A pregnant woman during the fetal life of the fetus often manifests chronic diseases that arose long before conception. It is they who can provoke the development of diabetes, the main sign of which is hyperglycemia. Diabetes can be in several variations:
- Gestational – the starting mechanism of which was the bearing of a child. It develops due to a decrease in the sensitivity of cells and tissues of a woman’s body to the action of insulin (a hormone-active substance synthesized by the pancreas). As a rule, after the birth of a baby, the pathological condition disappears on its own.
- Insulin-dependent – occurs even before the conception of the baby, can be diagnosed before pregnancy and in the first months of gestation. It has a hereditary character, develops as a result of a sharp decrease in the number of insulin secretory cells of the pancreas.
- Non-insulin-dependent – has the same developmental mechanism as the gestational form. The exception is that the disease does not disappear after delivery.
Classification of diabetes in pregnant women
High risk of diabetes in the following women:
- the first pregnancy occurred after 30-35 years;
- pathological body weight;
- chronic diseases;
- the presence of diabetics among close relatives;
- gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy;
- the birth of a baby weighing more than 4,5 kg during previous pregnancies.
A woman needs to immediately consult a specialist if she has a pathological thirst, the number of trips to the toilet “little by little” has increased, and she has a feeling of dry mouth. Periodically, a rash may appear, which does not go away for a long time, and visual acuity decreases.
Important! Pregnant women often do not pay attention to the symptoms of hyperglycemia, since they consider them to be manifestations of an “interesting position”.
To confirm that the sugar is really raised, the patient will have few complaints. The doctor will definitely prescribe laboratory diagnostic methods, among which the following methods:
- capillary blood sugar test;
- glucose tolerance test (sugar load test);
- determination of glycosylated hemoglobin.
In addition, a woman is consulted by a neurologist, ophthalmologist, surgeon, cardiologist.
Fundus examination – one of the stages of an ophthalmic examination during pregnancy
Increased glycemia is a danger not only to the mother’s body, but also to the fetus. High sugar numbers increase the risk of gestosis, pyelonephritis, premature delivery, complications during gestation and the birth of the baby.
Medical statistics suggest that hyperglycemia causes spontaneous abortion, premature aging of the placenta, and late toxicosis. Elevated glucose levels lead to disruption of blood vessels, which changes the adequate supply of blood to the fetus and vital nutrients and trace elements.
Late toxicosis is one of the serious complications of high blood glucose in pregnant women. This condition is manifested by significant swelling, the appearance of protein in the urine, weight gain, and an increase in blood pressure. In addition, hyperglycemia provokes the development of polyhydramnios (in 65% of clinical cases).
On the part of the baby’s body, an increase in sugar is manifested as follows:
- Macrosomia – a child is born with a pathologically increased body weight, which causes the development of complications during the period of his birth;
- lag in physical development;
- violation of mental development – possibly in the absence of correction of hyperglycemia in a mother who has diabetes even before conception;
- a small amount of surfactant – a substance that is responsible for the proper functioning of the lungs and the implementation of breathing acts;
- neonatal jaundice;
- hypoglycemia of a child – arises due to the fact that the baby’s pancreas gets used to produce large amounts of insulin during fetal life, which continues after birth.
Weight over 4 kg in combination with maternal hyperglycemia may indicate fetal macrosomia
This phenomenon occurs when the baby is born, because there is a poor sensitivity of tissues to insulin. But diabetes can also precede pregnancy. Be that as it may, a high sugar level is a danger to the expectant mother and her child, because an excessive concentration of glucose increases the risk of miscarriage, gestosis, pyelonephritis, complications during childbirth (it may be necessary to carry out them by cesarean section). All of these risks depend on the adequacy of diabetes care.
For pregnant women, there are their own standards for carbohydrate metabolism. So, fasting blood sugar should not exceed 5,1 mM / L. If it is higher than 7,0 mM / L, then the diagnosis of manifest diabetes is made. It means that after the baby is born, the woman’s disease will remain, and treatment will need to be continued.
When the indicator of blood sugar of the future mother on an empty stomach is in the range from 5,1 mM / l to 7,0 mM / l, then they are diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus. In this situation, we can hope for the normalization of carbohydrate metabolism after childbirth.
