to greater heights, and this even causes a high-altitude illness in healthy people, leading to fatal consequences: pulmonary edema and acute cerebral cerebral edema. Hypoxia also occurs in healthy people when breathing mixtures of gases with a low oxygen concentration, for example, underwater diving while using closed rebreather systems that control the oxygen content in the supplied air.

    Hypoxia is a common complication in newborns resulting from premature birth. As the fetal lungs develop towards the end of the third trimester, premature babies are often born with underdeveloped lungs. Infants at risk of hypoxia are placed in incubators, which provide small organisms with oxygen and positive airway pressure.

    Oxygen starvation in the fetus and newborn

    Fetal hypoxia can occur in both acute and chronic form. In the early stages of gestation, chronic oxygen starvation provokes a slowdown in embryo formation, congenital malformations, and in the later stages, central nervous system disorders, growth retardation, and a decrease in adaptive reserves.

    Acute oxygen starvation during childbirth is usually associated with complications of the birth itself – rapid or too prolonged labor, clamping of the umbilical cord, weakness of the birth force, placental abruption, etc. In this case, dysfunction of the internal organs of the fetus is pronounced, tachycardia is observed up to 160 or more strokes hearts per minute or bradycardia less than 120 beats. Heart sounds are muffled, movements are weak. The most difficult variant of intrauterine hypoxia is asphyxiation.

    Chronic hypoxia develops slowly, with a moderate oxygen deficiency, while hypotrophy is diagnosed – slowing the weight gain by the fetus, more rare movements, bradycardia.

    Hypoxic damage to the central nervous system of a developing baby can subsequently lead to perinatal encephalopathy, convulsive syndrome or epilepsy, cerebral palsy. Perhaps the formation of congenital cardiac abnormalities, pneumopathy due to impaired maturation of the lung tissue.

    Asphyxia during childbirth is extremely dangerous for the death of a newborn, severe brain damage with necrosis and hemorrhage, respiratory disorders, multiple organ failure. This condition requires resuscitation.

    • Tachycardia at the beginning of hypoxia and a decreased pulse when it is exacerbated;
    • Deafness of heart sounds;
    • An increase in motor activity at the beginning of the development of pathology and in mild degrees and a decrease with a deep lack of oxygen;
    • The appearance of meconium in the amniotic fluid;
    • An increase in hypoxia with periods of tachycardia and hypertension, followed by bradycardia and hypotension;
    • The appearance of edema in the tissues;
    • Hemorrhages due to a violation of blood viscosity, a tendency to intravascular aggregation of red blood cells;
    • Disorders of electrolyte metabolism, acidosis.

    Serious consequences of oxygen starvation during pregnancy can be due to birth trauma of the fetus, intrauterine death, severe asphyxiation in the womb or during childbirth. Children born or born under conditions of oxygen starvation are hypotrophic, poorly adapt to life outside the fetus, suffer from neurological and mental deviations in the form of a delay in the development of speech and psyche, convulsive syndrome, cerebral palsy.

    In a newborn child with hypoxia, sharp bradycardia, the absence of crying and the first breath, sharp skin cyanosis, lack of spontaneous breathing and a sharp metabolic imbalance requiring emergency care are possible.

    Hemic hypoxia is treated:

    1. Hyperbaric oxygenation;
    2. Blood transfusions (blood transfusion);
    3. The introduction of drugs that transport active oxygen – perftoran, for example;
    4. By methods of extracorporeal detoxification – hemosorption, plasmapheresis to remove toxins from the blood;
    5. The use of drugs that normalize the respiratory chain – ascorbic acid, methylene blue;
    6. The introduction of glucose to ensure the energy needs of cells;
    7. Glucocorticosteroids.

    Oxygen starvation during pregnancy requires hospitalization in the clinic and correction of both the obstetric and extragenital pathology of the woman with the restoration of adequate blood circulation in the placenta. Rest and bed rest, oxygen therapy are prescribed, antispasmodics are introduced to reduce uterine tone (papaverine, aminophylline, magnesia), drugs that improve blood rheology (chimes, pentoxifylline).

