Causes and treatment of nasal blood in children and adults

The flow of blood from the nose of different intensities in children is caused by damage to the vessels located in the mucous membrane. In turn, the causes that affect the integrity of the main vessels are divided into local and general.

Sometimes periodically recurring bleeding signals certain violations in the internal organs and therefore this should not be left without parental attention.

Local causes of bleeding include:

  • Injury to the nose. In children, this is one of the most likely causes. The mucous membrane in the nasal passages in childhood is delicate and thin, and therefore even the slightest damaging factor can disrupt the integrity of the capillaries. Bleeding can cause a fall, a direct blow during children’s games.
  • Young children often injure the inner nasal septum itself. This happens when they try to push any small, especially sharp, objects into the nose.
  • Bleeding for some time can be observed after certain medical procedures, for example, after removal of adenoids.
  • Diseases affecting the mucous membrane of the structures of the nose. These include rhinitis, adenoiditis, sinus inflammation. With these diseases, the mucosa becomes edematous and more blood appears in its vessels, so the likelihood of their damage increases. Bleeding can also occur when the nutrition of the mucosa is disturbed, that is, with atrophic rhinitis or congenital and acquired abnormalities of the nasal septum.
  • A vessel can also burst with polyps in the nose, tuberculous ulcers, various neoplasms.

The most important symptom of nosebleeds is the flow of blood from the nasal passages themselves. If the violation arose under the influence of local causes and the bleeding is not very intense, then usually there are no other signs of disturbance in well-being.

But with severe bleeding and with the development of certain pathologies in the functioning of internal organs, additional symptoms join the main symptom, these are:

  • Dizziness, weakness, tinnitus.
  • Tachycardia and possible shortness of breath.
  • Pale skin.

Sometimes little blood runs out from the nose, but the condition of the child worsens. This is because part of the blood can drain directly along the back wall of the pharynx and enter the stomach. In this case, bloody vomiting may occur.

Intense bleeding in the absence of timely help leads to hemorrhagic shock – a filamentous pulse, tachycardia occurs, pale skin is expressed, the child may be unconscious. Loss of consciousness often occurs during thermal shock.

It is also necessary to separate true epistaxis from internal. With pulmonary hemorrhage, bright blood is released from the nose, and it foams somewhat. With gastric, blood is often dark. Naturally, only the doctor can accurately determine the cause and source of bleeding after a special examination.

In almost 90% of cases, bleeding in a child occurs from the front of the nose. In this area there is the Kisselbach zone – an extensive network of small capillary vessels. This area in a child is covered with a thin mucous membrane and therefore is violated most often. If this zone is damaged, bleeding can usually be stopped on its own.

It is more difficult if the vessels of the back of the nasal structures are damaged. They are large and therefore the blood flows out of them for a long time and it can be stopped only with the help of medical manipulations. In any case, emergency care for a child with nosebleeds should be provided on the spot and everything must be done correctly.

At least once in a lifetime, “causeless” nosebleeds happen to everyone. It often happens that in children “for no reason,” blood begins to flow through the nose. Nevertheless, there are very specific reasons for this phenomenon. And if you notice a “tendency” to nosebleeds for your baby, you should immediately organize a trip to the pediatrician. Why and why – tell!

From time to time, not only in adults, but also in children, nosebleeds occur for no apparent reason – the baby did not fight and did not hit, and yet the child bleeds from his nose . At first glance – nothing serious. But it is important for parents to know that in some cases the cause of this phenomenon may be the development of a serious and dangerous disease.

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There may be two types of nosebleeds in a child:

  • bleeding from the anterior nasopharynx (in this case, damage to the vessel occurs, which is located directly on the nasal septum);
  • bleeding from the back of the nose (often happens with trauma, with high blood pressure or against the background of the development of some serious diseases).

In the winter season, nosebleeds in children occur many times more often than in the warm season.

As a rule, in children, nosebleeds from the front of the nose are more likely to occur. A distinctive feature of this type is that blood comes from only one nostril. And with this option, the blood in most cases quickly stops.

When damage to the vessel is located in the back of the nose, blood usually comes from both nostrils, the bleeding is very intense and difficult to stop.

