Brain plexus cyst plexus occurrence diagnosis treatment

Primary diagnosis is still in utero – at the first ultrasound. The doctor may indicate the appearance of cystic formations in the vascular plexus, continuing further observation of the pathology only if the cystic sac does not fall on its own after 28 weeks of pregnancy.

Newborns undergo neurosonography – an ultrasound scan through an overgrown fontanel. The procedure in many maternity hospitals is mandatory, it is during this study that a specialist can notice the appearance of a neoplasm and recommend a re-examination after 3, 6 months to determine whether the cyst grows or remains unchanged.

The doctor may report that the child has a unilateral formation – on the right or left ventricle. Also, on ultrasound, you can see a bilateral formation, when the cystic plexuses of the brain affect both the left and right ventricles.

Other types of examinations, such as magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, are not performed for children under one year of age, since the need for them arises only when pronounced symptoms of brain damage occur.

In general, the development of pathology in the late stages is a consequence of the fact that the mother suffered an infectious disease during pregnancy. This in turn can cause the appearance of a cystic vascular plexus. The most common cause of such disorders is precisely the herpes virus. Moreover, often an anomaly in a baby has practically no signs and it is detected mainly during neurosonography.

A cerebrovascular cyst refers to accumulations of cerebrospinal fluid circulating inside their plexus. It is produced to nourish the brain cells and tissues of the future man, and plexuses are early signs of the development of the central nervous system of the fetus. If the brain develops too quickly, a free space appears between the vessels, filled with cerebrospinal fluid.

And then a cyst appears. Why does this fluid accumulation occur in some places, none of the experts can say for sure. Yes, and there is no urgent need to understand this, because it does not affect the health of the baby. These clusters during ultrasound examination are similar to a cyst, therefore they are designated in conclusions. Even such cysts found in newborns and infants are usually not dangerous.

Changes are detected by ultrasound or sonography. On the recommendation of the World Health Society, these studies are done by all children under one year old. With the help of ultrasound, neurological disorders are determined.

Sonography is prescribed if in the anamnesis were:

  • birth injury in a baby;
  • maternal infectious disease during pregnancy;
  • severe pregnancy;
  • prematurity of the fetus;
  • size deviations at birth;
  • severe irregularities in the shape of the head;
  • a defect in the structure of the baby’s organs.

There are no signs of a cyst in the baby. Deviation this appears and disappears without symptoms. It is not pathological and in most cases does not affect the brain activity of the child.

According to studies, such cysts are found not only in children who are lagging behind in development. Equally, these formations are found in normally developed babies.

In infants, vascular cysts are detected by ultrasound of the brain – neurosonography. It is recommended for passage to all children under the age of one year to exclude vascular cysts and any other defects of the central nervous system. It is especially recommended for premature babies, newborns with too much or too little weight, babies with neurological symptoms, a birth injury or undergoing hypoxia.

Neurosonography is a simple and absolutely safe method for the baby. The study is usually carried out through a large (front) fontanel. This is important to do before the fontanel closes, as high and medium frequency ultrasound waves do not pass through the dense cranial bones. To study the posterior lower and central parts of the brain that are distant from the large fontanel, the anterolateral (temporal), occipital and posterolateral fontanels are used.

A similar lesion in the brain in adults is extremely rare. The pathology of the vascular plexus can be congenital or formed as a result of a micro stroke.

Diagnosis of the disease is carried out using computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of both hemispheres. The treatment is restorative. Therapy is limited to prescribing medications to normalize blood flow and metabolism.

Most often, this disease is diagnosed in the fetus up to 20 weeks. After overcoming this age line, the cystic vascular plexus disappears without a trace. In some cases, a child may be born with this ailment.

According to statistics, after reaching 2 months of age, the baby gets rid of this neoplasm. In isolated cases, this disease remains with the person for life, without causing significant damage to the health of the patient.

An ultrasound machine is used to diagnose cysts in the fetus and newborn. The results of the study are recorded in the protocol and reported to the pregnant woman.

It is safe and has no contraindications. She also does not provide for preparatory procedures.

So there is a change in the structure of the brain only in infants. This is due to the presence of a fontanel in a child at this age (an area of ​​the head that is not covered with bone tissue). An ultrasound passes through it, displaying the corresponding image on the screen. It is worth noting that all premature babies born with asphyxia undergo this procedure.