    In chronic fetal hypoxia, vitamins E, C, group B are shown, the introduction of glucose, antihypoxic drugs, antioxidants and neuroprotectors. As the condition improves, a pregnant woman masters breathing exercises, water aerobics, undergoes physiotherapy (ultraviolet radiation).

    If severe hypoxia of the fetus cannot be eliminated, then in the period from the 29th week of gestation it is necessary to urgently deliver the woman by cesarean section. Natural birth in chronic oxygen deficiency is carried out under the control of indicators of cardiac activity of the fetus. If the baby is born in conditions of acute hypoxia or asphyxiation, he will be given resuscitation care.

    In the future, children who have experienced hypoxia are observed by a neurologist, it may require the participation of a psychologist and speech therapist. With severe consequences of hypoxic brain damage, children need long-term drug therapy.

    • Persistent neurological deficit;
    • Parkinsonism;
    • Dementia
    • Coma development.

    Often, after hypoxia, not cured in a timely manner, vegetative disorders, psychological problems, and fatigue remain.

    Prevention of oxygen starvation is to prevent conditions accompanied by a lack of oxygen: an active lifestyle, walking in the fresh air, physical activity, good nutrition and timely treatment of somatic pathology. “Office” work requires ventilation of the premises, and the more dangerous types of professions (miners, divers, etc.) in terms of hypoxia require strict observance of safety measures.

    Symptoms and consequences of hypoxia depend on the body’s ability to respond to oxygen deficiency, as well as on the degree of ongoing hypoxia. Among the most common symptoms are the appearance of shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, as well as dysfunction of some organs. It is also worth emphasizing that the nervous and cardiovascular system is most susceptible to hypoxia, which is characterized by rapid or decreased heart rate.

    In acute hypoxia, the functioning of one of the cerebral hemispheres is possible, which can lead to death or irreversible changes. If hypoxia is chronic, then it is characterized by the appearance of shortness of breath during various physical activities. Chronic fatigue may occur due to a lack of oxygen for all organs.

    In adults, oxygen starvation is expressed by the standard clinical picture.

    • Excitability increases significantly, since a lack of oxygen contributes to a state of uncontrolled euphoria, which is soon replaced by dejection and lethargy.
    • Sudden headache of constrictive character.
    • Tachycardia and various types of arrhythmias.
    • The color of the skin is pale, cyanotic or even red. Sweating is high.
    • Nausea, dizziness, lethargy.
    • Swelling of the brain, the disappearance of reflexes.

    Modern concentrators separate pure oxygen from the surrounding air through filters. Purified, it enters the gearbox, is moistened with steam and slightly heated. Treatment is carried out for each disease individually. Oxygen is used in different concentrations.

    The body responds quickly to a decrease in oxygen supply. Symptoms of oxygen deficiency are primarily headache, nausea, vomiting, short-term memory problems, cognitive impairment. Then fainting and loss of consciousness occur. If the patient does not receive proper care, death may occur.

    Oxygen deficiency of the brain can also occur in extreme sports enthusiasts. Altitude sickness affects people who have not adapted the body to a longer stay at an altitude above 2500 m above sea level. Diluted air contains little oxygen, which can lead to respiratory and oxygen heart failure.

    Diving enthusiasts should also be especially careful. A rapidly changing pressure has a direct effect on the human body – under the influence of too rapid a rise, the nitrogen accumulated in the blood takes the form of bubbles and causes blockages that lead to cerebral ischemia. Hypoxia can also have a chronic course – it is accompanied by prolonged fatigue, memory problems, concentration and drowsiness.

    • cardiac arrest – for example, as a result of a heart attack;
    • disturbances in normal circulatory function, arterial occlusion associated with atherosclerosis, embolism, thrombosis;
    • sudden drop in blood pressure due to anaphylactic, hemorrhagic shock;
    • developed anemia;
    • violation of the respiratory system associated with pneumonia, asthma, emphysema, pneumothorax, sleep apnea.

    Often the cause of hypoxia is cardiac arrest. Diabetes is also a serious risk factor – in the advanced course of this disease, blood vessels change, which leads to serious disruptions in the functioning of the whole organism. This may also be the case in older people suffering from atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with the circulatory and respiratory systems.