If you rely on medical statistics, then with diabetes mellitus spontaneous abortions occur in every third pregnancy. And the cause of this is premature aging of the placenta. After all, her vessels are damaged due to excess glucose in the blood. As a result of such a negative phenomenon, the full supply of the fetus with oxygen and nutrients is stopped.
A negative trend in the influence of diabetes is also evident in the risk of developing late toxicosis. This occurs after 20-22 weeks in half of pregnant women. Late toxicosis is usually associated with low estrogen levels. Since sugar also damages the ovaries, they cannot provide estrogen to the female body.
Toxicosis in such cases is manifested by obvious or latent edema, weight gain, the appearance of protein in the urine, and an increase in blood pressure. Women with high glucose levels may also develop polyhydramnios. Such a pathology develops in 60% of pregnancy cases.
Umbilical cord twisting, fetal hypoxia, and pelvic presentation are also possible.
An increase in sugar levels for a future mother can threaten visual impairment, retinal detachment, and heart failure. Against the background of increased sugar, infectious diseases, for example, pyelonephritis, sometimes develop.
First you need to tidy up the diet. And for this you must follow these rules:
- Eliminate digestible carbohydrates from the menu. These are all kinds of confectionery and sweet fruits. Their high glycemic index requires a large amount of insulin to lower blood sugar levels to normal.
- Do not eat instant foods. These include freeze-dried potatoes, noodles, soup soups.
- Prefer fiber-rich foods. It stimulates the intestines, slowing down the absorption of excess sugar into the blood. Such products, in addition, contain many minerals, organic acids, vitamins.
- Do not use products with hidden fats. These are sausages, sausages, sausages, smoked meat, bacon. An alternative to them are beef, chicken, turkey.
- Choose gentle food processing. Cook, bake, steam.
- Eat low-fat dairy products.
If diet therapy is ineffective for a week, then the attending physician makes a decision on the need for hypoglycemic therapy. And this is only insulin injections during pregnancy. After all, sugar-lowering tablets are contraindicated for future mothers – they negatively affect the fetus.
Insulin therapy is prescribed for pregnant women to prevent the development of diabetic fetopathy.
An increased load on the body during pregnancy affects all organs and systems, including the pancreas, which is responsible for the production of insulin. Hormones that are activated during the period of gestation, contribute to the intensive flow of glucose into the blood and enter into confrontation with insulin.
The cause of high blood sugar during pregnancy may also be due to kidney problems. They do not always manage to process a large amount of glucose. If prior to conception a woman had deviations in the work of the endocrine system or liver, then during the gestation of the child this can provoke the development of the disease.
Factors that trigger the development of gestational diabetes in pregnant women include:
- age over 30 years;
- excess weight;
- various diseases;
- hereditary predisposition;
- gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy or the birth of a large child.
During pregnancy, in order to prevent high sugar levels, it is necessary to undergo regular examinations, exclude sugar-raising foods from the diet and perform physical exercises.
A proper diet helps lower sugar levels well. But you need to choose it very carefully: during pregnancy, you can not greatly limit yourself in food. To get started, exclude high-calorie foods and easily digestible carbohydrates from the diet, enter light dishes rich in vitamins in the menu. So you can not only normalize glucose in the blood, but also reduce weight, establish metabolism. Eat 5-6 times a day in small portions. Do not overeat or eat at night. In extreme cases, 2 hours after dinner, drink 0,5 tbsp. kefir.
Avoid alcoholic drinks and sweeteners. Try not to eat buns, sweets, spices and smoked meats. These products contribute to the rapid rise in blood glucose levels. Exclude instant food from the menu. Pay attention to sugar lowering foods: fish and seafood, fermented milk products with fruits, vegetables and wheat sprouts.
You can reduce sugar with aerobic exercise. For example, walking in the fresh air will speed up metabolism and strengthen immunity. However, make sure that exercise involves light loads and does not cause shortness of breath. Remember: during pregnancy, you can not bend your back much, make sudden movements, jump, stretch or wave your legs.
For this reason, give up riding, ice skating and cycling. Among the recommended sports are swimming, yoga, Pilates and fitball. All these exercises have a beneficial effect on well-being, strengthen muscles, improve blood supply to the placenta, and contribute to mental and physical relaxation.