But whatever the bleeding, it is in any case necessary to try to stop it in the shortest possible time. Fortunately, manipulations for this do not require any special efforts and tricks on the part of parents.

  • 1 Sit the child down – the back is straight, the body is slightly inclined forward, the head is slightly lowered.
  • 2 Gently squeeze the wings of the baby’s nose with your fingers (in other words, squeeze the nose);
  • 3 Hold in this position for at least 10 minutes (and put all your parental will not to look into the child’s nose every 30 seconds, checking that it is still flowing, or has already stopped). It is very important to pinch your nose and hold on in this position for at least 10 minutes.
  • 4 While holding your nose in place for 10 minutes, it’s helpful to place ice cubes or something cold on your nose. In addition, something cold (ice cream, a glass of ice water through a straw, etc.) is useful to give your child to eat or drink. Cold in the mouth effectively stops nosebleeds.

Unfortunately, practice shows that most mothers and fathers, faced with a problem such as sudden nosebleeds in their child, get lost and make a number of mistakes.

Mistakes made by adults, providing emergency care for children with nosebleeds:

  • 1 You should not throw the child’s head back – after all, the blood will not flow out of the nose, but will flow along the back wall of the nasopharynx. In such a situation, you cannot determine whether the bleeding has stopped or not, how intense it is, and in addition, you cannot be sure that the baby will not choke (if there is a lot of blood);
  • 2 Do not stuff cotton wool, tampons, or other “plugs” into the baby’s nose. Instead of freely flowing out, the blood will infiltrate cotton and thicken, gradually drying up to the nasal mucosa. Once you pull out the bloody swabs, bleeding can begin again.
  • 3 Do not lay the child in a lying position – if the bleeding is strong, it will end in bloody vomiting, which when lying down almost always leads to choking. It is best to seat the child directly, by slightly tilting his body forward.
  • 4 With nosebleeds, it is not necessary to provoke the child to talk or to move – both will increase bleeding.

Despite the fact that nosebleeds are usually not a very serious and easily fixable incident, there are situations when it is vital to show the child to the doctor. Such situations include the following circumstances:

  • If after ten minutes the bleeding has not stopped, we repeat the whole procedure from the beginning (for another 10 minutes). If in this case (after a total of 20 minutes from the beginning of first aid) the nose is still bleeding – this is an absolute reason to urgently call a doctor.
  • If the nosebleeds in the child are intense and occur simultaneously from two nostrils.
  • If nosebleeds are accompanied by some other bleeding (blood comes from the ear, or from the genitals, etc.).
  • Be sure to show the child a doctor if nosebleeds have become regular (every day, every 2-3 days, once a week, etc.).

The need for medical advice in such circumstances is completely justified, because in rare cases, nosebleeds can be not just the result of a bursting vessel in the nose, but a symptom of a dangerous disease.

Finally, it’s time to find out why in adults and children in general there is such a thing as nosebleeds. In 90% of cases, nosebleeds occur because vessels in the anterior sections of the nose burst. This is facilitated by:

  • Drying of the nasal mucosa;
  • Dust, tobacco smoke, animal hair – all this causes increased formation of mucus in the nose and fragility of blood vessels on the nasal septum;
  • Very dry and hot air in the room where the child lives;
  • Excessive physical stress;
  • Strong stress.

But the reasons can also be many times more serious and dangerous. For instance:

  • Trauma to internal organs;
  • Blood coagulation disorders;
  • Circulatory disorders;
  • Liver disease
  • High blood pressure;
  • Diseases of the cardiovascular system;

If you contact a pediatrician on one of the grounds that were mentioned above as reasons for attracting professional medical care for nosebleeds in a child, the doctor will definitely prescribe tests and studies that will help exclude (or sometimes, alas, confirm) the presence of the child one of these diseases.

Light bleeding usually has no side effects.

But serious bleeding can have additional symptoms:

  • general weakness;
  • fainting;
  • noise in ears;
  • impaired vision;
  • pallor of the skin;
  • arrhythmia;
  • hypotension;
  • dry mouth, thirst;
  • cold sweat.

Internal bleeding can be determined by the color of blood flowing from the nose:

  • dark red – nasal;
  • bright scarlet with foam – pulmonary;
  • very dark – gastric.

