Such a cardiovascular disease is often asymptomatic and is caused by a deterioration in cardiac activity, blood vessels begin to work incorrectly. Because of this, the blood supply to the body is inhibited, deterioration is especially observed during physical exertion.
The main signs of such a heart pathology are:
- Weakness and malaise – manifests itself in the initial stages of the disease, at first they are less noticeable, increase over time.
- Drowsiness, possibly sleep disturbance.
- Reduced performance.
- Disruptions in the nervous system due to excessive irritability, depression, stress.
- Shortness of breath – is especially pronounced during physical exertion, at the first stage this symptom is less pronounced, increases with increasing speed and has a strong effect on the general condition.
- Coughing is often one of the first symptoms that cause heart disease. Its presence is severely affected by people of advanced and senile age. Therefore, in some situations, coughing can provoke a loss of consciousness. It is possible to identify a cough with heart failure due to special manifestations. First of all, this is the absence of sputum or its insignificant amount with the presence of blood. The attack is characterized by cyanosis of the lips, increased heart rate, increased pain in the heart and an increase in cervical veins. A prolonged cough often leads to a loss of consciousness of the patient.
- Swelling of the lower extremities due to poor heart function.
- Vomiting and nausea.
- Blueing of the lower and upper limbs, in particular, nails and lips, which is associated with a violation of blood circulation in the body and impaired heart function.
Vital human organs and systems are attacked hourly, and their functioning is deteriorating. Heart failure (HF) is a violation of the myocardium, the basis of the heart muscle.
The pathological process requires the intervention of a specialist who will study the symptoms, and then make up the treatment. Initial consultation with a cardiologist is especially necessary in old age, when serious consequences are likely.
In the categories of elderly people, the signs of heart failure are somewhat different than in young people. We will analyze the main symptoms that determine the development of pathology.
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- No. 1. Tachycardia
- No. 2. Swelling
- No. 5. Orthopnea
- No. 3. ACE inhibitors
- No. 5. Nitrates
- Glyceryl trinitrate
- Why is it developing
- Medication Therapy
- Main manifestations
- Treatment with diuretics
- How to treat heart failure in the elderly – drugs and medications
- Preventive measures
- Operative intervention
- Complications and consequences
- How to treat heart failure in the elderly, effective drugs
No. 1. Tachycardia
This increase in heart rate is usually more than 90 beats per minute. The pulse does not increase during exercise, but when a person is in a calm state. Tachycardia in the early stages is not particularly harmful. But with its prolonged course, the myocardium begins to collapse, which increases the risk of a heart attack.
No. 2. Swelling
Edema in heart failure is a fairly common occurrence due to the slowdown of all metabolic processes in the body. Fluid accumulates in the tissues and the space between the internal organs. Most often, swelling affects the face, lower limbs. Then the stomach, arms and hips swell. The legs swell unevenly, sometimes swelling is visible only in the fingers.
Heart failure is characterized by a deterioration in blood circulation throughout the body. Due to poor lung enrichment, a strong barking cough begins. It is preceded by bronchospasm and shortness of breath.
Heart failure leads to a deterioration in the enrichment of brain cells with oxygen. Analyzing the symptoms, treatment and other features of the disease, it should be said that forgetfulness and decreased attention are common signs. In old age, dementia is also observed if heart problems are diagnosed too late.
No. 5. Orthopnea
A dangerous symptom, implying severe shortness of breath when in a lying position. Orthopnea develops against the background of venous stasis in the pulmonary circulation.
When the patient takes a sitting position, blood flow passes to the legs, alleviating the condition. In more complex cases, shortness of breath appears when the body is upright.
This indicates not only heart, but also pulmonary failure.
There are 2 forms of the disease:
- acute heart failure – a sudden (emergency) condition in which the contractile functions of the myocardium are severely impaired, the heart loses its ability to provide vital systems and organs with blood;
- chronic heart failure – occurs over a long period, characterized by a confused pulse, impaired blood flow to systems and organs, wear and tear and myocardial hypoxia.