To establish what kind of cyst belongs to, additional studies are carried out. For this purpose, CT and MRI are used. To find out the cause of the disease:

  1. Dopplerography of the vessels is performed.
  2. Check the condition of the heart.
  3. Do a blood test.
  4. Measure the pressure.

A cyst without signs of chromosomal abnormalities during ultrasound scanning does not pose a threat to the fetus. Pregnant women are prescribed additional ultrasound screenings to monitor the amount of fluid.

If genetic mutations are suspected, repeated biometric screening of the fetus is performed. The detection of one of the signs of a chromosomal abnormality in combination with a cyst has a probability of defect of no more than 5 – 8%.

Deviation from the standards for all parameters indicates an almost 100% chance of having a baby with a severe chromosomal abnormality (Edwards syndrome, Patau).

For an accurate diagnosis, a blood sampling from the umbilical cord is prescribed for further cytogenetic studies. If the analysis confirms the presence of mutagen, then the woman has the right to terminate the pregnancy for medical reasons at any time.

On the first day after birth, neurosonography is performed on newborns. If the cyst has not resolved, then continue to observe. For this, the child is registered with a neurologist.

Vascular plexus with cerebrospinal fluid bladder prone to growth, requires additional studies:

Vascular plexus cysts (pseudocysts) in the absence of provoking factors (infections, injuries) and changes in brain structures are not a threat. The cavity with the liquid gradually decreases in size and completely disappears.

Fetal neoplasm

The danger is KSS in children with chromosomal abnormalities such as Edwards disease (trisomy 18 chromosomes). Nosology is characterized by multiple malformations, therefore, intracerebral cavities with cerebrospinal fluid are the minimum problem in treatment.

Down’s disease is not characterized by the formation of KSS of the brain.

Interesting facts about cystic plexuses of children:

  1. Spontaneous extinction in 90% of the fetuses by the 28th week of development;
  2. The prevalence rate of nosology among pregnant women is 2%;
  3. Varies the shape, size, number of cavities;
  4. Found in adults and healthy people;
  5. The frequency of villous, choroid plexus cysts is about 3%.

It is impossible to determine the initial type of formations in the fetus due to physiological degradation. The absence of severe symptoms does not allow doctors to accumulate enough information about the pathology.

Morphological structure of choroid cystic cavities in a child

The accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside choroid formations does not pose a risk to the health of the baby. Morphologically, the cavity is represented by a thin wall, capable of changing sizes, shape.

Plexus vessels are early structures of the formation of the central nervous system of the fetus. Bilateral localization is due to the presence of two hemispheres requiring cerebrospinal fluid content. Scientists could not explain the need for the formation of limited cavities around the plexuses. Presumably, the structures are part of the formation of the central nervous system, therefore, pass by the 28th week. If development slows down, KSS can be traced in newborns, infants 3 months and somewhat older.

Cystic cavities of the brain are sometimes seen in adults. Pathology does not form clinical symptoms, therefore, it is detected by chance on an MRI scan, carried out due to verification of another etiology.

Practice shows that there is no danger to the health of the preservation of cysts of the choroid plexus after 30 weeks, with the exception of Edwards disease.

This anomaly does not affect the development and well-being of the “wizards”. This disease is rare, occurs only in 3% of cases.

At the 6th week, the plexus begins to form in the baby. This is a fairly complex system. The presence of two plexuses suggests that both hemispheres of the brain will adequately develop.

The fetal vascular plexus cyst is diagnosed at weeks 14 and 22. According to statistics, by the 28th week of pregnancy, this neoplasm is self-destructing. It turns out that by the time the baby’s brain begins to develop, nothing is interfering with its functioning.

Types of disease

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Choroidal

A choroid cyst is nothing but one of the types of neoplasms of the vascular or choroid plexus of 3-4 ventricles in a newborn baby. The development of pathology is provoked by infectious diseases, oxygen starvation of the child during childbirth.

With the growth of a neoplasm in a newborn, headaches, twitching of limbs, and convulsions are noted.

Subependymal

The nature of the development of the pathology is as follows: under the shell lining the cavity of the brain, small voids, vesicles filled with cerebrospinal fluid can form. A possible cause of the occurrence is damage to the walls of small vessels, which develops when a baby passes through the birth canal. Most often, no more than 2-3 capillaries are damaged. At the same time, in a small amount, blood is poured under the membrane.