    • abnormal oxygen flow through the placenta;
    • improper gas exchange through the placenta;
    • other diseases in women.

    Sometimes, during or immediately after birth, the baby’s brain is hypoxic. Then the so-called perinatal hypoxia appears. This can happen, for example, as a result of pressure on the umbilical cord, the wrong degree of oxygenation of the fetus.

    • cardiotocography;
    • capillary blood test;
    • gas test.

    The first signal of hypoxia is an abnormal cardiotocography of a child (CTG). A constantly accelerated heartbeat (tachycardia) indicates a slight lack of oxygen, and then the onset of bradycardia during uterine muscle contractions indicates a long-term oxygen deficiency. This means that the child is in a state of emergency and it is advisable to resolve the pregnancy as soon as possible.

    A capillary blood test consists in taking micro-samples of blood from a child (most often the head) to determine the pH value. A blood pH value indicates that acidosis occurs due to hypoxia. Currently, this test is often carried out with a gasometer.

    The gasometric test allows you to control violations of the acid-base balance and gas exchange of the body. In a newborn, a blood sample can be taken for examination from an artery or umbilical cord. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO 2) and the partial pressure of oxygen (pO 2), as well as the level of oxygen saturation of the blood, are determined.

    1. General circulation disorder: shock, collapse.
    2. Violation of cerebral circulation.
    3. Diseases of the broncho-pulmonary system.
    4. Anemia
    5. Cardiovascular diseases: VVD, stenosis, heart valve insufficiency.
    6. Endocrine diseases: diabetes mellitus, hypo- or hyperthyroidism.
    • Respiratory
    • Circulatory – with damage to the myocardium and blood vessels, dehydration, blood loss, thrombosis and thrombophlebitis;
    • Hemic – due to the pathology of red blood cells, hemoglobin, enzyme systems of red blood cells, with erythropenia, lack of hemoglobin (anemic), poisoning with poisons that block hemoglobin, the use of certain drugs (aspirin, citramone, novocaine, vikasol, etc.);
    • Tissue – due to the inability of cells to absorb blood oxygen due to disorders in various parts of the respiratory chain under normal oxygenation;
    • Substrate – occurs due to a lack of substances that serve as a substrate for oxidation during tissue respiration (hunger, diabetes);
    • Reloading – a variant of physiological oxygen starvation due to excessive physical exertion, when oxygen reserves and respiratory system capabilities become insufficient;
    • Mixed.
    1. Low oxygen content in the inhaled air – highlands, frequent flights (for pilots);
    2. Being in a confined space with a large number of people, in a mine, wells, on a submarine, etc., when there is no communication with open air;
    3. Inadequate ventilation;
    4. Work under water, in a gas mask;
    5. Dirty atmosphere, gas pollution in large industrial cities;
    6. Damage to equipment for anesthesia and artificial pulmonary ventilation.
    1. Hyperbaric oxygenation;
    2. Blood transfusions (blood transfusion);
    3. The introduction of drugs that transport active oxygen – perftoran, for example;
    4. By methods of extracorporeal detoxification – hemosorption, plasmapheresis to remove toxins from the blood;
    5. The use of drugs that normalize the respiratory chain – ascorbic acid, methylene blue;
    6. The introduction of glucose to ensure the energy needs of cells;
    7. Glucocorticosteroids.
    • Constant, not passing sleepiness, which even the longest and most regular sleep can not take away.
    • Pain in the head of a dull nature (not expressed in one place, not pricking or throbbing, namely dull pain).
    • Weakness in the body.
    • Dizziness, slow thinking.
    • Rapid heartbeat (rapid heartbeat).
    • Yawning (frequent).
    • Irritability for no particular reason.
    • Regular sweating, and cold.
    • Pale skin throughout the body.
    • Increased possibility of loss of consciousness.

    Generalized hypoxia

    In altitude sickness, when hypoxia develops less progressively, symptoms include:

    • fatigue,
    • numbness,
    • tingling of limbs
    • nausea and anoxia.

