The main prerequisites for a heart attack are human pathologies of the cardiovascular system, metabolic disorders and other chronic diseases:
- Hypertension and, as a consequence, hypertensive crisis.
- Coronary heart disease (CHD).
- Deviation in the functioning of the blood coagulation system, tendency to form blood clots (thrombophilia).
- Blockage of arteries and veins by thrombi (pulmonary embolism, coronary artery thrombosis).
- Chronic heart failure (CHF).
- Circulatory disturbance caused by cholesterol, fat deposits on the walls of large and medium arteries (atherosclerosis).
- Diabetes mellitus in the stage of decompensation, due to the lack of proper treatment for a long time.
- Various forms of atrial fibrillation, extrasystole.
- Exfoliating thoracic aortic aneurysm.
At risk are older people, this is due to age-related changes in the state of the heart muscle and vascular elasticity. If we consider the frequency of occurrence of heart attacks by gender, then they are more likely to affect men. A person’s standard of living can also lead to a heart attack. Therefore, the risk group includes obese people, smokers.
In recent years, the age of angina attacks and heart attack has decreased significantly. Heart attacks are not uncommon in adults under the age of 40. Moreover, in medical statistics even cases of heart attack are known in 25 years and in 16-18 year olds.
A heart attack at a young age can happen due to many factors:
- drug use;
- bleeding disorders;
- exposure to stress;
- emotional instability;
- atypical form of atherosclerosis.
An increased risk of developing angina attacks and pre-infarction is observed in pregnant women with chronic heart diseases. This is due to a lack of oxygen and an increased load on the cardiovascular system during pregnancy, caused by an increase in total blood volume.
Additional provocateurs are: bad habits, overweight, lack of physical activity or, conversely, excessive loads, stressful situations, age after 50 years.
Long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in high dosage can also provoke an attack.
A life-threatening condition can occur when oxygen delivery to the myocardium is difficult. Vascular constriction is promoted by thrombosis or atherosclerosis, while the lumen between the walls overlaps by 70% or more. Acute cardiac ischemia is provoked by the following factors:
- excessive fullness;
- passion for alcohol and tobacco products;
- the presence in history of severe forms of diabetes;
- reduced physical activity;
- intensive training in athletes;
- adherence to fatty foods and plentiful portions;
- VVD (vegetovascular dystonia);
- abuse of non-steroid drugs;
- prolonged stay in a stuffy room or in the open sun in the heat;
- hypertonic disease;
- age (less common in young people);
- male gender;
- tendency to develop blood clots;
- high blood cholesterol.
The situation is exacerbated by a spasm of coronary vessels affected by cholesterol (in other words, a cardiac spasm), when the passage for blood flow can be completely blocked. This happens if blood pressure begins to rise, as well as with severe stress (fright, joy, anger or other nerve disorder), high physical stress.
The risk group includes elderly people, which is due to age-related changes that relate to vascular elasticity and myocardial condition. Most often, a heart attack occurs in men. The patient’s standard of living also affects the likelihood of a heart attack. At risk are people who are obese and cannot get rid of bad habits (smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages).
Recently there has been a disappointing trend – a heart attack “getting younger”. Heart attacks began to occur more often in people younger than 40 years old. In medical practice, there are cases of myocardial infarction not only in 25-year-olds, but also in 16-18-year-olds. Causes of myocardial infarction at a young age:
- genetic predisposition;
- coagulation, hemostasis;
- drug use;
- emotional overload;
- high exposure to stress;
- atypical course of atherosclerosis.
The risk of developing angina pectoris and myocardial infarction is also quite high in pregnant women suffering from chronic diseases of the cardiovascular system. During the period of gestation, the load on the heart, which works for two, increases, hypoxia and lack of oxygen increase, the total blood volume increases.
A negative role is also played by:
- excess weight;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- the presence of bad habits;
- stressful situations;
- age over 50 years.
An attack can be triggered by a prolonged use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in large doses.
At the heart of a heart attack is a decrease in blood flow to a specific area of the myocardium. First, an ischemia zone is formed due to malnutrition and then they talk about angina pectoris. If the cause is not eliminated, then ischemia passes into necrosis – damage to the heart muscle, and then they talk about myocardial infarction. Most often, these processes are formed as a result of blockage or due to a significant narrowing of the lumen of the coronary artery with a thrombus or atherosclerotic plaque. With even a small spasm of the coronary artery, the blood supply is severely disturbed due to the presence of a plaque on the vessel wall, which exacerbates the situation.