Hematomas are processed by special cells, and blood is replaced by cerebrospinal fluid. As a result, cystic bags appear, which during normal development of the child fall over and dissolve over time.

It is believed that a subependymal cyst in a newborn does not require special treatment. Moreover, given the almost 100% dynamics of self-healing, neurologists do not even consider it necessary for such patients to be re-examined.

Arachnoid

Congenital arachnoid cyst of the brain – a bubble from the arachnoid membranes filled with cerebral fluid. Neoplasm occurs between the upper hard and lower soft shells. Provoking factors: infectious diseases in the mother, complicated pregnancy, traumatic birth.

When the arachnoid cystic sac does not grow, its presence in the head cavity does not bring the child unpleasant sensations. With an increase, the neoplasm begins to put pressure on the meninges. The patient noted:

  • Headache.
  • Spitting up, vomiting.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Lethargy.
  • Restless sleep.
  • Cramps, twitching of limbs.

At the same time, treatment involves the elimination of symptoms, as well as the prevention of cerebral edema, the normalization of the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid.

The occurrence of cystic formations is possible on other organs of the baby. Specialists diagnose the following types:

  • Periventicular cyst of the brain in the fetus.
  • The spermatic cord.
  • Renal.
  • Sublingual a.
  • Ovary.

Treatment, if necessary, is carried out only under the supervision of a doctor, since only a specialist can make an accurate diagnosis and select the necessary drugs.

If there is a cystic formation of vascular plexuses in the brain tissue of an infant that has not previously resolved, most often it does not manifest itself with any symptoms. A baby may show signs of damage to the brain structures if the cystic sac appears later, and its occurrence is provoked by an infection or trauma.

A large cyst presses on brain tissue. In addition, due to the structural features of the choroid cystic formation provokes increased production of cerebrospinal fluid. Thus, the child’s pressure inside the head increases, signs of hydrocephalus occur.

Symptoms that a growing vascular cyst of the brain provokes in newborns:

  • Hypertonicity, hypotonic limbs.
  • Nausea, profuse regurgitation, vomiting.
  • Inability to coordinate movements.
  • Strabismus.
  • Convulsive seizures.

At the same time, the sick baby suffers from a headache, he often screams lingeringly. The baby is disturbed by sleep, it can be capricious, tearful and at the same time lethargic, apathetic.

Detection of KSS after birth is not a dangerous condition, but requires examination of a newborn baby. Herpetic infection is activated with weakened immunity, can cause changes in the vascular plexus. With the growth of the baby, immunity is strengthened, so after 3 months there is an active development of immunity.

The lack of progression indicates the absence of changes that will contribute to the development of dangerous conditions.

The vascular plexus is laid in the fetus early enough. Education takes part in the formation of cerebrospinal fluid, which provides nutrition to the brain.

The diagnosis of left plexus cysts is common in newborns, although bilateral localization is more common. A pathology is formed at the age of 1 year, when there are transferred intrauterine infections. Cystic cavities form in any part of the brain with the same probability.

Nosology is considered the most benign, since most options disappear on their own. Detected after 22 weeks. An ultrasound scan after 28 weeks shows a lack of pathology. The cystic cavity of the right ventricle is able to resolve. If there is no combined pathology (with damage to other ventricular spaces), this location of the cyst will not form complications throughout life, even if the nosology persists in the child after 1 year. In an adult, nosology is rare.

Pathology is able to persist in the adult period. Some cavities disappear, some remain. Despite the bilateral arrangement of clinical symptoms does not occur. Dynamic observation can be able to detect an increase in size, a change in shape. Only then is conservative treatment carried out. Preliminarily excluded chromosomal mutations.

An ultrasound every 3 months allows you to track the condition of the brain parenchyma in infants. The procedures are sufficient to obtain information on the degradation or progression of cystic cavities.

The nature of KSS is not reliably established. Pathology is an accidental find. Small foci do not affect the human psyche, metabolic reactions. There is no metabolic disorder, therefore, the danger is excluded.

Small cysts of plexuses and vessels should be differentiated. The latter option provokes some symptoms. Life threat, no health. In adults, the occurrence of small hemorrhage, impregnation of surrounding tissues.

Intrauterine infection provokes inflammatory damage to the walls of the cavity. Detection of infection requires the appointment of antibacterial drugs.

Detection of plexus cysts at 19 or 20 weeks is not a reason for parents to worry. Repeated examination at week 29 will show the absence of cavities.