Increased sugar during pregnancy: causes
The main cause of high blood sugar during pregnancy is diabetes, or it is chronic diabetes, which the woman knew about before pregnancy, or diabetes of pregnant women. Why do healthy women who never have diabetes have an increase in sugar during pregnancy?
Normally, the pancreas secretes insulin, which helps utilize sugar (glucose). During pregnancy, the action of insulin is suppressed by a special hormone (placental lactogen), which is necessary so that the baby can receive a sufficient amount of nutrients.
If the glucose level rises slightly and from time to time, then this is usually the norm. With gestational diabetes, placental hormones cause an increase in sugar during pregnancy to a level that can negatively affect the condition of the unborn baby.
Not only the level of glucose plays a role, but also how the body metabolizes it and responds to excess intake. Fasting blood sugar levels may remain normal, so a glucose-tolerance test is used to more accurately diagnose high blood sugar during pregnancy. See “Test for glucose tolerance.”
Blood glucose is always controlled by insulin. This hormone releases glucose from the blood so that it enters the cells of organs and other systems. Thus, insulin helps lower sugar levels. In the body of a pregnant woman, hormones secreted by the pituitary gland and the endocrine system increase glucose bypassing insulin.
So, the effectiveness of the latter is significantly reduced. But not all women have hormones that negatively affect blood. Only when the pancreas, which is involved in the production of insulin, experiences overload.
Why do some women have normal blood sugar, while others have it? Failure to produce hormones (and insulin) occurs under the influence of a number of triggers, that is, factors.
Here are some of them:
- history of gestational diabetes in past pregnancies;
- the presence of glucose in the urine;
- genetic predisposition to insulin-dependent diabetes;
- polycystic ovaries;
- late pregnancy is a relative risk factor.
If a woman is young, healthy in the past, then the risk of sugar becoming pregnant during pregnancy is minimal.
In the second half of the perinatal period, the synthesis of placental hormones increases. The provisional (temporary) organ begins to fulfill its endocrine function. Hormonal imbalance has a negative effect on metabolic processes, in particular, carbohydrate metabolism. Pregnant women have an increased need for glucose, since two organisms must be provided with energy and nutrition (one of which requires permanent sugar supplementation, since it is in a state of growth).
The expectant mother begins to consume more foods containing simple carbohydrates (confectionery, chocolate, etc.). With such a glucose attack, the pancreas tries to compensate for the situation through increased production of insulin. Given that in the 2-3 trimester, a woman’s physical activity decreases, cells and tissues lose their sensitivity to the hormone, and the pancreas wears out.
There is insulin resistance (insulin synthesis is preserved, but the possibilities to realize it are lost). As a result, glucose accumulates in the blood, sugar indicators increase, and body tissues are left without the necessary nutrition. “Starve” both mother and child. Additional causes of intermittent glycemia (blood sugar) during gestation may be as follows:
- chronic pathologies of the pancreas and hepatobiliary system (usually diagnosed before pregnancy);
- unstable k >
Clinical manifestations of hyperglycemia are moderate, therefore, women are not inclined to pay due attention to them.
What is the danger of hyperglycemia?
The initial blood sampling for sugar concentration is carried out when a woman is registered for pregnancy. The analysis is taken strictly on an empty stomach, since glucose is formed during the processing of any food. The indicators taken after a meal are always higher than objective. Normal blood sugar values should be within the range of 3,5 to 5,5 mmol / L (millimol per liter is the accepted measurement value). A baseline blood test is given to pregnant women at each routine screening.
In the case when sugar is increased, monitoring of indicators is carried out more often. Stably high rates, otherwise hyperglycemia, indicate serious violations of carbohydrate metabolism:
- a slight but constant increase in glucose values is diagnosed as a state of prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance);
- a discrepancy with a norm of up to 1,5 mmol / l indicates the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM);
- indicators exceeding 7,0 mmol / l are characteristic of manifest diabetes – a type 2 diabetes mellitus that first manifested itself in the perinatal period.
For accurate diagnosis, women are prescribed glucose tolerance testing during pregnancy. GTT (glucose tolerance test) allows you to assess the degree of absorption of carbohydrates by the body. Blood sampling is performed three times: on an empty stomach, one hour after the “load”, after 2 hours. As a load, glucose dissolved in water (75 g. Per 200 ml) is used.