Each form of heart failure is dangerous in its own way and has certain symptoms. They repel them when prescribing treatment. The disease requires close attention, especially in elderly patients. If you rely on statistics, HF takes a leading position in the number of deaths from its development.
The drugs included in the treatment of heart failure are selected by a cardiologist. The doctor constantly monitors the patient’s health status, adjusting the dosage. Concomitant pathologies, age-related features and lifestyle are taken into account.
A group of drugs aimed at blocking beta-adrenergic receptors and the effect of catecholamines on them. Means are especially often used by cardiologists, since they quickly remove the symptoms of heart failure and have a prolonged effect.
Antiarrhythmic antihypertensive drug aimed at reducing heart rate and automatism of the sinus node, as well as slowing down AV-conduction.
The drug eliminates the need for myocardium in oxygen, reducing its excitability and contractility. Also, Metoprolol prevents stress on the heart during stresses of the emotional and physical plan.
Positive dynamics in the treatment appears after 2 weeks of admission.
Heart failure is accompanied by a high pulse rate, shortness of breath, rapid fatigue, tingling in the heart and myocardial oxygen demand. The drug relieves these symptoms, providing targeted treatment. It is prescribed to people in old age because of ease of use. The medicine is drunk daily according to an individually composed scheme.
Medicines mainly from plant components. When taken correctly, they give a good antiarrhythmic and cardiotonic effect. Tablets are prescribed in therapeutic doses for chronic or acute heart failure. They improve myocardial function, ensuring the smooth operation of the heart muscle.
It differs in speed, does not accumulate in the body, thereby not turning from a drug into a “heart poison.” It is excreted after the day following the reception, while the therapeutic effect does not decrease. The result is visible after a quarter hour if administered intravenously.
The most effective for heart failure of a chronic form. Consists of digitalis woolly, which acts as a vasodilator. Among the main properties of the drug is a diuretic, inotropic effect. Against this background, swelling goes away, myocardial function is restored.
In action, it is similar to the previous medicine, but is prescribed less frequently. Effective in the chronic form of heart failure. It has an overly active composition, which can provoke intoxication if used improperly. It acts more slowly, the result is noticeable after 6 hours.
No. 3. ACE inhibitors
They are prescribed for heart failure only when the symptoms are confirmed. Treatment in old age is a doctor. Medications are aimed at reducing total peripheral vascular resistance by eliminating the effects of angiotensin II on vascular receptors.
A highly effective drug is recognized as the best among ACE inhibitors. In chronic heart failure, up to 55 mg is often prescribed. per day. Take 13 mg at a time. a substance that lasts about 3 hours. Acute treatment begins with a lower dosage. Additionally, diuretics are used with Captopril.
Heart failure is treated with diuretics. They eliminate shortness of breath and swelling. It is forbidden to take diuretics in large quantities in order to avoid violations of the kidneys.
The drug helps to remove sodium, chlorine, excess water from the body. Active ingredients reduce the titratable acidity of urine. From the beginning of administration, a hypotensive effect is caused on the 2nd to 5th day. The treatment regimen is prescribed individually. The daily dosage is 100-200 mg. divided into 2-3 receptions. On average, the course lasts 3 weeks.
When diagnosing heart failure, a powerful diuretic is sometimes prescribed. It is taken in emergency situations when the symptoms are already established, and treatment for the elderly patient is simply necessary. The medication allows you to cope with an acute form of the disease. The daily dosage is set by the doctor individually.
No. 5. Nitrates
Preparations of this group have venodilating properties. In addition to eliminating stagnation in the blood channels, the medicine reduces myocardial ischemia and dilates the coronary arteries.
The medication is used to prevent angina pectoris and dilate blood vessels. The medicine increases metabolic processes, reducing the heart’s need for oxygen. Available in capsule and tablet form. It is allowed to take no more than 6 units per day. You can take 0,5 tablets at a time.
The drug is aimed at reducing the oxygen demand of the heart. With regular admission, the main muscle gets rid of the load that occurs against the background of heart failure. The daily rate is prescribed by the doctor, taking into account the characteristics of the patient’s body.