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Blood vomiting is a symptom of posterior bleeding when blood, flowing down the throat, enters the stomach.

Common causes of bleeding

Every person knows that if you hit your nose, blood will flow. Who wants to experience this? To nobody.

Unfortunately, parents often notice scarlet spots on their pillows or clothes in their children, realizing that no one beat them. Some fall into panic, thinking that their beloved child fell ill with a deadly disease. In fact, the baby’s nosebleed and the reasons behind it are not always threatening.

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Narcotic drugs. Actual for older children: exposure to glue, cocaine weakens the mucous membrane, it is easily injured and bleeds.

  1. The consequences of injuries. An improperly healed fracture or curved septum increases the risk of bleeding.
  1. Diseases that are accompanied by swelling of the mucosa: SARS, sinusitis, influenza, sinusitis and others.
  2. Failures in blood coagulation mechanisms. These mechanisms can be disturbed for various reasons: leukemia, hormonal disruptions, hemophilia, an excess of vitamin C, prolonged use of drugs that reduce platelet count.
  3. Chronic diseases They have a devastating effect on the immune system, on coagulability and vascular tone, the child is often sick, and his mucous membrane is vulnerable.
  4. Neoplasms of a malignant or benign type in the nasal cavity.
  5. Congenital disorders of the structure of the nose and vascular structure. These include congenital septum curvature, vasodilation.
  6. Hypertonic disease. A sharp jump in pressure provokes a rupture of the vascular wall.

Also, bleeding occurs with mental or physical exhaustion, migraines, vitamin deficiencies, stressful situations.

How to stop the blood? With nosebleeds:

  1. reassure the child if he is scared;
  2. place it so that the head is upright;
  3. lower your head a little down and put a container for blood;
  4. unfasten the upper buttons and remove everything that may disturb breathing (necklace, tie);
  5. apply something cold to the nose (wet handkerchief, ice);
  6. ask to hold the wings of the nostrils with your fingertips (or do it yourself) and wait ten minutes;
  7. if this method did not help for the specified time, you need to introduce cotton wool moistened with 3% hydrogen peroxide into the nasal cavity (it can be replaced with drops for the nose with a vasoconstrictor effect).

Dr. Komarovsky on why a child’s nose bleeds

Many parents have experienced nosebleeds in their children, but not everyone knows why nosebleeds often flow in childhood and how to deal with this problem. Let’s find out the opinion of Dr. Komarovsky and his advice for parents with nosebleeds in children.

A well-known pediatrician calls the anatomical features of the structure of the nasal mucosa the main cause of frequent bleeding in children. It is they who cause the appearance of frequent bleeding in some children and the absence of such a problem in other babies. Among the most frequent triggering factors, Komarovsky calls dry air in the room in which the child is.

  • According to a popular doctor, because of the dry air, the mucus in the child’s nose dries and forms crusts, and when the child picks them up, bleeding opens.
  • In this case, Komarovsky emphasizes, we are talking about bleeding that is not caused by trauma (fall, shock), when the reason for the discharge of blood from the baby’s nose is obvious. Excessively dry air causes bleeding that appears suddenly, for no apparent reason.
  • Increased mucus production in the baby’s nose is caused by a viral infection, exposure to an allergen or bacteria, and mucus drying out can be caused not only by dry air in the room, but also by taking certain medications (vasoconstrictive, anti-inflammatory, antihistamines, etc.), prolonged increase in body temperature, inhalation of contaminated air.
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The bleeding itself can begin not only when picking the nose, but also when sneezing, during a walk, during inhalation or during sleep – in all cases when the pressure on the nasal septum increases.

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However, the cause of blood from the nose of a child can be much more serious, however, as Komarovsky notes, problems with blood coagulation, liver, blood pressure and other serious diseases will never be manifested only by nosebleeds. If the baby has any such illness, he will also have other symptoms, for example, a skin rash, frequent bruising, headaches or dizziness.

When a child begins nosebleeds, Komarovsky recommends acting as follows:

  1. Set the baby with the body tilted forward. The child’s head should be straight or slightly inclined forward.
  2. The nostrils of the child should be squeezed with fingers and hold for about 10 minutes. Mom can compress the nose or the child himself. While waiting, the child should breathe through the mouth.