The nature of local changes in the myocardium at the stage of ischemia formation is indistinguishable from the attack of angina pectoris itself. However, myocardial infarction is formed only if it was not possible in time to resume adequate blood supply to this site of the myocardium. And then there is irreversible damage to the heart muscle – myocardial infarction.
The first symptoms and signs of a heart attack in women and men
A heart attack is always accompanied by severe compressive pain behind the sternum. Most often, it begins in the morning, after a person’s awakening, when the transition from sleep to daytime activity provides the heart with increased stress.
At this moment, a person feels difficulty in breathing, tightness in the chest does not make it possible to take a full deep breath and exhale.
The pain is accompanied by a burning sensation and pinching, similar to that that occurs during heartburn. She can give in the left hand, left shoulder, neck, lower jaw. In this case, it feels like a needle prick. The duration of pain is quite long and does not release from 30 minutes to three hours.
A heart attack has two forms of severity. There is a mild form, which happens with angina pectoris and severe, caused by a heart attack.
A mild heart attack caused by angina pectoris has a sharp asymptomatic onset and a sudden end.
A heart attack, on the contrary, can be calculated by the characteristic pre-infarction symptoms.
|Symptoms of an attack of angina pectoris||Heart attack symptoms|
|Painful sensations of a pressing and burning nature are localized in the chest.||Pain and burning are felt behind the chest.|
|The pain spreads to the area between the shoulder blades, in the area of the shoulder, neck. When radiating pain in the abdomen, clinical symptoms are accompanied by nausea.||Most often, pain appears on the left side of the body, gives to the neck and shoulder girdle. The right side of the chest and abdomen are less likely to experience pain.|
|It has no harbingers.||It has characteristic prognostic symptoms.|
|Stopping the attack is possible with nitroglycerin.||Taking medications that previously produced a therapeutic effect now have no result.|
Suspicion that a heart attack is approaching may appear long before the attack, sometimes this period can be more than 20 days. People suffering from heart diseases should be especially attentive to their state of health.
You should immediately consult a doctor if you have two or more symptoms from the list:
- shortness of breath, a feeling of lack of oxygen, discomfort when in stuffy rooms;
- a feeling of tightness of the chest, covering the entire upper body – head, neck, shoulders, arms;
- stomach pain, nausea, heartburn;
- the left arm is numb and sore from the shoulder to the elbow or to the little finger
- sleep snoring, apnea;
- swelling of the lower extremities;
- violation of the rhythms of sleep and wakefulness;
- fatigue at minimum loads;
Timely contacting a doctor with the manifestation of the above symptoms will help stop the attack, which is already approaching. For this, a cardiologist is required to correct the existing treatment.
In addition to the main symptoms in the form of pain and difficulty breathing, a person experiences other signs by which you can understand the presence of a heart attack:
autonomic symptoms: chills, sweating (hyperh >
Symptoms of an attack in men and women are somewhat different. Women face life-threatening conditions at a later age than men.
The female body is protected by natural adaptive mechanisms necessary for bearing and giving birth to a child. After the onset of menopause, the frequency of seizures in representatives of both sexes evens out. However, the chances of surviving it are higher for women than for men.
The endurance of the female cardiovascular system is determined by their biological characteristics. Symptoms of an attack of young girls and women proceed with less severity, often they carry it, as they say, “on its feet.”
It is difficult to determine the signs of the disease, if this is the first attack, they can manifest themselves in different ways. An alarm is heart pain of varying intensity. With an asymptomatic course of the disease, they are also present, but cause a pressing feeling of the sternum, a feeling of acute discomfort. It is difficult not to notice such changes in the general condition, so a person will need the help of a doctor. The main thing is not to waste precious time.
Other first symptoms of a progressive heart attack are:
- shortness of breath on the background of pulmonary, heart failure;
- impaired coordination of movements;
- increased fatigue;
- sudden sweating with pain in the heart;
- instability of the emotional sphere;
- rapid pulse;
- fainting, confusion;
- stomach pains.