    With severe hypoxia are observed:

    • confusion of consciousness
    • lack of orientation
    • hallucinations
    • behavioral changes
    • drawing headaches
    • severe shortness of breath
    • pronounced tachycardia,
    • pulmonary hypertension, leading to a slowed heart rate, low blood pressure, which leads to death.

    Hypoxia is the result of impaired transport of O2 to the cells. In parallel, there is a decrease in the partial pressure of oxygen, impaired gas exchange in the lungs, a decrease in hemoglobin level, changes in blood flow to the final tissue and problems with the respiratory rhythm.

    Oxygen in the blood has a constant relationship with hemoglobin, so any intervention in this carrier molecule prevents the delivery of oxygen to the periphery. Hemoglobin increases the oxygen content in the blood by about 40 times. When hemoglobin’s ability to transport oxygen is impaired, a state of hypoxia occurs.

    Hypoxemic hypoxia

    Hypoxemia is a hypoxic condition in which there is a lack of oxygen in the blood. Hypoxic hypoxia develops with disorders in the respiratory center. These include:

    • respiratory alkalosis,
    • bypass blood in the lungs
    • diseases that interfere with the full functioning of the lungs, which leads to a mismatch of ventilation and perfusion (V / Q),
    • pulmonary embolism
    • partial changes in oxygen pressure in ambient air or lung alveoli.

    It is also called exogenous, this type of hypoxia is due to the low oxygen content in the air. This species is found at elevated or lowered heights. Hypoxic hypoxia can be divided into hypobaric and normobaric. The first refers to cases when a person is exposed to low air pressure and low oxygen content.

    Oxygen starvation treatment

    To understand why the patient is holding his breath, the therapist performs diagnostic procedures.

    Research methods for bad breath:

    1. Inspection and questioning of the patient.
    2. Testing: general blood test, blood for hormones, urine.
    3. Hardware research: ultrasound, X-ray, CT, ECG, spirometry.
    4. Identification of the reason, sending to a specialist with a narrow profile.

    Spirometry is used to identify the causes of poor breathing.

    With a more serious and prolonged lack of oxygen in the brain, a symptom such as loss of consciousness occurs. It can be short-term and superficial both at, and deep and long, as at a coma. A long stay in a coma exacerbates the hypoxic state, as the work of the respiratory center in the stem section is frustrated, inhibited.

    If nerve cells have died, then such violations may occur:

    1. Post-stroke depression.
    2. Loss of memory and skills.
    3. Increased irritability.

    In addition to hypoxia in adults, a lack of oxygen in the fetus is also possible
    during fetal development or a newborn baby. The reasons for it are:

    • Diseases of the kidney, heart, liver, respiratory system in a future mother;
    • Severe anemia of a pregnant woman;
    • Late with the pathology of hemocoagulation and microcirculation;
    • Alcoholism, addiction of the expectant mother;
    • Intrauterine infection;
    • Abnormalities of the placenta and umbilical cord vessels;
    • Congenital malformations;
    • Anomalies of labor, labor trauma, placental abruption, cord entanglement.

    Chronic hypoxia is accompanied by a lower intensity of necrotic reactions, however, it provokes the multiplication of glial elements, which play a supporting and trophic role. Such gliosis underlies.

    Depending on the depth of the lack of oxygen in the tissues, it is customary to distinguish several degrees of severity of the pathology
    :

    1. Easy – signs of hypoxia become noticeable only with physical exertion;
    2. Moderate – symptoms occur even at rest;
    3. Severe – severe hypoxia with dysfunction of the internal organs, cerebral symptoms; preceded by a coma;
    4. Critical – coma, shock, agony and death of the victim.

    If oxygen deficiency is not eliminated at this moment, then irreversible ischemic-dystrophic changes in vital organs will develop, the victim will plunge into a coma, agony and death from multiple organ failure, cardiac arrest will occur.

    Subacute and chronic varieties
    The lack of oxygen in the body in an adult or child is manifested by a hypoxic syndrome, which, of course, affects the most vulnerable organ for oxygen deficiency – the brain. Against the background of oxygen deficiency in the nervous tissue, ischemia and death of neurons begin, circulatory disorders with microthromboses and hemorrhages occur, edema progresses.