According to a popular doctor, the diameter of a vessel that is damaged primarily affects the rate of cessation of blood flow. Also, the duration of bleeding will be determined by the state of the blood coagulation system and the use of certain medications. In most cases, ten minutes will be enough to stop normal nosebleeds.

  • To speed up the stopping of bleeding, a popular doctor recommends a cold, but only if the child can pinch her nose on her own (while mom runs into the kitchen for something cold).
  • Komarovsky advises applying ice by attaching it to the bridge of the nose.
  • You can also give your child ice cream or a cold drink through a tube, as the cold in the oral cavity also helps to more quickly stop bleeding in the nose.

In addition, so that 10 minutes of waiting until the blood stops flowing, become too long for the child, parents can entertain him with something, for example, include a cartoon for the child, read to the baby or tell him a story.

The main mistakes of parents in assisting a child with nosebleed are a well-known pediatrician who calls:

  1. Throwing the baby’s head back. With this action, the blood will drain into the throat, so it will be difficult to understand how severe the damage to the vessels is, when the bleeding stopped and whether it ended at all. In addition, flowing blood can provoke a gag reflex.
  2. Introduction to the nasal passages of cotton swabs. After extracting cotton from the nose, the crust formed at the site of vascular damage is removed, which causes repeated bleeding.
  3. Putting the child to bed. Komarovsky focuses parents on the fact that a child with nosebleeds should not be in a horizontal position.
  4. Release the baby’s nostrils earlier, checking to see if there is still blood flowing. This will only interfere with the cessation of bleeding.

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Also, a child during bleeding should not:

  • Blow your nose
  • Cough.
  • Speak.
  • Swallow blood.
  • Actively move.

If 10 minutes have passed, the mother released her nostrils, and the bleeding is still ongoing, all actions should be repeated for another 10 minutes. If twenty minutes after the onset of nosebleeds it has not stopped, the child should be shown to a doctor.

Komarovsky also advises not to hesitate in seeking medical help if:

  • Blood in a child is released immediately from two nostrils.
  • The child still had bleeding from another part of the body, for example, from the ear.
  • Bleeding from the nose is repeated very often.

In the following video, the doctor gives detailed recommendations in helping with nosebleeds in a child, and also talks about the frequent mistakes of parents in such situations.

In all these cases, a well-known pediatrician advises to pinch your nostrils and call an ambulance, or put the child in a car in order to quickly take him to a medical facility.

So that the child does not have frequent nosebleeds of a non-traumatic nature, Komarovsky recommends:

  • Humidify the air and remove dust accumulators from the room so that the mucus in the nose does not dry out.
  • Give your child a lot to drink.
  • If the baby already had nosebleeds, do not use drugs that can dry the mucous membrane in the treatment.
  • Do not allow the child to pick his nose.
  • Moisturize the mucosa with saline or oily solutions of vitamins E and A.
  • Take a blood test regularly.
  • Do not allow the child to strain for a week after nosebleeds.

Reasons: Why does the child have nosebleeds?

Blood from the nose – the reasons for the child are not always obvious. For proper treatment, it is important to correctly establish why bleeding has occurred. Probable factors can be divided into local and global.

Local (effect directly on the capillaries):

  • anatomical features;
  • the curvature of the septum of the nose, as a result of which the vessels are unevenly dilated and vulnerable;
  • mechanical damage of varying severity;
  • recent surgery in the nasopharynx;
  • drying of the nasal mucosa due to dry air or an increase in temperature in the child;
  • a sharp jump in atmospheric pressure (in an airplane, in the mountains, under water);
  • sharp change in climatic conditions;
  • temperature exposure (overheating, hypothermia, sunstroke);
  • rhinitis of any origin (edema and weakening of the membrane);
  • frequent exposure to medications (sprays, drops);
  • taking certain drugs (vasoconstrictor, antihistamine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory);
  • angry crying or coughing;
  • intense physical overload;
  • general overwork.