The norm and deviations of the results of the screening test for glucose tolerance
Important! Conclusions about the presence of the disease are made on the basis of several tests. Once increased sugar when carrying a child is not diabetes yet.
If a pregnant woman has impaired glucose tolerance, the doctor should explain in detail what to do to eliminate this problem. First of all, a correction of eating behavior is needed. Organization of proper nutrition:
- eliminate from the diet foods rich in fast carbohydrates (confectionery, pastries, sugary drinks, chocolate, some varieties of fruits);
- replace 50% of animal fats with vegetable oils;
- give preference to foods rich in fiber (vegetables, legumes and crops);
- increase the amount of protein food in the diet (diet poultry, seafood, fish);
- limit salt to the use of table (iodized) salt;
- control GI (glycemic index) and the energy value of each dish.
Allowed are products with low GI (not higher than 40 units). Daily calorie intake should not exceed the norm of 40 kcal per 1 kg of woman’s weight. It is also important to observe the drinking regimen (at least 1,5-2 liters of water daily), and the regimen of food intake (5-6 times a day with an interval of 3-3,5 hours), refuse foods prepared by the culinary method of frying. A strict diet is the main method for stabilizing glucose readings.
It is forbidden to use sugar-lowering drugs during pregnancy because of their teratogenic effect. To proper nutrition, you need to add daily physical training (preferably in the fresh air). The intensity of physical activity should not exceed the capabilities of the body. When planning sports loads, it will be advisable to consult with your doctor.
High sugar during pregnancy has all the same characteristic manifestations that other people have. The most characteristic following symptoms:
- In the earliest stages, high blood sugar manifests itself in increased thirst, especially at night. Constant dry mouth appears;
- High blood sugar also manifests itself with frequent and more abundant urination. Sometimes it is difficult for pregnant women to track this indicator. But normally, the amount of urine should not increase, and the number of urinations should increase several times. Therefore, if such symptoms are detected, it can be suspected that glucose during pregnancy is increased;
- The appearance of itching occurs when glucose in the blood during pregnancy has been increased for some time. It can occur in various places, but the genitals are usually most affected by it;
- Fatigue is another sign that glucose has increased during pregnancy. Sometimes the feeling of fatigue may seem natural for women “in position”, however, with severe lethargy, drowsiness, depression, it is recommended to measure the glucose content.
When pregnancy occurs in healthy women, sometimes they increase sugar, and therefore you need to be careful about your health and sometimes do a sugar test (for example, using a fasting home blood glucose meter). For pregnant women with diabetes, the rules are even stricter. Many factors affect sugar in pregnant women, so you need to measure it more often than usual before and after meals.
There are two ways to count hits. Every day, calculate the time your child needs to travel ten times.
- If more than 2 hours are required, inform your specialist.
- See how many movements you feel in 1 hour.
- If you change the number, notify your specialist.
He can count on kicking even in the third quarter. If your professional is concerned about your child’s movements, he can do other tests to check his health.
Although many pregnancies occur after nine months without any problems, others are complicated by diseases of the mother or fetus. Prenatal tests are performed to prevent or treat complications that may affect the mother or baby. Some of them are performed in the first trimester, others at the end of pregnancy.
Blood sugar ranges from 3,3 to 6,6 mmol per liter. It is necessary to maintain the sugar level while expecting a baby within these limits, otherwise a special type of diabetes, gestational, may develop. It is he who passes into type II diabetes after childbirth (this does not always happen, but often enough).
Blood groups are inherited, and some types of blood produce antibodies against other types that can destroy red blood cells. If the mother and baby have different types of blood, the baby may be damaged by maternal antibodies. There are countries where, during pregnancy, Rh-negative mothers are given a type of vaccine that contains antibodies and prevents the formation of their antibodies.
Knowing whether a pregnant woman is Rh negative is necessary to prevent serious illness in the baby or future pregnancies. Most doctors do tests to find out if a woman has a disease that can infect her baby during childbirth or during pregnancy. Most doctors also test to make sure that the mother is immune to rubella, a disease that can cause birth defects or a miscarriage if they become infected during pregnancy.
The norm of sugar in pregnant women undergoes significant changes due to the fact that the number of ketone bodies increases, while the number of amino acids decreases. But in the second and third trimester (with a normal course of gestation), insulin secretion increases. These are the reasons why the blood sugar rate is stable.