The medicine of this group eliminates heart failure. Active substances block the synthesis of angiotensin II in the kidneys. Against this background, blood pressure indicators are stabilizing, vasospasm is relieved.
Heart failure has its own symptoms, the treatment of which is important to carry out in a timely manner, especially in old age. During therapy, “Atacand” is taken in conjunction with diuretics, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, cardiac glycosides. The daily norm of the medication in question is 8 mg.
Following simple rules, it will be possible to strengthen and maintain health at the proper level.
Heart failure in the elderly is diagnosed in the same way as at a different age. The doctor carefully and leisurely interviews the patient, as patients are not always able to immediately recall all the details.
The results of the physical examination are confirmed by instrumental and laboratory studies.
Checking the condition of the heart muscle and valve apparatus is carried out using:
- Electrocardiography In some cases, they can conduct stress tests using minimal loads.
- Doppler ultrasound.
- A common chest radiograph.
The diagnosis is confirmed based on the results:
- general blood count and leukocyte formula;
- determining the level of protein and glucose in the blood and urine;
- residual nitrogen and bilirubin in the blood;
- lipoproteins and triglycerides;
- transaminases and lactate dehydrogenases.
The doctor prescribes, in accordance with the symptoms, the treatment of heart failure in old age. Since they are considered the main indicator in the occurrence of this pathology and depending on their number, severity and frequency of manifestation, they indicate the patient’s condition and show the general clinical picture of heart disease.
Before prescribing special treatment, a diagnostic examination is carried out, which helps to establish the duration of the disease, the presence of minor pathologies and the possibility of complications.
The main thing is to consult a medical specialist in a timely manner when the symptoms are infrequent and less pronounced. In this case, the chances of restoring heart function, improving blood supply and completely removing signs increase. Otherwise, the therapy is much more difficult, in some cases even surgery may be required.
At the initial stages, heart disease is treated with proper nutrition, rejection of bad habits and permissible physical exertion, which contribute to the improvement of metabolic processes and accelerate blood circulation.
Common therapeutic methods for heart failure are:
- Drug therapy.
- Folk methods.
- Surgical intervention.
Any of the listed methods of treatment is prescribed by a medical specialist, depending on the clinical and diagnostic indications, heart function, as well as the presence of symptoms and complications.
Heart failure is not only treated medically, the disease can be overcome with the help of traditional medicine recipes. But with such treatment, the proper effect will be available only at the initial stage of development, when the symptoms are infrequent and less pronounced.
When using this method of treatment for a disease, it is necessary to consult with a medical specialist in advance, since heart complications are possible that will provoke the progression of the pathology.
If there are no contraindications to the use of folk methods, they can be used to normalize blood pressure, improve general condition, blood circulation, heart function, some recipes can have a diuretic effect. As therapy, medicinal herbs and other folk components are used.
Alternative treatment of heart failure
The following recipes are very popular:
- Elecampane root is an effective medicinal plant with indispensable healing properties for the heart. Helps to eliminate the manifestation of symptoms and improves cardiac function. For treatment, use a decoction and consume 3 times a day for 2 weeks.
- Hawthorn – a decoction of such a plant is widely used as a treatment for many heart diseases, for its preparation one should take a pound of berries and pour 1 liter of water, then put on a slow fire and cook for 30 minutes. After it is necessary to strain and add a small amount of honey or sugar. Apply before meals under the supervision of a medical professional.
- Asparagus is an excellent remedy against heart disease; both stems and its fruits are used for treatment. You can prepare the infusion by chopping the plant finely and pouring it with enough boiling water. Then let stand for about 2 hours, previously carefully cover with something warm. Apply for heart disease 10 ml every 2 hours. Treatment is carried out for several days.
- Beans – if mixed with medicinal herbs, it will turn out to be a good remedy for treating diseases of the cardiovascular system. For infusion, cut beans, pour water and put on fire. Use this decoction before eating.