Most scientists consider the cystic plexus of the intracerebral vessels to be the norm. The absence of a clinic suggests nosology as a variant of the norm. Improving diagnostic methods has made it possible to identify the disease in the fetus and infants more often.

Attention should be paid to late cyst formation resulting from infection of herpes with a number of other viruses.

The vascular plexus cyst in a newborn can be a consequence of a congenital anomaly or birth injury. It can occur against the background of a malfunction in the metabolism, improper circulation, head injury or meningitis.

Brain fluid flows in small portions to the vascular plexus and is trapped there. So cysts are formed. Infants have single and bilateral cysts.

It is possible to detect the disease only with a diagnostic study. Pronounced symptoms are absent. There is no threat to the development or health of the baby. The pseudocyst in most cases is independently eliminated within 1 year.

A pseudocyst can form in the fetus in different locations of the brain. It happens:

  • right vascular plexus;
  • left vascular plexus;
  • bilateral;
  • consisting of several balls with cerebrospinal fluid.

In medical practice, the following forms of this disease are found:

  1. Choroidal cyst.
  2. Subependymal variety.
  3. Arachnoid lesion.

Choroidal

Choroidal cyst is a neoplasm in the vascular plexus of the right or left lateral ventricle. An infection or oxygen starvation of the baby during childbirth can provoke the development of this disease.

As the patient grows older, the following can be observed:

  • headache;
  • neurological twitching of limbs;
  • convulsions.

Subependymal

This variety manifests itself in the form of small vesicles with cerebrospinal fluid, appearing under the lining of the brain. A cyst is formed in voids.

Damage to several capillaries received during childbirth can cause bubbles, since at this moment blood in small volumes gets under the membrane. The resulting hematoma is processed “special purpose cells.” As a result, blood is replaced by cerebrospinal fluid.

Such a cyst does not require medical intervention. She spontaneously disappears over time.

Arachnoid

This variety is localized between a hard surface and a soft shell. The causes of arachnoid cysts can be:

  • pregnant infectious disease;
  • severe pregnancy;
  • difficult birth.

While the bubble does not grow, everything is in order, the child does not feel any discomfort. But if the cyst began to increase, this process is accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • Headache.
  • Poor appetite.
  • Insomnia.
  • Lethargy.
  • Spitting up and vomiting.
  • Periodic twitching of limbs.

The course of therapy is aimed at eliminating the symptoms, stabilizing the outflow of cerebral fluid and preventing edema.

Possible danger

During embryogenesis, fetal brain vesicles form that contain a circulatory network. The intertwined vessels produce cerebrospinal fluid. Active liquor production (secretion) leads to accumulation of fluid between the vessels and is not considered a pathological formation.

Ultrasound visualizes this as a dark spot in the ventricles of the brain, from which a wave beam is not reflected (anechogenic inclusion). The exact causes of the occurrence of cysts are not known, as there are no sufficient histological studies.

There are only hypothetical factors that can affect the secretion of cerebrospinal fluid:

  • Infectious and inflammatory diseases in women in the first trimester of pregnancy;
  • Intrauterine injuries of the fetus;
  • Intrauterine hypoxia of the fetus – abnormal development of blood vessels in the umbilical cord, placental pathology, malposition of the fetus.

Opinions differ in the medical community and some scientists believe that cysts, vascular plexuses during embryonic development is one of the stages of brain formation. Another part of doctors is inclined to believe that anechogenic inclusion in the brain indicates a sign of chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus.

When cysts are detected, the diagnosticians pay attention to other pathological signs, to exclude Trisomy 18 syndrome (Edwards), a rare and severe chromosomal disease.

The etiology is not established. Long-term preservation of cystic cavities against the background of viral infections, herpes, and complicated pregnancy is considered likely. The absence of clinical manifestations until the end of a person’s life indicates the absence of harm to the pathology. Formations require dynamic observation. Non-fontanel fontanel in a child allows you to perform an ultrasound of the skull, and adults recommend periodic MRI.

Viral cysts are able to mutate: grow, degenerate. Dynamic observation determines the prognosis of consequences for a person with KSS.

Two different diagnoses should be distinguished – “fetal vascular plexus cyst”, “cerebral vascular cyst”. The first nosology is harmless, passes on its own or remains without dynamics for many years. The second variety is dangerous, as it sometimes provokes symptoms.