Gestational diabetes poses a significant risk to both mother and baby. Fasting blood sugar for eight hours checks the level of glucose in the blood. If above normal, another blood test may be done to check your sugar level after consuming a glucose-rich drink. Infants born to mothers with gestational diabetes may be larger than usual and present difficulties during and after childbirth.
Low levels may be associated with chromosomal abnormalities, such as Down syndrome or other trisomies, while high levels can cause neural tube defects and abnormal spinal openings. Ultrasound is usually performed around 18 weeks to detect abnormalities of the embryo. This test measures the thickness of the neck or neck, as babies with Down Syndrome often have a large occipital thickness. Leg length is also measured to detect normal growth. If an anomaly is detected during ultrasound, a more thorough examination, usually known as an ultrasound scan, is usually performed.
Gestational diabetes can occur in any woman, and the symptoms are not always identified. Therefore, it is recommended that all pregnant women, starting from the 24th week of pregnancy, examine how fasting glucose and, most importantly, glycemia after taking glucose, the so-called blood glucose tolerance test.
What are the risk factors? More advanced maternal age; Excessive weight gain during pregnancy; Overweight or obesity; Polycystic ovarian syndrome; A previous history of large children or gestational diabetes; Family history of diabetes in first-degree relatives; A history of gestational diabetes in the mother of a pregnant woman; Arterial hypertension during pregnancy; Multiple pregnancy. Gestational diabetes monitoring is most often done with adequate nutritional guidelines.
- Angiopathy – damage to the walls of blood vessels, as a result of which blood cannot fully circulate in the body, including and enter the fetus;
- Nephropathy – kidney damage that occurs with a constant increase in blood sugar and can lead to the development of renal failure;
- Sometimes (rarely), liver failure develops in a similar way;
- Retinopathy – a retinal lesion that is characteristic of those whose sugar levels in diabetes are significantly and permanently elevated, can lead to blindness;
- Neuropathy is a lesion of the nerve endings in those whose glucose levels during pregnancy have been at a dangerously high level for a long time and are characterized by a loss of sensitivity in parts of the body (in particular, lower limbs, sometimes until they lose their ability to move independently).
Increased sugar during pregnancy: consequences.
Increased blood sugar during pregnancy can lead to health problems in both the woman herself and her baby.
Increased blood glucose increases the likelihood of fetal malformations, but mainly for up to 10 weeks of pregnancy. Gestational diabetes usually occurs in the second half of pregnancy, but in chronic diabetes, you need to carefully monitor your blood sugar and regulate it from the first days of pregnancy.
With increased blood sugar in pregnant women, macrosomia often develops – a large fetal weight at the time of birth. Macrosomy complicates the natural birth, increases the risk of medical interventions, including cesarean section, as well as the risk of complications for the mother and child.
Polyhydramnios may develop, which can lead to premature birth of a baby or cause problems during childbirth.
An increase in sugar in pregnant women increases the likelihood of preeclampsia (a fairly serious condition), hypertension (high blood pressure).
A normal level of sugar in the blood of the mother suggests its normal level in the child. If the sugar is elevated in a pregnant woman, then the baby’s level is also elevated, and after birth it drops sharply, which may require some treatment.
If the blood sugar level during pregnancy was elevated, then the baby is more likely to experience jaundice after birth.
High sugar during pregnancy is primarily dangerous by the further development of gestational diabetes mellitus, for the treatment of which, often, resort to insulin therapy (compensation of glucose by injection of medical insulin). An undiagnosed, therefore, not compensated GDM threatens with serious complications for a woman and a future baby.
Hyperglycemia in the first half of pregnancy can negatively affect the process of “laying” the brain and nervous system of the child. The risk of having a baby with mental disabilities and neuropsychological disorders increases.
An increase in sugar can trigger the following pregnancy complications:
- spontaneous interruption (miscarriage) or fading of the gestation process;
- an increase in amniotic fluid volume (polyhydramnios) and placental insufficiency;
- premature or complicated delivery;
- preeclampsia (severe late toxicosis);
- vascular lesions of the organs of vision (retinopathy);
- kidney failure (nephropathy).