It is very important to correctly identify the attack, determine its cause, consequences. If there is angina pectoris, the pain syndrome is sharp and at the same time burning, suddenly arises and disappears. The patient’s task is to immediately call an ambulance, take a horizontal position, not be nervous, provide unhindered access of oxygen and take a nitroglycerin tablet under the tongue. Prior to the arrival of physicians, it is important to independently understand what the cause of the acute attack is.
How to distinguish from neuralgia and PA?
Signs of a heart attack are similar in nature to symptoms of intercostal neuralgia and panic attacks.
Intercostal neuralgia may occur as a result of breast osteochondrosis. It is caused by pinching of the spinal roots.
A panic attack has a psychological nature, begins on a “nervous basis” and its physiological symptoms are caused by strong emotional experiences of a person.
In order to recognize a panic attack and intercostal neuralgia or vegetovascular dystonia in a “pure form”, their symptoms should be compared with characteristics specific to a heart attack.
Understand the difference between these conditions and find out their features will help this table.
|Criteria for comparison||Heart attack||Panic attack||Intercostal neuralgia||VSD|
|How long does an attack last?||From half an hour to several hours.||Reaches peak values within 10-15 minutes.||From several hours, including the night period.||5 minutes to 8 hours|
|Breathing pattern||It is difficult for a person to breathe, breathing has a confused rhythm, accompanied by a feeling of constriction of the chest.||Breathing has a rapid rhythm, accompanied by a sensation of suffocation.||The respiratory rate does not change, but its depth is limited by the occurring intercepting pain.||Shortness of breath, shortness of breath, rapid breathing|
|Nature of pain||Pressing, burning, compressing.||Pricking.||Piercing, aching.||Stitching, pressing, burning, compressing|
|Change in pain over time||The pain is constant, but with different intensity||The pain is wavy, periodic in nature||Strengthens with sudden movements, sneezing, coughing, lifting heavy objects||Change in pain over time|
|Description of pain and their localization||It presses in the chest and in the area behind the sternum, with an emphasis on the left half of the upper torso. It has extensive localization.||Prick in the center of the chest, in the limbs, goes numb in the fingers and toes. It does not have a clear localization.||The pain spreads along the trunk of the intercostal nerve, gives off to the region of the heart, between the shoulder blades, under the ribs and behind the lower back.|
. It has a clear localization point.
|Poorly localized pain in various parts of the abdomen, sensation of interruptions in the work of the heart, tachycardia, cold extremities.|
|Pulse and blood pressure||The heart rate rises, blood pressure drops.||Is increasing.||Does not change.||Lability of blood pressure|
|Psychoemotional state||Fear of death from constriction in the chest.||Irrational fears arise, for example, fear of suffocation, there is a feeling of unreality of what is happening.||Anxiety associated with determining the cause of the appeared pain.||Panic attack, fear of suffocation, heart failure, or heart failure|
It should be remembered that a heart attack can trigger a panic attack and be accompanied by a whole complex of symptoms inherent in these two conditions. Often panic attacks occur in people who have already suffered a heart attack or stroke.
Patients describe their emotional state as a feeling of constant fear for the heart. Outwardly, this behavior does not look quite rational, since there are no deadly circumstances and objective reasons for panic.
The fright of a person can be so strong that it can provoke a new attack of a panic attack.
Most often, a heart attack occurs in the morning. Core patients are “accustomed” to their illness and do not pay due attention to a certain worsening of their condition, continuing their usual lives – take a shower, get ready for work, etc. A heart attack suddenly catches up:
- Severe chest pain, pressing or acute, is accompanied by a heartbeat (the heart pops out of the chest) or a sinking (feeling of a cardiac arrest). Pain can radiate to the neck, lower jaw, under the shoulder blade and arm on the left. Sometimes there is a feeling that the pain is localized in the stomach.
- The attack is accompanied by nausea and heartburn, less often vomiting.
- Shortness of breath – the patient takes breath in his mouth. With severe tachycardia, there is a sensation of a coma in the throat. In the future, wheezing is heard when breathing, a wet cough appears sometimes with blood. This indicates the progression of heart failure and pulmonary edema.
- The skin turns pale, covered with cold sweat. With the development of heart failure, cyanosis (cyanosis of the skin) develops, limbs become cold.
- Dizziness often provokes a person to fall to the ground. The patient’s eyes and facial expressions express a genuine fear of disaster, but often he cannot even ask for help. It often takes 10 seconds from a fall to a loss of consciousness, although this option is not necessary.