There is a definition of pseudocyst. On the screen of an ultrasound monitor, doctors can detect a cavity that is formed by physiological structures.

The exclusion of pathological conditions after the diagnosis of “vascular plexus cyst” in a newborn and fetus is provided by an additional comprehensive examination. Genetic counseling rules out Edwards disease. Magnetic resonance imaging shows the structure of the soft tissues of the brain with high resolution, three-dimensional modeling of the studied area.

The detection of vascular plexus cysts in a child requires verification of provoking factors: viral and bacterial infections, changes in the composition of the cerebrospinal fluid, increased intracranial pressure. If there are no additional changes, it can be argued that there are no conditions for the negative development of the vascular cyst.

To date, the causes of the appearance of cysts in the region of the vascular plexuses have not yet been fully studied.

This disease can be a congenital anomaly, but manifest itself only in adulthood. In this case, the basis for the occurrence of the disease can be:

  • Concussion.
  • Ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke.
  • Injuries received during the birth process.
  • Microstroke.
  • Aneurysms.

Also, if the disease occurred after birth, it can be caused by:

  • herpes;
  • hemorrhage during childbirth;
  • infectious disease.

Cystic formations can form in the fetus even in the womb, and also occur after the birth of the baby.

In the fetus

Cystic plexuses of the brain in the fetus are detected before the seventh month of pregnancy. Vascular plexus is a paired system that forms in the ventricles of the fetal brain. It precedes the development of the nervous system. A pair of vascular plexuses indicates that the child will subsequently form the left and right hemispheres of the brain. The vascular plexuses themselves do not have nerve cells, they only produce cerebrospinal fluid that nourishes the brain.

Cerebrospinal fluid can accumulate between the plexuses, forming into vesicles. The accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid does not affect the development of the fetus, does not adversely affect the body. If the cystic sac does not fall, but remains in the head cavity, it does not appear symptomatically in any way; in an adult, a neoplasm can only be detected on MRI, CT scans.

In 90% of cases, the fetal brain cyst does not cause any harm to the body and resolves on its own by the 28th week of pregnancy.

Some geneticists believe that the appearance of a cystic formation of villous plexuses indicates that the fetus is susceptible to genetic mutations. The tumor itself is not the cause of these mutations, but only indicates the possible development of a genetic defect. Specialists identify the most common pathologies that can be diagnosed in a baby – Edwards syndrome and Down’s disease.

It is a failure of chromosome division (not a divergence of 18 pairs, the presence of an extra chromosome) that leads to the formation of cerebrospinal vesicles in the vascular plexuses of the fetus.

Have a baby

The vascular plexus cyst in a newborn, as a rule, develops under the influence of various infectious diseases. Cystic formations in the villous plexuses can also form after 28 weeks of pregnancy under the influence of negative factors. These include:

  • The herpes virus that has infected the mother’s body.
  • Acute infectious diseases.
  • Impaired blood flow.
  • Prolonged fetal hypoxia.
  • Birth injury.

Often, such cysts do not affect the functioning of the brain. Treatment is prescribed only if the cystic bladder grows, causing a malfunction of the brain.

In general, preventive measures to prevent the development of pathology depend on the pregnant woman. She needs to prevent general hypothermia, dress according to the weather, refuse to visit places of large crowds, where you can catch chickenpox or other infectious disease.

To avoid the occurrence of a cyst of the vascular plexuses of the brain in a newborn, the expectant mother must adhere to a healthy lifestyle, eat properly and increase immunity. Everything else depends on nature.

In some cases, drops of cerebral fluid may be trapped within the vascular plexus. So vascular cysts are formed. They are cavities in which cerebrospinal fluid is contained. Both cysts of the right vascular plexus and cysts of the left vascular plexus can develop. As a rule, vascular cysts are found in both plexuses during ultrasound examination at 18-20 weeks of pregnancy in 1-3 out of 100 pregnant women.

Vascular plexus cysts in the fetus do not affect the brain. Most vascular cysts resolve by 24–28 weeks of gestation. Perhaps this is due to the fact that the brain at the embryo develops only from the 24th week after conception.

According to studies of the American Association of AH, in 90% of all cases of fetal vascular cysts, they resolved independently by the 26th week of pregnancy, in 50% of cases the vascular cysts were bilateral.