- Birch buds, lingonberries, field horsetail and some other medicinal herbs are considered wonderful natural diuretics. They help normalize water metabolism, reduce the risk of swelling of the upper and lower extremities, improve the general condition, heart function, and prevent the complication of diseases. Of all the herbs, you can prepare a decoction for treatment, in order to make it need a dry or fresh plant. Before use, it is better to consult a doctor so as not to harm the heart.
To suspect heart failure in an elderly patient, an experienced doctor will only need to conduct an examination, listen to the heart rhythm, listen to the patient’s complaints and symptoms. As an additional examination and confirmation of the diagnosis, instrumental diagnostics are prescribed.
- Echocardiography (echocardiography) with dopplerography.
- ECG (electrocardiography).
- X-ray examination of the chest.
- Ultrasound of the heart muscle.
- Radioisotope ventriculography.
- Analysis for hormones produced by the myocardium.
Various instrumental diagnostic techniques are used to confirm the diagnosis of heart failure.
The diagnostic results determine the severity of the pathological process, the presence of concomitant pathologies and the stage of their course. After receiving the research data, the doctor establishes the final diagnosis and determines the further treatment methodology.
Why is it developing
In the elderly, pathology manifests itself in connection with biochemical and physiological processes in the heart muscle, associated with age-related changes in the body. The appearance of the first signs is observed after 70 years. In some patients, by this time, the pathology is already in the stage of decompensation.
Atherosclerotic processes progress, under the influence of which the compaction of the vascular wall occurs. The pathological process extends to large and small vessels.
The smallest elongate, and damage to the vessels of the brain and heart. As a result of the ischemic process, muscle tissue is gradually replaced with fibrous tissue, diffuse or focal cardiosclerosis develops, and myocardial contractility decreases more and more.
As a result of stenosis and other vascular changes, the left ventricle is overloaded. A person suffers from orthostatic hypertension, accompanied by dizziness as a result of a sharp change in body position.
Over the years, the thymus gland malfunctions, the immune defense mechanisms weaken and can no longer compensate for functional disorders.
The heart does not pump all the necessary blood and leads to the development of oxygen starvation of tissues and overload of the right heart.
Therefore, in the presence of such pathologies, treatment should be carried out.
A common method of treating various diseases, including cardiovascular. Thanks to the complex effect and the right choice of drugs, it is possible to restore the activity of the heart, normalize blood circulation and blood supply to tissues and organs, and reduce the severity of symptoms. Basically, with this pathology, the following medications are used:
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors;
- Cardiac glycos >
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors – prevent the narrowing of blood vessels, thereby normalizing the activity of the heart and kidneys. For the best treatment, they are used together with diuretics. Due to this, the patient’s condition becomes better and the risk of complications decreases.
Vasodilators – help with the work of the heart, mainly used when it is impossible to use drugs of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor group. They have a positive effect on the heart. Treatment is under the supervision of a physician.
Cardiac glycosides – effective drugs with a high therapeutic effect, contribute to the normalization of heart function and blood flow. The most common is Digoxin. It is quite effective in the treatment, has a large list of contraindications, so the use should be accurate even after the appointment of a medical specialist.
Anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents are medicines used in the treatment of heart failure in old people.
Their use has a positive effect on overall well-being and helps to prevent the formation of blood clots.
They also help normalize heart function.
Heart failure manifests itself in the elderly:
- tension of superficial veins on the temples, forehead;
- pulsation of the vessels of the neck;
- shortness of breath, in which, while at rest, a person can not breathe;
- cold cyanosis of fingers, ears, nose;
- pastiness, swelling of the feet and legs.
If one or more symptoms appear, a physician should be visited.
The course of the pathological process can be:
- Arrhythmic. In this case, the patient suffers from cardiac arrhythmias, an accelerated heartbeat, tremors in the heart.
- Abdominal. A person has a feeling of heaviness in the epigastric region, appetite worsens and the process of digesting food is disturbed.
- Renal. Swelling of the feet and legs appears, diuretics do not lead to a decrease in the severity of edema in an elderly person with heart failure. Urine output is reduced.