- The pressure during a heart attack rises, but sometimes it remains within acceptable limits.
Important! Patients with diabetes often develop a “mute”, asymptomatic heart attack.
A heart attack can mimic an angina attack, an exacerbation of a stomach ulcer, and bronchial asthma. To recognize a heart attack, you should know:
- Neither anti-asthma sprays (Salbutamol) nor acid-lowering drugs (Rhenia, Almagel) will help.
- An attack of angina pectoris, in contrast to true cardiac arrest, lasts no more than 10 minutes. and is easily stopped by Nitroglycerin.
- With a heart attack, Nitroglycerin does not help, and the attack lasts 30 minutes or more.
- Angina pain is always associated with physical or emotional stress. A heart attack often occurs at rest.
- Rest, taking patients a comfortable position does not bring relief. If with a drop in pressure (hypotension, anemia, etc.) and the patient’s unconscious condition, they bring to the senses with ammonia (on the fleece to bring to the nose), with a heart attack, this technique is useless.
How to behave during an attack?
A heart attack is dangerous with a possible myocardial infarction. This condition is not delayed, as it can lead to death.
An attack may occur at the most inopportune moment: during a flight in an airplane, in a dream, at the workplace or on the way home on the street or behind the wheel. He can also find a person and home alone, in which case he is forced to save himself.
If there are no other people nearby who can provide emergency first aid, the self-help algorithm of actions will help to survive:
- It is necessary to stop any form of motor activity. It is advisable to take a comfortable position and behave as calmly as possible, without unnecessary fuss.
- Take the phone and dial the number “103”, start your appeal to the ambulance dispatcher with the words “I have a heart attack”.
- While healthcare workers are traveling, aspirin should be drunk and a nitroglycerin tablet should be placed under the tongue. Aspirin dilutes blood, preventing the formation of blood clots in blood vessels. In the event of a heart attack, it will prevent progressive necrosis of the heart muscle. If previously you already had bouts of pain in the heart, then you can also take medications prescribed by your doctor.
- You can not give the patient: Validol, Valocordin, Corvalol. The action of these drugs is aimed at calming the nervous system, helping to fall asleep faster. It is forbidden to give painkillers to the patient: no-spa, analgin, etc. Reception of these funds will not only not help relieve the attack, but will also complicate the diagnosis of the disease for paramedics, because of which the patient may die.
- If there is a tonometer nearby, then measure the heart rate and blood pressure.
- In order to increase the flow of oxygen into the lungs, you can cough. A cough helps activate blood circulation in the chest area. Before each time, you need to take a deep breath, cough on the exhale with maximum volume and frequency in a couple of seconds.
The order of observance of correct and timely pre-medical care for a person can save his life.
If your eyes caught someone’s heart, you must perform the following sequence of actions:
- Plant the victim or lay on a horizontal surface so that the head is raised.
- Call an ambulance.
- Give a tablet of aspirin and a patient put a tablet of nitroglycerin under the tongue.
- If possible, create a flow of fresh air into the room (open windows or doors).
- Measure the patient’s pulse and blood pressure. If it is elevated, the symptoms of the attack persist, then after 5-10 minutes you can give a second tablet of nitroglycerin. The maximum dose is 3 tablets.
- If the victim has weakness, shortness of breath, excessive sweating, then it is necessary to give him a glass of water. After that, help lie down so that your legs are raised up.
Monitor your heart rate (HR), if your heart rate slows, or if you don’t have a pulse or breathing, immediately start an indirect heart massage. If you miss the time, then there is practically no chance for a person to survive, and he may suddenly die.
Analyzes and diagnostics
To clarify the diagnosis and determine further tactics of treatment, the patient after admission to the hospital conduct laboratory and instrumental examination, which includes:
- blood test for the level of cardiac enzymes;
- R-graph of the chest;
- coronary angiography to assess the state of patency of the blood vessels of the heart, identify plaques and determine further treatment tactics: stenting, bypass surgery, drug therapy.
Based on the results of the examination, an updated diagnosis is made and the fate of the patient is decided.
How is first a >
When a heart attack occurs, you need to act quickly and competently. First of all, you need to call an ambulance. Next, proceed as follows:
- Ensure that the victim is completely at ease and in a comfortable position. It is advisable to put it with your head up.