Global (pathological conditions of the body, one of the signs of which is epistaxis):

  • vitamin deficiency, causing the fragility of capillaries;
  • high blood pressure;
  • high level of intracranial pressure;
  • blood pathology;
  • vascular disorders;
  • tumors of the nasopharynx and head;
  • problems of the cardiovascular system;
  • malfunctioning of the kidneys and liver;
  • bleeding of internal organs;
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  • hormonal failure.

Sometimes determining the specific cause of epistaxis is straightforward. But sometimes a long examination with the use of modern diagnostic tools may be required.

If there is blood from the nose of a child, the reasons can be quite diverse. The most common pathology is diagnosed with:

  • Injury to the organ. In children, bleeding for this reason is most often observed. Children love to play with various light objects that accidentally cause injury. Most often, blood from the nose in a child of 3 years is observed precisely for this reason. Such an injury can occur in children if they often pick their nose.
  • ENT diseases. The pathological process is accompanied by frequent runny nose. At 1 year, bleeding can occur with colds, which is explained by incomplete immunity. If children often get discharge from the nose, this causes damage to the inflamed vessels and bleeding.
  • Use of nasal medications. The appearance of blood from the nose in a child 2 years and older is observed during the use of vasoconstrictor drugs. They are recommended for relieving cold symptoms. If they are used for a long period, then sometimes this leads to pathology, especially in infants.
  • Tamponade of the nasal cavity. It is a serious cause of nosebleeds in children 6 years old. If the baby often has blood from the nose, then they install tampons that can injure the mucous membrane, which will aggravate the situation.
  • Exposure to external factors. If the baby is 4 years old, dry air is constantly acting on the nasal cavity, then the mucous membranes dry out. This means that it is easy to injure.

Other causes can cause nosebleeds at 10 years of age. At risk are children of five years who suffer from hepatitis. Also, this symptom is observed with anemia and leukemia.

Bleeding can be diagnosed when exposed to a variety of provoking factors. That is why parents need to be careful about their child.

The most dangerous conditions are when blood runs from the nose at night. There is a pathology when exposed to the most unexpected factors. When there is blood in the nose of a child, there may be a reason for an allergic reaction, intracranial pressure. Also, blood can run with the uncontrolled use of drops with a vasoconstrictor effect.

If bleeding is repeatedly observed in the morning, then this indicates the presence of polyps. Also, this condition is observed with chronic physical or emotional overwork of the baby. The danger is also evidenced by the fact that blood is excreted along with mucus. This indicates the occurrence of complications of ENT organs.

If the child often has blood from the nose, then this can lead to the development of complications. With heavy blood loss, the baby often loses consciousness. With epistaxis, children are often diagnosed with nausea and vomiting.

This is due to blood flowing down the back of the throat into the digestive system. Improper provision of first aid leads to blood entering the nasolacrimal canal. That is why it flows through the eye sockets.

Bleeding can lead to serious complications, which requires timely provision of first aid to the baby.

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Features of treatment

If the child is bleeding from the nose, then only the doctor will determine what to do. With a single bleeding, it is not necessary to carry out specific treatment. In rare cases, cauterization of blood vessels in the nose is performed. With systematic bleeding, the appointment of therapy is recommended. In this case, the cause is determined, as well as individual characteristics in children.

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If the child has blood flowing from the nose, then he must urgently provide first aid. To stop bleeding, you must perform certain actions:

  • The child needs to sit on a chair and tilt his head forward.
  • It is recommended to close the nostril or both nostrils with your hands, and apply a compress to the nose bridge.
  • After 5 minutes, gauze swabs are introduced into the nostrils, which are pre-soaked in a solution with a vasoconstrictor effect – Vibrocil, Naphthyzine.
  • After 5 minutes have passed, you need to remove the tampons and process the mucous membranes. In this case, Vaseline or Neomycin ointment is used. With their help, the healing of the mucous membranes is accelerated.

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First aid for nosebleeds should be carried out without fail, which will eliminate the possibility of complications.

Infants may also have nosebleeds. In this case, the algorithm of actions during first aid is changed. The baby must be freed from squeezing clothes, which will provide access to oxygen.

Next, you need to take him in his arms while standing. The nose must be pressed a little and hold your fingers for 10 minutes. Overdoing in this case is not necessary, as this can lead to damage.