- Pulmonary. The patient suffers from shortness of breath and cough, which are not related to colds. Physical activity and horizontal position lead to poor health.
- Cerebral. The ability to navigate in space is impaired, the patient suffers from unreasonable weakness, emotional instability, anxiety, drowsiness.
Similar manifestations can be observed with coronary disease or rare forms of myocardial infarction.
Treatment with diuretics
Diuretics are indispensable diuretics for the treatment of diseases. Used primarily to reduce edema and normalize total water metabolism in the body. The dosage of drugs is prescribed according to the condition of the patient, the work of the heart and is determined by a medical specialist. The most used diuretics are:
- Furosemide is an effective drug, characterized by rapid treatment and a diuretic effect. With heart diseases, they have a rapid effect, lowering the load on the heart, reducing blood pressure. The duration of the drug is 3-6 hours and the effect begins, 30 minutes after administration. It has contraindications and side effects, therefore it is prescribed by a medical specialist.
- Torasemide is a loop-type diuretic, widely used for heart diseases, and is especially often used in the treatment of hypertensive crisis. This drug is available in several forms – tablets, solutions for intravenous infusion. Torasemide also has some contraindications and side effects and is prescribed by the attending physician.
How to treat heart failure in the elderly – drugs and medications
Violations in the contractile functionality of the myocardium leads to cardiac arrhythmias and further circulatory disorders. Heart failure in old age is due to physiological abnormalities of the aging organism, multiple concomitant diseases associated with problems in the functioning of the autoimmune system.
The primary signs of the development of insufficient functionality of the heart muscle are recorded after 70 years of age. In 14% of elderly people, pathologies of the cardiovascular department go into the stage of decompensation.
The growth of the disease occurs over time, gradually affecting various parts of the cardiovascular system:
- Progressive atherosclerosis gradually leads to a thickening of the walls of blood vessels, with the involvement of the main great vessels. Over time, the pathology spreads to the arteries of the brain.
- Ischemic lesions in the heart cause the replacement of muscle by connective tissue, forming focal or multiple cardiosclerosis. The ability to contractile function in the myocardium is rapidly decreasing.
- Narrowing of the arterial lumen leads to overload of the left ventricle, orthostatic hypotension appears. Pathology is characterized by sharp dizziness at the time of a change in body position.
- Scar tissue affects the aortic valve, it loses ductility, followed by a violation of the closure of the valves. The pathological process affects the mitral valve, manifestations of insufficient functionality of the valve apparatus are recorded after 10 years.
The destruction of autoimmune defense mechanisms leads to a decrease in compensatory function, the heart muscle is no longer able to pump the required volumes of blood, which provokes oxygen starvation of tissues. Deviation contributes to the formation of overloads of the right heart.
Experts consider a number of diseases present in the patient’s history to be prerequisites for the development of heart failure.
- arterial hypertension;
- acquired and congenital heart defects;
- chronic pathologies of the pulmonary department;
- cardiosclerosis formed against the background of atherosclerosis or myocardial infarction;
- toxic and allergic effects on myocardial tissue.
Symptomatic manifestations that report problems with the heart are presented:
- tension of superficial vessels in the cervical, temporal, frontal region;
- shortness of breath with difficult entry, even in a state of complete rest;
- a change in the color of the skin of the tips of the fingers, nose, ears, lips and lowering their temperature;
- swelling of the legs and feet.
As chronic insufficiency increases, entire complexes are formed, consisting of symptoms similar in manifestations to various pathological processes, including extracardiac ones.
Frequently recorded variants of the course of heart failure include the following forms:
- arrhythmic – patients complain of sensations of a change in the rhythm of the heart muscle, its accelerated contraction and non-standard shocks;
- abdominal – characterized by a feeling of heaviness in the epigastric region, decreased appetite and impaired digestive function;
- renal – with swelling of the ankle, decreased urine excretion and lack of the necessary effectiveness when taking diuretic drugs;
- pulmonary – a constantly present cough reflex and shortness of breath are not associated with respiratory infections, symptomatic manifestations increase with any physical exertion or in a horizontal position of the patient;
- cerebral – a state of general weakness without specific root causes, psycho-emotional outbursts, excessive anxiety, constant drowsiness and loss of orientation in space.