A neglect of the symptoms of hyperglycemia can lead to the development of type XNUMX diabetes. A high level of glucose in the blood of a mother does not pass without a trace for a future baby. The risk of intrauterine growth retardation, child intoxication with ketones (toxic products of glucose metabolism), and obesity of the fetus are increasing. Severe complications include:
- oxygen starvation (hypoxia);
- insufficient blood supply to the brain (ischemia);
- intrauterine death.
Important! Early diagnosis of hyperglycemia is a chance to avoid the development of gestational diabetes and negative consequences.
The complications and consequences of an untreated increase in blood glucose are quite sad. If all women, being pregnant or just planning her, would know about them, then they would more closely monitor their health.
Firstly, in diabetes, even “pregnant,” damage to important organs such as the heart and kidneys occurs. Also, damage occurs in the vessels of the fundus. Because of what, the retina begins to exfoliate, which leads to loss of vision. With heart damage, heart failure occurs. This is very sad. With kidney damage, the urinary tract is involved in the inflammatory process. As a result, pyelonephritis. With this disease, the renal pelvis becomes inflamed. The disease is serious and difficult to treat.
Also, if a woman suffered diabetes during pregnancy, although it is cured, then she automatically increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future, throughout life.
The consequences are reflected on the baby, both before childbirth and after. Even in the womb, he develops fetopathy. The child develops too actively and acquires large sizes, larger than normal. As a result, he is born with a weight exceeding 4 kilograms. That’s not all. The following may be with him:
- A baby may be born with heart, brain, or genitourinary defects.
- The baby may not have a proportionately developed skeleton. This will cause many serious problems in the future.
- There is an increased risk of newborn death, which is due to the fact that the lungs did not have time to form.
- Some children live less than a week and die.
- There is a high risk of a missed pregnancy when the baby dies in the womb.
How to lower sugar? Medicines
If sugar is increased during pregnancy, what should I do? Fortunately for patients with gestational diabetes, the disease is treatable and several methods are used. Basically, the therapy is non-drug in nature – this is physical education, folk remedies and a special diet. But if there is no result, then drugs are used.
The only medicine indicated for this type of diabetes is insulin. It is used strictly under the strict supervision of a doctor.
Pregnant Insulin Benefits:
- absolute safety, both for the mother and the baby in her womb;
- lack of risk of tolerance to the drug;
- quick effect.
Treatment with insulin has features. For example, you can not change the scheme or skip the drug. You also need to regularly measure glucose levels and take tests. To do this, you need to purchase a glucometer, since you will have to measure indicators five times a day.
What to do if sugar is elevated during pregnancy? The initial stage of gestational diabetes is also treated with special teas, infusions and herbs.
- Tea made by boiling raspberries. The effect is a decrease in glucose levels, blood purification.
- Parsley and its root also lower the level of glucose, but still strengthen the walls of blood vessels.
- Adding leaves of young dandelion to the salad.
- A decoction of the roots of dandelion.
- Nettle grass.
- Eleutherococcus in the form of a pharmacy extract.
- Herbal collection, which includes pepper, wormwood and onions.
- Juice from the leaves of plantain.
- Decoction of birch buds.
- Use with turmeric food.
- Dry brewer’s yeast diluted in water.
What to do if high blood sugar during pregnancy? Physical activity in the fresh air can normalize glucose levels. Aerobic exercise is also beneficial. This is due to the fact that during their active nutrition of all body cells with oxygen. It speeds up metabolic processes. Due to this, there is an active consumption of glucose and carbohydrates, and this reduces the level of sugar in the blood.
As physical activity, scientists identify the most useful for pregnant women:
- walking long walks in the fresh air in an intensive mode, without overdoing it;
- classes in the pool;
As you can see, all the loads are not particularly difficult and bring not only obvious benefits, but also pleasure. Physical education should become a daily and integral part of the life of a pregnant woman. Then the level of glucose in the blood will quickly decline to normal values.
Diet with high sugar during pregnancy is the basis in the treatment of gestational diabetes. Without it, any other methods will be simply useless.
Nutrition Rules for Pregnant Diabetics:
- You need to eat fractionally, taking breaks between meals for no more than 4 hours. Ideally, you need to eat 6 times. This will speed up the metabolism, will not allow glucose levels to change their values dramatically.