During the period of first aid, you need to ensure that the baby breathes through the mouth. You can also attach a towel to your nose, which is pre-wetted in cold water. Blood that flows out is removed with a sterile wipe.

What can not be done?

When blood begins to flow from the nose of a child, parents in a panic try to help him and make mistakes.

It is strictly forbidden to lay the child on the bed and, especially, raise his legs, as this will lead to increased blood loss.

Tilting your head back is also prohibited, as this will lead to increased outflow of blood and increased secretions. It can also lead to cramping and vomiting.

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After providing first aid, it is forbidden to give the child food or drink, especially when warm, as this will dilate blood vessels and lead to repeated bleeding. Physical activity after bleeding is contraindicated for the child, as this can lead to relapse.

If blood constantly flows from the nose, then this requires the use of certain medications. In order to reduce the fragility and permeability of capillaries, the use of:

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How to cleanse the blood in the body

In order to accelerate the stop of bleeding, the use of Dietion or Vikasol is carried out. Also, the patient is recommended intravenous administration of aminocaproic acid, calcium chloride. If pathology occurs against the background of injuries, it is recommended to take Contrikal or Trasilol.

Often, to eliminate bleeding, traditional medicine is used, which are characterized not only by accessibility, but also by safety. To improve blood coagulability, it is recommended to take teas that are prepared on the basis of sea buckthorn, chamomile, and plantain.

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If bleeding occurs constantly, then he needs to eat a piece of aloe leaf in the morning. If it becomes necessary to quickly stop the bleeding, moisten the gauze swab in the juice of plants such as plantain or nettle and insert into the nostrils for 5 minutes.

Most parents ask themselves: when is it necessary to consult a specialist? After the baby stops bleeding from the nose, it is necessary to seek the help of a doctor. The specialist will determine the cause of the pathology, and also prescribe an effective treatment. if necessary, an ENT doctor will send the baby for further examination.

Prevention

In order to avoid the occurrence of nosebleeds in children, it is necessary to prevent it in a timely manner. In this case, it is necessary not only to monitor the health of the baby, but also to adhere to certain rules:

  • The baby’s room should be regularly ventilated. In the heating season, regular ventilation of the room is necessary.
  • In order to strengthen the baby’s immune system, he needs to take vitamin and mineral complexes in the autumn and spring.
  • It is necessary to ensure the correct diet of the child. he is recommended to consume citrus fruits, vegetables, fish, dairy products.

Bleeding in children can occur for a variety of reasons. When it appears, parents must provide the baby with first aid and consult a doctor. Only a specialist after appropriate diagnostic measures can determine the cause of the pathology and develop a treatment regimen aimed at eliminating it.

Many parents are faced with a situation where a child often has nosebleeds. In many cases, this condition is due to anatomical features. Under the thin mucous membrane of the sinuses there are a large number of small blood vessels that are easily damaged.

Epistaxis in children (epistaxis) is a fairly common occurrence. Children, by their nature, are very mobile and curious, the danger of getting minor injuries is several times higher than that of adults. But regular bleeding can be the first sign of serious pathologies requiring a doctor and timely treatment.

Why is bleeding dangerous?

One-time bleeding resulting from a mild local injury is usually easily tolerated and without consequences. But “dangerous” bleeding should be distinguished – this is what epistaxis provoked by serious pathology is called in medicine. This is a recurring phenomenon that occurs for no apparent reason.

With intense bleeding, regardless of its cause, the baby loses a large amount of blood. Blood loss is all the more dangerous the younger the child: for a baby, a loss of 50 ml is equivalent to a loss of 1 liter in an adult patient.

Nosebleeding in infants

In infants, the nasal areas and passages are not fully formed. The formation of the inner shells of the spout, which are very tender and vulnerable in infancy, is also incomplete. They have a high concentration of capillaries supplied from the carotid artery. The walls of the capillaries are easily injured because of their fragility, causing the appearance of bright red blood from the nose.

The most common cause of injury is involuntary mucosal damage to the baby’s nails. It does not yet coordinate the movement of the handles and may scratch the nose if accidentally swung. To avoid this, you need to monitor the length of the nails. A good way out is the use of mittens for newborns.