    Symptoms of oxygen starvation of the brain are:

    1. Euphoria, agitation, unmotivated anxiety, anxiety;
    2. Motor excitement;
    3. Decreased criticism of one’s state, inadequate assessment of what is happening;
    4. Signs of inhibition of cortical structures – cranialgia, tinnitus or head noises, dizziness, lethargy;
    5. Impaired consciousness up to a coma;
    6. Spontaneous urination and defecation;
    7. Nausea, vomiting;
    8. Lack of coordination, inability to go and make purposeful movements;
    9. Convulsive muscle contractions with irritation from the outs >

    Against the background of metabolic disorders and disorders of peripheral blood flow (cyanosis), the skin develops (cyanosis), however, in case of intoxication with cyanides, carbon monoxide, nitro compounds, the skin of the victim may turn pink.

    Chronic hypoxia develops slowly, with a moderate oxygen deficiency, while hypotrophy is diagnosed – slowing the weight gain by the fetus, more rare movements, bradycardia.

    A developing baby can subsequently lead to convulsive syndrome or cerebral palsy. Perhaps the formation of congenital cardiac abnormalities, pneumopathy due to impaired maturation of the lung tissue.

    Asphyxia during childbirth is extremely dangerous for the death of a newborn, severe brain damage with necrosis and hemorrhage, respiratory disorders, multiple organ failure. This condition requires resuscitation.

    Serious consequences
    oxygen starvation during pregnancy can be due to birth trauma of the fetus, intrauterine death, severe asphyxiation in the womb or at birth. Children born or born under conditions of oxygen starvation are hypotrophic, poorly adapt to life outside the fetus, suffer from neurological and mental deviations in the form of a delay in the development of speech and psyche, convulsive syndrome, cerebral palsy.

    Often, after hypoxia, not cured in a timely manner, psychological problems and fatigue remain.

    Prevention
    oxygen starvation is to prevent conditions accompanied by a lack of oxygen: an active lifestyle, walking in the fresh air, physical activity, good nutrition and timely treatment of somatic pathology. “Office” work requires ventilation of the premises, and the more dangerous types of professions (miners, divers, etc.) in terms of hypoxia require strict observance of safety measures.

    Oxygen is an integral part of all living things. In the process of breathing, oxygen molecules penetrate the lungs, where they are captured by red blood cells and transferred to organs and tissues
    . This ability is provided thanks to the iron, which is part of the erythrocyte hemoglobin. Hemoglobin associated with oxygen is called oxyhemoglobin.

    As a result of a violation of this process, oxygen starvation of tissues develops
    called hypoxia. Pathogenetically, this condition is manifested by metabolic disorders, functional disorders and changes in morphology, which entail pathological processes and diseases. As a result of the chronization of the process, compensatory mechanisms are triggered, due to which the body adapts to oxygen starvation.

    However, such an adaptation is fatal, since it only worsens the living conditions. As a result, hypoxia begins to exceed the adaptive capacity of the body, which leads to irreversible changes in the tissues. The most sensitive to hypoxia are tissues of the nervous system, brain, heart, kidneys and liver. Oxygen starvation of brain tissue is the most dangerous condition and can lead to coma.

    Biochemically there is a mismatch between energy production and cell energy consumption. In mitochondria, oxidative phosphorylation processes are disrupted, which leads to disruption of ATP synthesis, contractile function, synthesis and energy deficiency. In parallel, an accumulation of lactic acid occurs, leading to acidosis, which is a shift in the acid-base state in the direction of increasing acidity.

    The effect of perinatal hypoxia

    Perinatal hypoxia can cause an abnormal adaptation of the newborn to an independent life. Respiratory mucosal aspiration and respiratory distress syndrome may occur. There may also be brain damage (ischemia, encephalopathy). Some children have minor developmental dysfunctions that can be easily corrected, others may experience neurological abnormalities, such as cerebral palsy or epilepsy.

