In urine tests, laboratory technicians can detect high blood cell counts. If red blood cells are elevated in the urine of a child, the causes are somatic diseases, improper feeding, long-term use of certain medications, as well as inflammation of the urinary system.
The concept of hematuria
Hematuria is an excess of erythrocytes in the urine – red bodies that are contained in the blood, and are needed by the tissues for oxygenation.
In the normal state of the body, erythrocytes are not detected in the urine or are contained up to 3 units. In a study of healthy adolescents, they may not be present at all. In babies one month old, up to seven indicators of erythrocytes are present in urine.
An increase in erythrocytes in urine (more than three units) in children means that a pathology has occurred in which blood cells were able to enter the urinary organs and changed the color of urine from yellow to pink, orange or red.
Increased erythrocytes in the urine of a child (hematuria) reveal more than 4 erythrocytes.
Microhematuria does not disturb the shade of urine, and erythrocytes are detected in the laboratory (up to 20 units).
Macrohematuria is characterized by a red or brown color of urine; it is not possible to count the number of red blood cells in a laboratory under a microscope.
By morphological structure, red blood cells are:
- Unchanged. Represented by biconcave yellow discs. They enter urine through the lower parts of the urinary system,
- Modified. In the acidic environment of urine, hemoglobin is released from erythrocytes, which are represented by colorless balls. Blood comes from glomeruli or kidney glomeruli.
Pathology is detected by examination under a microscope.
It is necessary to monitor the general condition of the child’s body, the amount of urination, accompanying symptoms and additional tests.
Causes of erythrocyturia
The increase in erythrocytes in the urine of a child is caused by reasons that are conventionally divided into two main types:
- Diseases of the urinary system of an inflammatory and non-inflammatory nature.
- Pathologies of other organs.
In addition, the causes of erythrocyturia are:
- inappropriate nutrition of the child (excess protein in food, high consumption of chocolate, citrus fruits, spices, products with dyes and preservatives that form salts that cause inflammation of the urinary system and traumatize it),
- chronic stress (a consequence of an unfavorable home environment),
- strong physical activity (unbearable work for a child),
- uncontrolled intake of energy drinks and alcohol (in asocial families).
Inflammatory (infectious) diseases that cause hematuria include glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, cystitis, tuberculosis kidney infection, acute respiratory viral infections and influenza, osteomyelitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, sepsis. Reactive erythrocyturia may occur here.
Non-inflammatory pathologies are represented by ICD (it is rare, but mechanical scratches of the urinary organ with stones provoke the appearance of hematuria), genital trauma, poisoning, surgery.
Erythrocytes in the urine of a child can also be increased due to the main reason – high temperature, which is a consequence of a viral lesion.
When adolescents begin to exercise vigorously, they sometimes develop hematuria after intense physical activity. Pathology is also encountered with an injury to the head of the penis.
In girls, with the onset of physiological discharge during menstruation, the analysis will also show the presence of erythrocytes above normal. It is recommended to retake urine and wait until the end of your period.
An increase in erythrocytes in the urine of a child should be the reason for other examinations, clarification of the diagnosis and the appointment of timely treatment.
When do you need to do the analysis?
The children’s doctor often prescribes a routine urine test. And this is good, because preventive examinations suddenly reveal abnormalities in the child’s body that parents may not even suspect about.
The study of urine is especially important in conditions when the baby has a fever for more than five days, and symptoms of viral pathology are not observed.
Mandatory delivery of the child’s urine to the laboratory is recommended for:
- painful urination
- frequent urge to use the toilet,
- pain symptom in the lumbar region and lower abdomen,
- sharp changes in the color of urine.
If a child has similar complaints at night, then in the morning it is advisable to pass urine by contacting a pediatrician or a nephrologist, taking a referral to the laboratory. Early diagnostics and therapy will help prevent complications from the kidneys. Children are treated in specialized hospitals.
Usually, antibacterial drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, enterosorbents, probiotics, a treatment table and symptomatic drugs are prescribed.
Even with false hematuria, when the shade of urine changes after beetroot dishes, treatment with vitamin B12, Phenolphthalein, Analgin, Rifampicin, sulfonamide agents, it is better to examine the urine to know for sure what caused the color change.
Correct urine collection
Parents take a referral from a doctor and take urine from the child the next day. Urine for research should be collected in a clean dish in the morning on an empty stomach. A sterile container for this can be purchased at the pharmacy or taken from the laboratory.
The child is washed before the analysis, the genitals are dried with a clean towel.
The most informative for a laboratory assistant, if hematuria is suspected, is the average portion of urine, therefore, it is collected.
For this, the child is asked to start urinating, and after 5 seconds the container is placed under the stream and a portion of urine is collected. Middle portion taken. The kid continues to urinate to the end.
The container is tightly closed and, together with the medical referral, is taken to the laboratory within 2 hours.
There are situations when an urgent delivery of urine “Cito” is prescribed, then the middle portion is not collected.
Parents should monitor the health of their children and pay attention to the color, transparency and odor of urine, which change with various pathologies of the body. Take care of your kids and be healthy!
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