The cause of injury can also be cleaning with a cotton swab, which is too large and hard for the baby’s nose. Moreover, there is a danger not only to cause injury, but also to leave pieces of exfoliated cotton wool in the nose.

Experts advise not to overdo it with cleansing, the body of a healthy baby copes itself. It is necessary to take care of humidification in the nursery so that the delicate mucous membrane does not dry out. And if necessary, to clear the nasal passage, you need to use a thin tourniquet made of cotton wool moistened with liquid paraffin.

Teenager’s nose blood

Blood from the nose – the causes in a teenage child for its appearance are associated with intensive restructuring of the body. Adolescence is complex in both psychological and physiological terms. In the period of hormonal formation, epistaxis is a common problem.

  • the establishment of a hormonal background, leading to a narrowing of blood vessels and an increase in pressure;
  • the formation of the menstrual cycle, causing a rush of blood during menstruation, too strong for the capillaries of the nose;
  • differences in arterial and intracranial pressure characteristic of adolescents;
  • weakening of the vascular system, causing a reaction to any kind of stress: physical, emotional, external (sun, dryness, heat).

Epistaxis in adolescence can be a serious problem requiring a specialist. In most adolescents, bleeding stops at the end of puberty.

Which doctor should I consult for frequent bleeding?

In the case of frequent relapses of nosebleeds without obvious reasons, it is necessary to contact a pediatric therapist. If any pathology is the cause of the epitaxis, the help of other specialists may be needed.

DiagnosisDoctor SpecializationMethods of examination
initial inspectionpediatricianmedical history, pressure measurement, complete blood count
hypertensionblood pressure monitoring
avitaminosisexternal signs, blood test
pathology of the noseotolaryngologistX-ray, MRI
allergyallergistallergen tests, blood tests
high level of intracranial pressureneurologistMRI scan of the fundus
heart problemscardiologistECG, Holter and ultrasound of the heart
kidney pathologynephrologistgeneral urine analysis, according to Nechiporenko, ultrasound
liver pathologyhepatologist (gastroenterologist)biochemical blood test, ultrasound
hormonal disruptionsendocrinologisthormonal analysis
blood pathologyhematologistbiochemical blood test, coagulation test
leukemiahematologist-oncologistbiochemical blood test, bone marrow puncture

If the cause of the epistaxis is a serious injury, consult a traumatologist. Only a doctor can accurately determine the degree of damage and possible consequences. If necessary, a nose x-ray or MRI will be prescribed.

Blood from the nose with a lack of vitamins

Blood from the nose – the reasons for a child for her can be different, including vitamin deficiency. For a growing child’s body, nutrition is essential, providing building material for growth. Lack of nutrition of important components leads to the development of diseases.

Epistaxis may result from a lack of vitamins (vitamin deficiency), especially C, K, P:

  • vitamin C (ascorbic acid). Its main role is a catalyst in metabolism. Its lack causes a cessation of collagen production, degeneration of connective tissues, weakening and increased fragility of capillaries;
  • vitamin K This is a group of chemical compounds with similar properties and the same effect (K1, K2, K3). It is this vitamin that is responsible for coagulation, i.e. blood coagulability. Under its influence, the liver synthesizes prothrombin, which is the most important component of the coagulation system;
  • vitamin P This is a whole class of bioflavonoid substances, which are called the “capillary permeability factor”. They strengthen the walls of blood vessels, reduce their permeability. A sign of vitamin deficiency is a slight bruising on the child’s body. This group of vitamins is not produced by the body, their deficiency can be covered only by food intake.

Not only vitamin deficiency is dangerous, but also hypovitaminosis – an imbalance of vitamins in the body. For example, vitamins C and P are optimally absorbed by the body in a ratio of 2: 1. In the absence of vitamin P, ascorbic acid is not absorbed at all. An imbalance can be triggered not only by improper nutrition, but also by taking medication, poisoning and other reasons.

In chronic rhinitis

Chronic rhinitis is more common in adolescents than in babies. This is a chronic inflammatory process in the nasal mucosa.

  • coryza;
  • difficulty in nasal breathing;
  • worsening of sense of smell;
  • nasal congestion;
  • irritation and itching in the nose;
  • pallor.