Ischemic lesions have similar symptoms and indicate non-standard angina attacks or rare variants of myocardial infarction. Those who are sick do not pay attention to mild signs, explaining any malaise with age-related changes and constant idleness.
The cough reflex is an indispensable companion of many pathologies of the cardiovascular department. Deviation prevents the sick from leading a familiar lifestyle and is the main reason for going to a medical institution.
In some cases, short-term loss of consciousness associated with a cough is recorded in patients. The pathological process is poorly tolerated by people of mature age.
Spasm of the bronchi and subsequent cough reflex can be provoked:
- mitral valve insufficiency;
- cardiosclerotic lesions;
- acute myocardial infarction;
- a variety of cardiomyopathies.
Vascular spasm in such diseases is concentrated in the chest area and is manifested by a pronounced cough reflex. A pathological condition can develop into cardiac asthma, which is a complication of a concomitant disease.
Cough with insufficient functionality of the heart muscle is characterized by:
- complete absence of sputum or a small amount of it with blood particles;
- a change in the color of the mucous lips to a bluish tint;
- heart palpitations with pain in the chest;
- bloating of the cervical veins at the time of coughing;
- a long-lasting attack can lead to a short-term fainting state.
Separate cough reflex therapy will not lead to the desired result – together with it it is necessary to treat heart failure in the elderly. Any self-medication, including alternative methods, will lead to undesirable results. Suppressing cough symptoms does not help in getting rid of heart failure.
Cardiologists prescribe separate drugs for patients with a heart type of cough. The drugs have a vasodilating spectrum of action, an expectorant effect. When they are taken, spasm of the vessels is removed and the cough reflex is suppressed. Along with antitussive medications, diuretics are prescribed to remove fluid that has accumulated in the tissues of the body.
Insufficient heart functionality is determined using instrumental techniques:
- chest x-ray;
- Ultrasound of the heart muscle;
All of the above methods allow you to determine the degree of damage to the myocardial areas and the stage of development of the pathological process. After receiving all the data of the diagnostic examination, the doctor makes a final diagnosis and makes the choice of the necessary treatment.
Treatment of the disease is carried out by the method of complex therapy, with the inclusion of individual subgroups of drugs. The scheme includes:
- Diuretics – funds are necessary for the regulation of water metabolism, removal of accumulated excess fluid. The result of the exposure is a decrease in the level of puffiness, stabilization of blood pressure and normalization of the heart rhythm.
- ACE inhibitors – are intended to prevent narrowing of the lumen of blood vessels. When using them, there is an improvement in the pumping function of the heart muscle, normalization of blood circulation, and an improvement in the general condition. Drugs are a means of prevention against the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction.
- Cardiac glycosides – are designed to suppress the symptomatic manifestations of atrial fibrillation and sinus rhythm ailments. Medicines are often used to treat diseases of the cardiovascular department; their prescription is done with caution.
- Anticoagulants – prevent increased blood clotting and further blood clots.
- Beta-blockers – necessary to suppress the production of adrenaline, which is responsible for the narrowing of blood vessels and the acceleration of heartbeat.
- Calcium antagonists – interfere with the absorption of calcium ions, preventing their undesirable effects on the heart muscle.
- Antiarrhythmic – are prescribed for the relief of attacks of irregular heartbeat.
In the absence of efficacy from drugs, surgical intervention may be prescribed. To stabilize the rhythm of heart contractions, the introduction of a pacemaker is often recommended.
Pathologies of the cardiovascular department are among the root causes of the development of a fatal outcome. Any home treatment methods will not have a serious effect on heart disease. The use of funds made according to folk recipes is allowed only with the approval of the attending cardiologist.
- Lemon zest – allowed to be used as a stimulant of cardiac activity. Doctors are advised to use raw or as an additive to individual dishes.