The cause of the appearance of vascular cysts later, after the birth of the baby, may be a fetal infection with various infections, complications during pregnancy, small hemorrhages during childbirth and herpes. In most cases, vascular cysts pass over time without any treatment themselves.

The signs of a cyst found during the examination should definitely alert the doctor, although this is not dangerous. But its presence nevertheless increases the likelihood of chromosomal abnormalities. If there are no abnormalities in clinical tests, the presence of a cyst does not give reason to suspect any abnormalities in the brain tissues.

If the fetus has brain damage, then the consequences can be quite serious, for example, Edwards or Down syndrome. However, this influence is not proven by scientific research.

Unlike other types of cysts

In some sources, sometimes there is information about the existence of some connection between the presence of a cyst and pathologies of an innate nature, which are caused by mutations in the genes. Moreover, the localization of the place of formation does not matter, because this cystic cavity is not able to provoke an anomaly in the development of the child. Everything is exactly the opposite: it is anomalies or infections that can lead to the development of pathology.

Genetic abnormalities, in which the presence of a cyst is most often detected, include trisomy 18, known as Edwards syndrome. Even trisomy 21, called Down’s disease, does not so much affect the incidence of a cystic cavity in the vessels of the brain.

If other fetal diseases are detected, the main role here is not played by the cyst, but by the abnormalities that accompany it. This should be known to women waiting for babies. And one should not be afraid of such a diagnosis.

This pathology should be distinguished from a cyst formed in the medulla. The appearance of these formations is often caused by infections that the fetus suffered. To identify the cyst and its elimination, PCR diagnostics are prescribed. This is done to determine the causative agent of the infection. After the study, treatment is prescribed, and at the end of the examination, the examination is repeated.

Cystic formations of the brain are divided into subependymal and arachnoid. Formations of the first type appear with insufficient nutrition of the brain in the ventricles. This entails the death of tissues and the appearance of empty cavities.

Arachnoid cysts develop inside the meninges. Such a cavity occurs as a result of infection. This pathology requires medical treatment, and sometimes surgical intervention. If the under-cyst is not removed, it will lead to a disruption in the functioning of the motor system, and will damage the visual and other parts of the brain.

Signs of cyst growth in a newborn

Cystic formation can become a provoking factor in disorders in the functioning of various organs and the destruction of their tissues. The volume of the cyst, as well as its predisposition to increase, are very important indicators in this case.

A cerebrovascular cyst can grow for several reasons:

  • free space with increasing fluid pressure inside the cyst;
  • progression of infection or inflammation;
  • brain injuries and head bruises with an already present cyst;
  • the presence of cysts in the brain tissue.

With the development of the child’s body, especially in the age of adolescent changes, cysts that still behaved calmly can suddenly increase in size.

Symptoms of cystic plexus cysts

Such a disease is detected during the examination in the form of ultrasound or neurosonography. According to the existing recommendation given by WHO, such diagnostic measures should be carried out in children under the age of one year. With the help of ultrasound, you can detect the presence of neurological disorders. In this case, the need for such a diagnosis is mandatory in the following circumstances:

  • Birth injury;
  • If there is a suspicion of the development of an intrauterine infection;
  • If the pregnancy is difficult;
  • In case of premature birth;
  • When a newborn has deviations in terms of weight or height.
  • If there are severe disturbances in the shape of the head, as well as any thresholds in the structure of other organs.

The development of cysts in the vascular plexus in a child during breastfeeding is practically not manifested in any way and can be completely asymptomatic. At the same time, small lateral formations on the left (left vascular plexus) are not considered pathological, since they do not adversely affect the brain’s work in a child.

According to studies, such neoplasms can be found not only in children who in some way lag behind in development, but also among those where there are no deviations.

Important! A pseudocyst of the brain may also appear in the brain in the baby. The cause of its formation may be due to birth trauma, fetal hypoxia, or other causes. At the same time, what is a pseudocyst can be explained as a cavity inside which there is cerebrospinal fluid. It is also worth saying that the pseudocyst of the brain itself is not dangerous, and therefore treatment is not required.

Cysts in the brain in infants can be diagnosed during the neonatal period. A small accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid between the vessels, which did not disappear on its own during the gestation period, is usually asymptomatic. Brain structures are not subjected to pressure, and the assessment of neurological status is within normative limits.

The cystic vascular plexus that has arisen against the background of trauma (heavy birth) is gradually progressing. An increase in the cystic capsule disrupts the outflow and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.