    Currently, many of the effects of perinatal hypoxia can be prevented. A thorough assessment of the condition of the fetus during childbirth, early intervention and the rapid completion of childbirth makes it possible to eliminate or reduce the risk of damage to the brain of the child. Advances in neonatology and new methods of treatment (for example, hypothermia of the head) give good results.

    Types of hypoxic conditions

    Hemoglobin is responsible for transporting oxygen throughout the body. Hemoglobin deficiency leads to anemia, which causes anemic hypoxia. Lack of iron in the body is the most common cause of anemia. Since iron is involved in the formation of hemoglobin, it will be produced in smaller quantities due to the lack of this trace element, which is either small in the body or poorly absorbed.

    Severe hypoxic exogenous hypoxia is characterized by increased heart rate and respiration, the occurrence of tachycardia, and the amount of blood passing through the heart also increases because the bone marrow releases an additional portion of red blood cells into the blood stream to maintain a normal level of oxygen in the body.

    In an acute attack of hypoxic hypoxia, the body directs all the blood to the central organs, ignoring the secondary ones. In this case, if the attack is eliminated in a short period of time, then a person can keep his body normal. If the attack is not immediately eliminated, then you can be late with first aid and irreparable reactions will occur in the body, with a possible fatal outcome.

    Lack of oxygen in the body, the consequences of which may not immediately appear after the onset of this difficult to diagnose condition, but after some time, is a serious problem for humanity today. As a result of hypoxia, pathological processes develop over time in the brain.

    Among such sad results, his swelling is manifested, which in turn leads to the beginning of the origin of irreversible changes in his nerve cells – neurons.

    Simply put, in the worst case, the death of these important components of the work of any brain and the cessation of the activity of the organism as a whole can occur. In general, the depth (strength, degree) of such changes depends on the prescription of painful changes and the depth of action of external and internal factors.

    In the event of irreversible consequences of such a patient, it is often already impossible to save. With not serious, just begun changes, it is very simple to reverse. To do this, you must immediately remove the dangerous factor, whether it is an external effect or pathological processes that flow inside the body itself.

    As a result, the effects of oxygen starvation can be:

    • Moderate severity of conditions in which not long-term treatment is required and the body is removed from “oxygen starvation”.
    • Temporary, not noticeable to an outside observer, reversible changes, manifested by a slight deterioration in the patient’s well-being.
    • A serious condition leading to the onset of irreversible consequences, such as the death of brain neurons, and, as a consequence, death.

    Depending on the stage at which a deviation from the normal functioning of the body was noticed, it makes sense to apply this or that help: for example, eliminating an unhealthy factor, folk remedies or medicines.

    Chronic hypoxia

    This degree of hypoxic hypoxia is characteristic during a period of serious illness, it takes a fairly long time. This is the main difference from acute hypoxia. With a long period, the body adapts to the conditions of oxygen deficiency and begins to receive oxygen for cells in new ways. In the lungs, the network of blood vessels increases, and the blood is supplied with additional hemoglobin.

    Which doctor should I go to?

    With intermittent breathing, it is primarily necessary. He will conduct an examination, take the necessary tests, conduct hardware studies.

    Depending on what other symptoms of the disease you will have, the therapist will write you a referral to the following specialists:

    • – pulmonary diseases;
    • – pathology of the cardiovascular system;
    • – anemia;
    • – psychosomatics, osteochondrosis;
    • – neurosis and stress;
    • – diabetes mellitus, thyrotoxicosis;
    • – the presence of allergic reactions.

    Pulmonologist deals with pulmonary diseases

    At home, to understand which of these specialists need to be addressed will not work. Symptoms of many diseases that provoke dyspnea are very similar to each other.

    The effects of hypoxia

    The effects of hypoxic hypoxia are very diverse. If the body’s cells lack oxygen, the electrons are converted to pyruvic acid during the fermentation of lactic acid. This temporary measure allows a small amount of energy to be released. The appearance of lactic acid (in tissues and blood) is an indicator of insufficient oxygenation of mitochondria, which can be caused by hypoxemia, poor blood circulation (for example, shock), or a combination thereof.