- Loosen all fasteners and locks that constrain the chest so that the person can breathe freely.
- Open windows and windows, let in a stream of fresh air.
- To provide emotional support, try to save a person from fear and panic.
- Offer “Nitroglycerin” (under the tongue), in the absence of effect, repeat the allowable dose in a few minutes. If the pressure began to drop significantly, this method can not be used.
- If you suspect a myocardial infarction to prevent blood clots, be sure to give the Aspirin tablet a chew. It is needed to thin the blood, helping it flow more freely through the narrowed vessels.
- With high blood pressure, help the patient take a hypotensive agent. Usually, hypertension is always at hand.
- Install mustard on the chest, make a warm bath for the legs.
- If the heart stops, you will need an indirect massage of this organ and artificial respiration.
Arriving doctors on the spot provide urgent care to the patient, after which they deliver him to the hospital for a more accurate diagnosis of the state of cardiac activity and subsequent treatment.
The first aid measures for a heart attack include:
- use of an oxygen mask (oxygen therapy);
- to stop the pain, they put a dropper with a solution of analgesic and antipsychotic drugs (Fetanil, Droperidol);
- to reduce blood coagulation and improve hemodynamics, an injection of Heparin or another anticoagulant is administered.
In emergency cases, in case of loss of consciousness of the victims and the absence of a pulse on the hands, they resort to defibrillation in combination with cardiopulmonary resuscitation. This is necessary in order to prevent cardiac arrest with the help of electric pulse discharges and return to it the normal rhythm of contractions.
The danger of a heart attack lies in its transition to myocardial infarction. Assistance should be provided immediately to avoid death. A heart attack can happen at the most inopportune moment: at the wheel of a car, during a flight by plane, on the way home. What to do with a heart attack if you are at home alone:
- take a comfortable body position, stop any physical activity, behave calmly and do not fuss;
- call the ambulance team, for this, dial the number “103” on your cell phone, describe in detail your condition and follow the instructions.
Until the ambulance arrives, put a tablet of Nitroglycerin under your tongue, chew Aspirin. Acetylsalicylic acid prevents the formation of blood clots, dilutes blood, which prevents progression of myocardial infarction and does not increase the area of necrosis in the heart muscle. If you have already had similar situations before and your doctor gave you certain recommendations, then it’s time to use them.
Measure your heart rate and pressure if you have a blood pressure monitor at home. In no case should the patient be given Corvalol, Validol, Valocordin, as these drugs inhibit the nervous system, which can complicate the diagnosis of the patient’s condition. A cough helps activate blood circulation in the chest. Take a deep breath, and then cough as you exhale as loudly as possible for 2 seconds.
Doctors who arrive at the site provide first aid to the patient, after which they will be taken to hospital for further treatment. The main measures:
- oxygen therapy (use of a special oxygen mask);
- the use of an anticoagulant or heparin injection to reduce blood coagulation and improve hemodynamic parameters;
- the use of antipsychotics and analgesics in the form of a dropper can stop the pain syndrome (Droperidol, Fentanyl is used).
In rare emergency cases, a defibrillator is used to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation. An electric discharge is able to restore the normal rhythm in the heart and prevent it from stopping. First aid for a heart attack in women includes identical events and manipulations.
Upon admission to the hospital, the following laboratory and instrumental examinations are prescribed for an accurate diagnosis:
- a blood test to detect the presence and concentration of cardiac enzymes;
- cardiogram (ECG);
- Ultrasound of the heart (echocardiography);
- cardiac catheterization using a contrast medium (if necessary);
- chest x-ray.
An analysis of the anamnesis and data obtained during a comprehensive examination of the patient’s cardiac activity are the basis for choosing measures for subsequent treatment.
The timing of therapy in a hospital setting will depend on the age of the patient and the severity of the heart attack. On average, such patients remain in the hospital for at least two weeks.
Treatment and recovery after a heart attack will be especially long. The first days of the patient is under the close attention of physicians in the intensive care unit or intensive care unit. As a rule, before three days such patients are not transferred to the general cardiology department.
In total, recovery from a heart attack requires at least two to three weeks, after an attack of angina pectoris, up to one and a half to two weeks.