The vascular plexuses of the brain in newborns with a pathological cavity begin to exert pressure on areas of the brain, which leads to the occurrence of hydrocephalic syndrome.

  1. Fontanel tension, bulging;
  2. Muscle tone;
  3. Increased irritability (constantly crying, as it experiences headaches, sleep disturbance);
  4. Vomiting, failure to eat;
  5. Convulsive syndrome;
  6. Head tilting, eyeballs pointing upwards (or squint).

An increase in cranial pressure leads to an increase in symptoms and a worsening of the general condition.

Large cystic cavities can cause:

  • aching or acute headache;
  • impaired hearing and vision;
  • double vision or blurred vision;
  • sleep disorder;
  • noise in the head;
  • lack of coordination of movements;
  • high cranial pressure;
  • weakening of muscle tone;
  • fainting, cramps, or tremors;
  • frequent burping;
  • increased pulsation in the fontanel;
  • epileptic seizures;
  • sometimes numbness of the limbs, up to their temporary paralysis.

Each of these signs manifests itself depending on where the cystic mass is located. For example, a growth located near the pituitary gland often leads to dysfunction in the endocrine glands and genitals. In severe cases, the development of babies is restrained, and not necessarily mental. A violation of physical development may also occur.

There is no pronounced symptomatology with this disease. The most negative possible manifestations:

  • The presence of hypertonicity in infants.
  • High cranial pressure.
  • Hearing and vision dysfunction.
  • Movement coordination disorder.

If the cyst is located so that puts pressure on nearby tissues, their work is disrupted. In such cases, epileptic seizures are possible. To do this, it must be of impressive size and located at certain points – the brain centers.

A brain cyst in adults can be a consequence of a hematoma. Limited blood accumulation (subdural, epidural) with penetration into the ventricles of the brain contributes to ventricular cyst formation.

Pathology contributes to the appearance of clinical symptoms:

  • Dizziness, headache;
  • Movement coordination disorder;
  • Muscle cramps, epilepsy;
  • Hypertonicity in newborns.

Localization of manifestations near important nerve centers contributes to the occurrence of specific symptoms.

The presence of a cytomegalovirus or herpetic infection complicates the course of the disease. The detection of the pathogen and KSS in an adult with a high degree of probability indicates a viral etiology of cystic cavities.

The microcyst of the vascular plexus of the right lateral ventricle rarely causes neurological disorders.

In children, vascular microcysts and larger formations are not accompanied by pathological symptoms. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD 10) does not attribute nosology to a number of pathological conditions.

Types and time of examinations

To identify dysfunction of brain tissue, all babies undergo neurosonography. Such a study can be performed before the child reaches the age of one. In older children, a large fontanel, as a rule, is already closed, and it is like a window through which you can see what state the brain is in.

Course of therapy

Based on the results, the specialist decides what measures to take. There is no special treatment for this disease, as the disease resolves itself. In rare cases, patients are prescribed drugs that accelerate the process of resorption of the cyst. The course of such therapy involves taking:

  • Cinnarizine to strengthen the walls of blood vessels. This helps to normalize the state of the body and get rid of the bubble with the liquid.
  • Cavinton if blood circulation in the brain has been impaired.

These drugs are well tolerated and have no serious side effects. Nevertheless, it is not worth taking them without prescribing and consulting a doctor. Since in the treatment of diseases associated with brain activity, every nuance is important.

In some cases, preventive examinations are prescribed every 3 months. This is done to monitor the condition of the patient.

What and how to treat

Usually detected vascular cystic cavities do not need to be prescribed treatment. The formation of a cyst rarely causes degenerative consequences and the appearance of symptoms of its presence. Therefore, parents often panic unjustifiably.

Specific therapy for cysts is not carried out even if its dimensions do not change over time. It does not affect the development of the baby.

But in the case of a sharp increase in the cyst and its growth, it is necessary to reduce the formation. However, this is very rarely necessary. The cyst begins to grow at the 24th week of intrauterine development, and already at the 28th – it completely disappears. It is extremely rare that the cystic cavity persists until the baby is born. Many cystic cavities appear more often due to an infectious disease. Therefore, therapy in this case should be aimed at treating the consequences of the infection. Cysts do not play a dominant role here.

To reduce the risk of disorders at the genetic level, after a unilateral cyst is detected, an examination is prescribed, and then medical procedures that are designed to eliminate any abnormalities in the development of the baby.