    A similar condition, having a long and severe form, leads to cell death. Pulmonary hypertension adversely affects survival during hypoxemia, to the extent that elevated mean pulmonary artery pressure rises. Chronic hypoxemia increases mortality in any disease severity.

    Numerous studies in patients with hypoxemia have demonstrated a relationship between daily hours of oxygen use and survival. There is reason to believe that continuous 24-hour use of oxygen in patients with hypoxia would reduce the mortality rate. Oxygen concentrators are ideal for this purpose.

    They are easy to maintain and do not require significant energy costs. They are a constant source of oxygen and eliminate the costly transportation of oxygen cylinders. Climate-controlled rooms are equipped in offices and residential premises, in which temperature and humidity are kept constant. Oxygen in this system is always available.

    The immediate and acute stage can be fatal. The remaining cases are fraught with dizziness, visual impairment and speech. Of course, rehabilitation will help restore the fulfillment of lost responsibilities, but residual deviations can persist.

    Chronic hypoxia causes shortness of breath and hypertension, the formation of blood clots and an increased number of mitochondria. A prolonged course of oxygen starvation gradually leads to impaired function and decompensation.

    Hypoxia affects the work of all body systems:

    • Detoxifying and excretory function of the kidneys and liver;
    • Disrupts the normal functioning of the digestive system;
    • Promotes dystrophic changes in connective tissue;
    • It leads to the formation of osteoporosis, arthrosis, arthritis, osteochondrosis.

    From the side of the central nervous system, there is a slowdown in the thought process, a decrease in the amount of analyzed information, a deterioration in memory and speed of reactions.

    The consequences of hypoxia, dangerous to health and life:

    • Premature aging of the body;
    • Decreased immunity and susceptibility to infections;
    • Attenuation of antitumor protection;
    • Depletion of adaptation reserves.

    For these reasons, the timely diagnosis and establishment of the etiology of hypoxia is important.

    Consequences if left untreated

    Antihypoxants are used to increase resistance to hypoxia, such as:

    1. Preductal (Mildronate).
    2. Trimetazidine.
    3. Cytoflavin.
    4. Actovegin.
    5. Vitamins B1, B9, B12.

    How to saturate the brain with oxygen? This can be done in a hyperbaric oxygenation chamber, where oxygen is supplied at elevated pressure. The nervous system is sensitive to oxygen starvation and cannot endure it for long without consequences. With the above symptoms, you need to contact a neurologist.

    Oxygen starvation, or hypoxia, is a pathological process associated with an insufficient supply of oxygen to cells due to a lack of oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere, disturbances from the blood or the cells themselves. Hypoxia can occur both in acute and in chronic form, but always requires immediate recognition and therapy due to possible irreversible effects on the body.

    Hypoxia is not a separate disease or syndrome. This is a general pathological process that underlies a wide variety of diseases and is caused by an extraordinary variety of reasons, ranging from the composition of the ambient air to the pathology of certain types of cells of the human body.

    Although oxygen starvation has certain symptoms, it is a non-specific process that can play a key role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Hypoxia occurs in adults, newborns, fetal growths and has fairly stereotypical structural manifestations that differ only in severity.

    In the initial phase of oxygen deficiency, compensatory-adaptive mechanisms are activated, implemented mainly by the cardiovascular system, respiratory organs, and intracellular biochemical reactions. While these mechanisms work, the body does not feel a lack of oxygenation. As they become depleted, a decompensation phase begins with a developed picture of tissue hypoxia and its complications.

    If the blood gas balance is restored before the defense mechanisms are depleted, the person suffering from hypoxia can expect a full recovery. Otherwise, irreversible intracellular structural changes will begin, and, most likely, it will not be possible to avoid the consequences.

    In prognostic terms, acute hypoxia seems more dangerous
    due to the fact that the reserves of compensation are temporary, and the body does not have time to adapt to a new breathing regime, so untimely treatment threatens with serious consequences and even death. Chronic oxygen starvation, on the contrary, causes persistent adaptive reactions, so this condition can last for years, the organs will perform their function even with the phenomena of moderate sclerosis and dystrophy.

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    Tatyana Jakowenko

    Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

    For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

    He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.

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