Patients are not recommended to prematurely discontinue rehabilitation therapy and go home. When you are at home, the risk of possible complications and repeated attacks increases significantly. The patient’s condition requires monitoring indicators of cardiac activity using special equipment, which is impossible at home.
After the incident, the patient is prescribed medications that are necessary for the prevention of a repeated attack of angina pectoris or myocardial infarction.
Comprehensive drug treatment and prevention of relapse involves taking drugs from several drug groups at once:
- antiplatelet agents – prevent platelet adhesion (Aspirin cardio, Acecor cardio, Aspecard);
- beta-blockers – normalize heart rate and lower blood pressure (Sotagexal, Tenzol, Anaprilin, Blockarden);
- cardioprotectors (prestarium, mildronate);
- statins – drugs that lower cholesterol (Liptonorm, Lipostat, Rosulip);
- diuretics – eliminate puffiness, remove excess fluid (Aldactone, Veroshpiron, Indapamide).
In order to restore normal blood circulation in the heart muscle, various methods of surgical intervention can be applied:
- coronary (balloon) angioplasty or stenting – a procedure whose principle of implementation is the introduction of a balloon catheter into a narrowed vessel. The operation does not eliminate the cause of ischemia, but eliminates its consequences. To prevent the vessel from narrowing again, a stent is inserted into it – a device made of thin material that acts as a spacer that fixes the width of the vessel.
- coronary artery bypass grafting or bypass grafting – an operation that allows you to restore blood flow in arteries and large veins, bypassing clogged vessels. This is due to the artificially created workaround (shunt).
You can treat a patient with a heart attack both at home and in the hospital. If there is no suspicion of a heart attack, the person is observed on an outpatient basis, continuing to take drugs to prevent repeated paroxysms and preventing the formation of blood clots. Usually these are such medicines:
- nitro-containing medicines (“Nitroglycerin”);
- painkillers (“Morphine”);
- antihypertensive drugs (“Metoprolol”);
- diuretics (“Furosemide”);
- drugs against the further development of atherosclerosis (Atorvastatin);
- anticoagulants (“Heparin”);
- thrombolytics (Streptokinase);
- antiplatelet agents (“Aspirin”).
This scheme is followed in the post-infarction period.
In the case of acute myocardial infarction, urgent surgical intervention is considered appropriate, the use of pacemaking (with cardiac arrest) is possible.
Surgery for a heart attack:
- balloon angioplasty (artificial expansion of a narrowed vessel using a catheter with a mini balloon);
- installation of a stent (a special expanding scaffold) in the cavity of a damaged artery;
- coronary artery bypass grafting (creation of additional blood circuits bypassing the affected area).
Surgical manipulations can stop the development of complications, but they are relevant only in the next half hour after the onset of an attack.
Heart attack treatment is carried out in a hospital setting. The timing depends on the severity of the condition, complications, concomitant pathology and age. On average, treatment takes 2 weeks in the absence of complications and operations.
For the first 3 days, patients with myocardial infarction are in the intensive care unit or intensive care unit, after stabilization, they are transferred to the general department of cardiology. It is not recommended to prematurely discontinue therapy and leave the walls of the hospital. With an irresponsible attitude to your health, the risk of a second attack increases significantly, complications may develop.
The patient is shown taking medications that avoid a repeated heart attack and an attack of angina pectoris. The treatment is carried out comprehensively and includes taking medications from several groups at once:
- Beta blockers. Reduce the load on the heart, blood pressure and normalizes the rhythm of the heart (Concor, Egilok, Carvedilol).
- Antiplatelet agents. Prevent thrombosis, thin the blood (Aspirin Cardio, Cardiomagnyl, ThromboASS).
- Statins Reduce cholesterol, reduce the volume of plaques in the vessel (Liprimar, Rosuvastatin, Simvastatin).
- Diuretics. Unload the heart muscle by removing excess fluid and eliminating swelling (Indapamide, Veroshpiron).
- Cardioprotectors. They help to restore the heart muscle (Mildronate, Preductal).
The recovery period will depend on the timeliness of medical procedures, the age of the victim and the degree of damage to the heart. The wider the lesion, the more recovery will continue.
On average, rehabilitation takes at least six months. The tactics of rehabilitation after a heart attack is based on compliance with bed rest with the gradual inclusion of physical activity and a systematic increase in physical activity.