Only a neurologist should decide whether to treat this cavity. Cyst therapy with medication should be aimed at eliminating liquorodynamic dysfunctions, help reduce fluid production, improve intracranial blood circulation.

Treatment begins with the use of Cinnarizine. This medicine favorably affects the functioning of the heart and blood vessels, helps stabilize the body and destroys unwanted growths.

In case of circulatory disturbance in the vessels of the brain, Cavinton is prescribed. This medication, like Cinnarizine, is well tolerated, has no side effects and reactions. Nevertheless, you can take medicines only after consulting with a specialist.

There are no special methods of healing for these cystic formations. Experts recommend repeating ultrasound after every two to three months, so that you can observe the development or gradual disappearance of the vascular cyst cavity inside the cranium.

In the case of a diagnosis of a subependymal cyst, it becomes necessary to conduct an MRI scan or MR diagnosis at least twice a year. Although the formation of cystic growths of this type, doctors consider it a positive process. But still, the appearance of a sharp increased pressure inside the cavity of an overgrown cyst with any complications is possible.

To reduce the risk of genetic abnormalities, after detecting a unilateral cyst, the doctor prescribes an examination, and after it a therapeutic course is determined, which is designed to prevent any deviations in the development of the child’s body. It must be remembered, however, that in nine out of ten cases, the detected cysts of the vascular plexuses of the brain are not life threatening, they should not cause anxiety.

The consequences of cystic plexus

The cystic vascular plexus does not pose a threat to the health and life of the patient. The favorable outcome of the disease is not affected by the location of the cyst. It does not matter in which ventricle it has “sat” – on the right or on the left.

This is evidenced by the characteristics of the disease:

  1. The cyst is capable of self-elimination.
  2. She can be in “sleep mode” throughout her life.

Only in 0,1% of cases can it begin to grow. But in the vast majority of cases, the vascular plexus cyst resolves before the baby is born or in childhood, without having a particular effect on the quality of life and development.

Complicated cystic formations cause specific manifestations:

  1. Hypertonicity of the newborn;
  2. Neurological symptoms with compression of brain structures;
  3. Epilepsy (muscle cramps);
  4. Slight drop in vision and hearing.

With magnetic resonance imaging, it will be necessary to distinguish a true vascular cyst from pseudocysts. The latter variety is a variant of the physiological development of the brain, but the anatomical structure during the examination of ultrasound resembles a cavity. Magnetic resonance imaging is an accurate study (about 96% is informative). Three-dimensional modeling mode allows you to correctly verify the nosology.

Edwards syndrome can detect an ultrasound scan to identify abnormalities of the extremities, a change in internal organs. Additional diagnostic tests:

  • Determination of the concentration of chorionic gonadotropin;
  • Blood chemistry;
  • Amniotic fluid analysis.

A special risk group is women aged 32 years and older with hormonal disorders.

Most children with vascular plexus cysts have a benign course. No external and internal manifestations are formed. The absence of changes after a dynamic examination after three months and 1 year allows to prove with a high degree of reliability the absence of subsequent progression of changes.

In adults, cystic cavities are determined on a CT scan of the vessels of the head with contrast, MR angiography.

Modern diagnostics can detect small, bilateral, unilateral cavities of any size.

Newborns, infants, magnetic resonance imaging is performed without anesthesia during sleep. The examination is carried out while maintaining complete immobility. Quality assurance when scanning babies and preschoolers involves a study under anesthesia.

In infants, verification of pathology is possible using neurosonography. Some government clinics screen all children after birth for preventive purposes. Private diagnostic centers offer examination for a fee.

Cystic vascular plexus of the brain in the fetus does not pose a threat to life. Anechogenic inclusion in the brain is monitored and periodically monitored by ultrasound.

The cyst dissolves by the end of the third trimester of pregnancy or during the neonatal period (28 days after birth). If the cavity with the liquid tends to grow, then surgical treatment is used.

Acquired or congenital hydrocephalus without treatment has serious consequences. The brain gradually loses its functionality, as tissues undergo necrotic changes. The neglected form of dropsy is supplemented by complications from all body systems, which leads to an inevitable death.

KSS in a newborn as a sign of mutagenesis (Edwards syndrome) in most cases leads to death before reaching 3 months. Surviving children suffer from severe forms of mental disorders (oligophrenia), which are assigned 1 group of disabilities.

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Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.

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