Her condition worsens and the frequent use of colds. Capillaries located on the surface become very vulnerable and burst even with minor loads – sneezing, physical exertion, minor trauma, increased pressure.

With leukemia

Frequent bleeding can be a symptom of leukemia (aka leukemia, bleeding, or blood cancer). This is a dangerous disease that requires long and difficult treatment, including chemotherapy. The bone marrow, lymphatic system and blood are affected. With leukemia, blood cells cannot fully perform their functions.

Pathology affects blood vessels, significantly reducing their permeability and even turning them into blood-forming ones. This leads to nasal, gastrointestinal and uterine bleeding. Epistaxis can occur from one nostril or from two.

With Verlhof disease

Werlhof’s disease is a serious blood disease in which platelets have an increased ability to stick together and form blood clots. In this case, small capillaries become clogged.

Blood may appear in the urine, hemoptysis. The exact causes of the disease have not yet been established. Werlhof’s disease can appear at any age, including early. Bleeding with this disease is dangerous for its intensity. Large blood loss leads to the development of anemia.

With hemophilia

Blood from the nose – the causes in a child can be hereditary if it is a sign of hemophilia. This pathology is inherited along the male line. The disease is characterized by a significant slowdown in blood coagulation due to a malfunction in the production of thromboplastin. Thromboplastin is an external coagulation factor that begins to act when tissue integrity is compromised.

The thrombus created under his influence “seals” the damage. With hemophilia, the formation of thromboplastin is impaired, blood coagulates much more slowly than in a healthy body. Nothing prevents it from flowing out, which leads to dangerous blood loss, even death. The patient has frequent hemorrhages in the internal organs, joints, muscles.

Continuous nasal and gastrointestinal bleeding can result in very minor damage. Patients need a constant intake of blood-replacing drugs.

With increased intracranial pressure

An increase in intracranial pressure is a very alarming symptom. If you do not consult a doctor on time, then this condition can result in a hemorrhage in the brain. One of its symptoms is epistaxis, including nocturnal. But in this case, moderate bleeding is beneficial to overall well-being.

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It is precisely the increased blood pressure on the walls of the capillaries that leads to rupture of the vessels. To provoke bleeding, a small additional load is enough – for example, sneezing.

With the formation of a tumor

Vascular damage and spontaneous bleeding can cause tumors of various types. Benign angiofibroma of the nasopharynx is a random connection of vessels of various sizes, feeding from the carotid artery. It occurs mainly in boys.

Hemangioma, in contrast, is more common in girls. These capillary formations can be located outside and inside the nose. Hemangioma is formed at birth. This vascular ball can subsequently grow.

Such pathologies require surgical intervention, as their growth can lead not only to discomfort, but also serious health consequences, up to blood clots and blood poisoning. This may be a surgical operation, cauterization with liquid nitrogen, removal by a laser beam.

Fear of heights and nosebleed

Epistaxis can be caused by oxygen starvation. It appears in the mountains or when flying on a hang glider – at a high altitude, where the air is rarefied. Parents should consider this when planning a hike in the mountains and other similar activities.

The first signs may appear already at an altitude of about 2 km. Oxygen starvation, increased blood pressure, decreased vascular strength can lead to moderate epistaxis in the middle stage of mountain sickness.

The severe stage is characterized by a serious deterioration in health:

  • bleeding: nasal, gastric, pulmonary;
  • fever;
  • tachycardia;
  • respiratory failure;
  • weakness.

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It is necessary to take into account such consequences when planning mountain trips with a child.

Blood from the nose due to mechanical injury

Blood from the nose of a child often appears due to mechanical damage. The activity of children often leads to injuries. A minor bruise, accompanied by short bleeding, may not cause concern.

Serious injury, with a possible fracture of the nose, requires a mandatory visit to a doctor. As a rule, with the impact of such a force, the brain also suffers, which requires additional examination. A fracture should be examined by a traumatologist, since only a physician can assess the severity of the injury and its possible consequences.

It is better to provide the doctor with the extraction of the item, as inept attempts can push the traumatic object even deeper. The cause of the injury can be medical procedures associated with the introduction of instruments into the sinuses of the nose (puncture, adenotomy, endoscopy and other studies).

Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.

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