After discharge from the hospital, the patient can be referred for sanatorium treatment. The duration of the trip is two to three weeks. The recovery period is largely determined by the general state of human health and the changes that he brings to his lifestyle after the attack.
In order to assess the patient’s condition, a couple of months after the attack, a special stress test is performed that shows the general condition of the heart muscle.
If the patient has no complaints, heart rhythm disturbances or ischemia are not displayed during ECG testing, then rehabilitation is considered to be successfully completed.
Procedures and operations
There are several methods of surgical treatment aimed at restoring normal circulation in the heart muscle:
- Coronarography followed by balloon angioplasty or stenting of the coronary arteries. Balloon angioplasty involves the expansion of a vessel narrowed by a plaque by inflating the balloon. The operation allows you to get rid of the effects of ischemia, but does not eliminate its causes. To maintain the shape of the vessel, a stent is inserted into it – a special device made of thin material that fixes the width of the vessel by means of a spacer.
- Coronary artery bypass grafting and mammary coronary artery bypass grafting. The blood flow is restored due to the sewing of the shunt and the creation of a circulatory bypass. Own veins taken from the lower extremities act as a shunt.
To prevent the development of a heart attack, you must adhere to certain rules:
- Watch your diet and weight. Refuse from the abuse of salty and fatty foods, follow the correct drinking regimen. Avoid foods and drinks that can increase your blood pressure. Try to eat foods rich in B vitamins, magnesium and potassium.
- Give up such a bad habit as smoking. Nicotine not only provokes the progression of atherosclerosis, but also thickens the blood, provoking thrombosis.
- Walk in the fresh air, do exercises, do not neglect medical gymnastics. Keep fit for your age. Regular physical education can stimulate blood circulation, maintain vascular tone, which avoids an attack.
- Monitor your blood pressure, measure it twice a day, and regularly take antihypertensive drugs prescribed by your doctor.
- Every 6 months, consult a doctor for preventive purposes.
- Engage in breathing exercises, perform relaxation and relaxing exercises. Try to avoid stressful situations, or find your own way to put the emotional background in order (yoga, meditation).
Representatives of a strong half of humanity more often have a heart attack with complications due to prolonged ignoring of all symptoms. In men, pain can be more pronounced.
In women, a heart attack is less likely to lead to complications. The main symptoms are the same as in men. First aid is provided as standard.
In order to prevent a relapse, you need to completely rethink your daily habits and change your lifestyle.
The following recommendations should be followed:
- Maintain a normal weight level, avoid fatty, salty foods, follow a drinking regimen. All foods and drinks that provoke high blood pressure should be excluded from the diet. Fill your diet with healthy foods that contain B vitamins. Be sure to consume foods that are high in potassium and magnesium.
- If you smoke, quit immediately. Nicotine not only increases blood pressure, but also increases the deposition of cholesterol.
- Exercise, walk on foot more often, do not neglect medical gymnastics. Elderly people should maintain their physical activity at the proper level. Physical education supports vascular tone, stimulates blood circulation and helps you avoid an attack.
- Twice a day, morning and evening, check your blood pressure and take medications prescribed by your doctor. People who survive a heart attack are given lifelong medications that cause a decrease in blood viscosity and have an antithrombotic effect (for example, Cardiomagnyl).
- Visit a cardiologist every six months. Skipping scheduled examinations can also shorten your life.
- Perform relaxing, relaxation exercises, breathing exercises. Find for yourself an effective way to relieve mental stress, because against the background of stress on the heart there is an increased load that it can not withstand.
The prognosis after suffering a heart attack depends on several factors at once. A huge role is played by lifestyle and the presence of other chronic diseases. Failure to follow the doctor’s recommendations, the presence of bad habits can lead to a repeated heart attack with complications. The most favorable prognosis is for patients who follow the advice of a doctor, are regularly examined and try to lead a healthy lifestyle.
The prognosis of a person’s life after a heart attack will depend on many factors. Not the last role is played by the lifestyle that the patient will adhere to and the general condition of his body.
The presence of other chronic diseases, non-compliance with the doctor’s recommendations can provoke complications, impede the course of recovery processes.
The most favorable prognosis is for patients with a small degree of heart damage, requiring simple treatment methods.
Strict implementation of medical prescriptions quickly return them to a full life and will help to keep a working heart until old age.
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