- Ginseng root – finely chopped raw materials are used in their pure form, 0,75 grams per day.
The body’s response to home therapies is unpredictable and requires a serious attitude to the problem. Before using any alternative drugs, you should conduct a test for the occurrence of spontaneous allergic reactions, and only after that they should be used.
The insufficient functionality of the heart muscle is often associated with the development of serious complications – pulmonary edema and cardiac asthma. The prognosis for this type of pathology is unfavorable – the body of an elderly person is not able to quickly repair damaged cellular structures.
All the further life of the sick person directly depends on compliance with preventive measures and changes in the usual way of life.
To prevent deterioration of the condition, patients must follow a number of recommendations:
- exclude from life alcoholic, low alcohol drinks, tobacco products;
- review the daily diet on a more appropriate 10 treatment table;
- to regulate the ratio of work and rest – at least eight hours should be allocated for a night’s sleep, you should get up and go to bed at the same hours;
- daily physical activity without undue stress – long walks in the forest park zone, swimming in the pool;
- exclude any stressful situations and psycho-emotional outbursts;
- constantly monitor blood pressure indicators;
- attend a cardiologist’s consultation at least every six months;
- timely treat any disease;
- carry out seasonal fortification.
The main preventive measure, experts consider the correct implementation of the recommendations for taking medications. The lack of efficiency of the drug leads to the need for life-long medication. Deviation from the prescribed treatment regimen can provoke the development of a heart attack, up to a fatal outcome.
In the case when the use of drugs does not have the proper effect on the body and heart, does not improve the patient’s health, surgical treatment is prescribed as a treatment.
During its implementation, certain indications are required that indicate the need for this treatment method. Heart failure in the elderly is determined by a violation of the heart, its muscles. In this case, interruptions in blood circulation and blood supply occur.
After surgery on the heart region, the patient should carefully follow the medical recommendations during and after rehabilitation. It is necessary to adhere to a healthy lifestyle, eat quality food, mainly vegetables, fruits, cereals, fish and other healthy products, excluding fatty, salty, smoked. After some time, you should undergo a heart diagnosis.
Complications and consequences
The consequences of heart failure are nonspecific, they largely depend on the type of pathology and the form of the course.
In medical practice, the following most common complications are noted:
- Failures of the heart rhythm leading to death. People diagnosed with heart failure are at a 50% higher risk of death than older people without such a diagnosis.
- Infectious lesions and bronchopneumonia. Due to stagnation of blood and fluid in cells and tissues, as well as a decrease in respiratory function, favorable conditions appear for the spread of infection, in particular to the lungs and upper respiratory tract.
- Bleeding in the lungs. As a result of pulmonary edema and the occurrence of cardiac asthma, patients are at risk of bleeding in the lungs.
- Lung and heart infarction, embolism.
- Liver failure. As a result of prolonged venous stasis, liver function is impaired.
- Chronic renal failure.
- Chronic cardiocerebral insufficiency.
- Cachexia of the heart. Appears due to impaired metabolic processes, lack of absorption of fats. Leads to generalized anorexia.
The disturbed work of the heart affects the whole body in particular, because our heart is our motor. The greater the wear and tear of the motor, the higher the chances of systematic and functional failures throughout the body. That’s why in old age, HF is a common problem that people go to the doctors with.
Due to age-related changes and the presence of concomitant pathologies that in one way or another make the heart work at times intensely, there are signs of heart failure in elderly people. Timely treatment of the problem allows you to suspend pathological changes in our body and allow the heart to function in the same mode.
At each stage of heart failure, negative phenomena develop in the body, which exacerbate the symptoms. Most often, the pathological process leads to:
- Impaired heart function and death.
- The development of infectious diseases and bronchopneumonia. Stagnation of fluid and blood occurs, which impairs the functioning of the respiratory system. The chronic course of the disease creates favorable conditions for the spread of infections.
- Pulmonary hemorrhage. Pulmonary edema and asthma can lead to such consequences.
- Liver failure. In connection with venous insufficiency, the structure of the liver deteriorates.