- It is forbidden to eat simple carbohydrates, which significantly and permanently increase blood sugar, for a long time. This list includes all flour products with sugar, preserves, sweets.
What should I use if sugar is elevated during pregnancy? There are also certain foods that you definitely need to eat to lower your blood glucose. Their list is given below:
- Blueberries It contains a huge amount of glucosides, as well as tannins that lower sugar levels. Together with the fruits, its leaves are also useful, from which they make decoctions and take a third of a glass three times a day.
- Fresh cucumbers . They perfectly regulate the metabolism in the blood. In the summer, you can carry out short-term diets on cucumbers. It is enough to eat 3 kilograms of cucumbers per day to arrange a fasting day for yourself.
- Buckwheat grain . Effectively fights diabetes in pregnant women. It can be eaten in unlimited quantities.
- Earthen pear, also called Jerusalem artichoke, improves digestion, has a laxative effect and lowers glucose levels.
- White cabbage, rich in vitamins, fiber and pectins, removes excess fluid from the body.
- Radish juice.
- Potato juice.
- Beetroot juice.
- Carrot juice.
- Oysters, brewer’s yeast and sprouted wheat contain a lot of zinc. The latter effectively relieves blood of excess glucose.
What to do with low sugar?
Sometimes a woman in position does not necessarily increase glucose. There are cases of a significant and sharp decrease, which is called hypoglycemia. This is also a dangerous condition that must not be tolerated.
If a sharp decrease in blood glucose has suddenly occurred, you need to reconsider your approach to the diet and to the food you eat.
How to increase blood sugar during pregnancy? Many women believe that you can increase by eating something sweet. This conclusion itself logically begs itself. But he is mistaken. Both with high and low sugar, you can not eat simple carbohydrates and sweet sweets. Unless it’s an emergency. With an extreme drop in sugar, you need to eat a candy or a piece of chocolate. This will immediately increase the level of glucose and not allow a woman to lose consciousness. After this, you urgently need to eat normally.
A glucose tolerance test is also recommended for all pregnant women, without exception, for a period of 24-28 weeks. If there are risk factors for gestational diabetes (obesity, the presence of diabetes in close relatives, etc.), a glucose tolerance test is performed at the first visit to the doctor.
If gestational diabetes is diagnosed, then first of all a special diet is prescribed, which must be observed until the very birth. In rare cases, insulin may be required.
How to maintain normal blood sugar during pregnancy.
• Watch your diet. Limit sugar-containing foods (cookies, sweets, cakes, sugary drinks, and so on).
• Be sure to eat foods containing dietary fiber and complex carbohydrates (vegetables, whole grains, legumes).
• Include enough protein foods (meat, fish, eggs, milk, cheese) in your diet.
• Eat often (up to six times a day) to maintain a constant level of blood sugar.
• Prefer a low fat diet.
• Exercise (if there are no contraindications), this helps burn excess sugar.
Most women with gestational diabetes give birth to healthy children, but if glucose is not controlled, then the risk of complications increases.
If the future mother did not previously have chronic diabetes, then increased sugar during pregnancy is a temporary phenomenon that will pass after childbirth. However, such women should periodically monitor their blood sugar after pregnancy, as they have an increased likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes at an older age.
In a pregnant woman, all the same studies can be performed as in a non-pregnant woman. But the interpretation of the result may differ, because the blood glucose norm in women is “in position” different.
- The simplest and most popular finger blood test gives accurate results using a quality blood glucose meter. It is done independently at home and is used for routine health monitoring;
- A blood test from a vein is performed in a medical facility. It is done on an empty stomach at the laboratory assistant. Moreover, indicators may be lower than when blood was taken for sugar from a finger;
- The glucose tolerance test is another type of study that is done more for diagnostic than for control purposes. First you need to find out what the patient’s fasting sugar level is. Then he is given to drink glucose diluted in water. Carry out control measurements after half an hour, after 1 hour, after a half and two;
- Also, sugar during pregnancy is measured in urine. It can also serve as a reliable diagnostic sign.
If you measure the level an hour after eating, then the indicators will be quite informative, but in some cases they will still differ from the norm. Therefore, if the level of glucose in the blood is in doubt, then the first thing to do is to consult a doctor to prescribe studies for blood glucose levels.
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