- Cardiac cachexia. At the terminal stage of the development of the disease, metabolic processes and fat absorption are disrupted. Sometimes anorexia and other pathologies develop.
To improve the prognosis of the disease, stop the progression and successfully stop the clinical manifestations, it is necessary to carry out complex therapy and further rehabilitation, to carry out preventive measures.
The doctor will provide a complete list of medicines that the patient must take throughout his life. Every day it is important to control your own condition, to comply with all appointments to normalize the functioning of the heart and internal organs.
How to treat heart failure in the elderly, effective drugs
Before prescribing certain drugs, the doctor examines an elderly patient and finds out from him the presence of complaints. When compiling an anamnesis, a cardiologist asks about the tolerance of physical activity, lifestyle activity and existing diseases with concomitant treatment. The following symptoms indicate heart failure:
- shortness of breath not only during exercise, but also in a calm state;
- bluish color of the nasolabial triangle, ears, fingers;
- swelling of the legs;
- pulsating and swollen veins on the forehead, neck, temples.
The listed symptoms are inherent not only to an elderly person, but only indicate the possible presence of the disease.
Doctors call the symptoms of heart failure “masks” due to the lack of specificity and similarity with signs of other diseases.
|Abdominal||The presence of right ventricular failure, congestion in the liver||Heaviness, bloating, persistent constipation and poor appetite|
|Arrhythmic||Atrial fibrillation, myocardial insufficiency||Heart rhythms are broken, palpitations and tremors in the heart are strengthened|
|Cerebral||Decreased cerebral blood supply||Impaired consciousness, drowsiness, loss of orientation in space, frequent mood swings. The patient feels anxiety, which intensifies at night and can lead to insomnia.|
|Pulmonary||Deficiency in the left ventricle, stagnation of blood circulation in the lungs||The appearance of shortness of breath and coughing, which are not associated with any load or illness. The manifestation of insufficiency in the supine position and with activity is amplified.|
|Renal||Lack of renal blood supply||Decreased urine output, the appearance of edema on the extremities|
Examination of an elderly person reveals a shift in the boundaries of cardiac dullness (mainly to the left), a weakening of heart sounds, a shift in shock, systolic murmur above the apex of the heart, and an increase in systolic pressure.
- Heart disease, in which a person is not limited in physical activity.
- Existing diseases of the cardiac system require some restriction in physical activity. This is due to the fact that during activity shortness of breath appears, the heartbeat intensifies. At rest, the symptoms disappear.
- Heart failure of this class suggests a significant limitation of physical activity, since even a small activity is accompanied by cough, shortness of breath, angina attacks.
- The load is contraindicated.
With heart problems in old age, very often there are diseases of the lungs and their pathways. Wheezing during breathing indicates a malfunction in the myocardium. Heart cough is different from usual in signs:
- cough worse in a horizontal position;
- a coughing fit worsens at night;
- attacks are intermittent, occur periodically and are accompanied by heart palpitations, shortness of breath and swelling. The patient may have a cough with hemoptysis.
A cough occurs in a patient due to heart failure occurring in a chronic form. In addition to this disease, causes of cough development are heart disease, valve dysfunction, and arrhythmia.
To reduce the risk of wheezing, it is necessary to maintain the work of the heart at the proper level.
The main treatment method is a conservative approach – medication therapy. Properly selected medicines will prolong the life of the patient, help maintain physical activity.
The main directions in the treatment of the disease:
- strengthen the contractility of the heart muscle;
- reduce the retention of salts and excess water in the body;
- reduce heart load;
- treatment of concomitant diseases;
- prevention of blood clots;
- careful control over the dosage (due to a malfunction in the internal organs and systems);
- gradual administration of drugs starting with small doses.
No treatment will be effective without following a diet and eliminating bad habits. It is worth noting that if drug treatment did not bring results, then the patient will be offered surgery to replace the valves, eliminate blockage of blood vessels.
There are no drugs that are prescribed only for the treatment of insufficiency, all of them are also used to treat other diseases of the cardiovascular system.