Every second, the heart pumps a large amount of blood, which promotes the vascular system, supplying the entire body with oxygen and various nutrients. Moving through the vessels, the blood exerts pressure on their elastic walls, which in medicine is called arterial pressure. The larger the vascular lumen, the greater the pressure formed inside it.
- systolic – occurs when the heart muscle contracts.
- diastolic – occurs when the heart muscle relaxes, depending on the tone of the vessels.
It is also customary to highlight the pulse pressure, which is the difference between the upper and lower values. Normally, it should be 40-60 units. Sometimes, along with these indicators, the pulse rate is taken into account. But it should be understood that these are ambiguous indicators that can change with age, time of day, and also due to exposure to various internal or external factors.
Blood or arterial (hereinafter BP) is the pressure of blood on the walls of blood vessels. In other words, this is the pressure of the fluid of the circulatory system that exceeds atmospheric pressure, which in turn “presses” (acts) on everything that is on the Earth’s surface, including people. Millimeters of mercury (hereinafter mmHg) is a unit of measurement of blood pressure.
The following types of blood pressure are distinguished:
- intracardiac or cardiac, arising in the cavities of the heart with its rhythmic contraction. For each department of the heart, separate normative indicators are established, which vary depending on the cardiac cycle, as well as on the physiological characteristics of the body;
- central venous (abbreviated as CVP), i.e. blood pressure of the right atrium, which is directly related to the amount of return of venous blood to the heart. CVP indices are crucial for diagnosing certain diseases;
- capillary is a value that characterizes the level of fluid pressure in the capillaries and depends on the curvature of the surface and its tension;
- blood pressure is the first and perhaps the most significant factor, studying which the specialist concludes whether the circulatory system of the body is working normally or if there are deviations. The value of Blood pressure refers to the amount of blood that pumps the heart for a specific unit of time. In addition, this physiological parameter characterizes the resistance of the vascular bed.
Since it is the heart that is the driving force (a kind of pump) of blood in the human body, the highest blood pressure indicators are recorded at the exit of blood from the heart, namely from its left stomach. When blood enters the arteries, the pressure level becomes lower, in the capillaries it decreases even more, and becomes minimal in the veins, as well as at the entrance to the heart, i.e. in the right atrium.
Three main indicators of blood pressure are taken into account:
- heart rate (abbreviated heart rate) or a person’s pulse;
- systolic, i.e. upper pressure;
- diastolic, i.e. lower.
Indicators of upper and lower pressure, what is it and what do they influence? When the right and left ventricles of the heart contract (i.e., the heartbeat is in progress), the blood is expelled in the systole phase (the stage of the heart muscle) in the aorta.
The indicator in this phase is called systolic and is recorded first, i.e. in fact, is the first number. For this reason, systolic pressure is called upper. This value is influenced by vascular resistance, as well as the frequency and strength of heart contractions.
In the diastole phase, i.e. in the interval between contractions (systole phase), when the heart is in a relaxed state and is filled with blood, the value of diastolic or lower blood pressure is recorded. This value depends solely on vascular resistance.
Let us summarize all of the above with a simple example. It is known that 120/70 or 120/80 are the optimal indicators of a healthy person’s blood pressure (“like astronauts”), where the first digit 120 is the upper or systolic pressure, and 70 or 80 is the diastolic or lower pressure.
- Features of the structure of children’s vessels
- Reasons for low rates
- Normal pressure in a teenager
- In infants
- From a year and older
- Pulse rate
- Pressure norm for babies up to 1 year old
- Differences in girls and boys
- Pressure norm for children 10-12 years old
- Pressure norm for adolescents 13-15 years old
- Difference Blood pressure by gender
- General recommendations for pressure normalization
- How to measure the pressure of the child?
- When is daily monitoring required?
Features of the structure of children’s vessels
In childhood, blood vessels are arranged differently. The walls of the arteries, compared with adults, are thinner and weaker, their tone is lower. Associated with this is lower diastolic pressure than in adults.
The heart in children is small and weak. He does not need much power to pump blood over a small body. This explains the lower (in adults) upper (systolic) pressure.
With age, the elasticity of the vessels is lost, the walls of the arteries become thicker, the volume of blood, and the length of the bloodstream increase, the number of hormones regulating blood pressure changes and the normal level of pressure increases.
Reasons for low rates
In Russia, it is customary to correlate the numbers Blood pressure with age, and optimal pressure is regarded as the norm only for young and healthy people. This, in fact, is correct, since from birth to old age changes in the vessel wall are inevitable, in addition, somatic diseases join in, blood viscosity changes – all this affects the systolic and diastolic blood pressure indicators, the level of which a person’s well-being depends on.
Upper or systolic blood pressure (SBP) is a marker of the heart, lower or diastolic (DBP) – blood vessels. Since the physiological characteristics of man, his anatomical structure are unique, the pressure of each of us is individual. In his youth, potential self-regulation abilities were preserved, which help to cope with overwork, overstrain, climate change, colds, maintaining pressure at a normal, comfortable level.
Normal pressure in an adult is considered to be systolic pressure – 120, and diastolic – 80 mm RT. Art. But during measurements in children, the numbers are very different from this established norm, which causes concern for new parents.
What pressure should a child have a certain age? In fact, the blood pressure of children is much lower than that of an adult. And the smaller the baby, the lower the rate. So, in 4 years, the indicators will be much less than in 11 years. This is due to the elasticity of the vessel walls, which is highest in the newborn, and weakens with age, causing an increase in blood pressure.
The change in normal pressure is due to various reasons: physiological or due to illness.
The first factors include:
- Emotional overload, stressful situation.
- High physical activity leading to overwork.
- High growth combined with excess nutrition.
The increase in blood pressure for the above reasons is temporary. After eliminating them, the pressure normalizes. Symptoms in such cases are absent.
If the child has an increase in blood pressure, which is of a constant nature, he is prescribed an examination in order to identify diseases that led to an increase in blood pressure.
- Renal pathologies (underdevelopment of tissue, the occurrence of tumors). At the same time, the values of both pressure indicators increase to very high numbers.
- Diseases of the cardiovascular system (stenosis, vasculitis, malformations of the heart and blood vessels).
- Diseases of the endocrine system (adrenal cortex dysfunction, gland tumors).
- Pathology of the nervous system.
- Primary (essential) hypertension.
Primary hypertension in children is not associated with the development of any pathologies. Such a diagnosis is made in those cases when, after the examination, the causes of hypertension could not be found, that is, disorders in the functioning of the internal organs that could cause an increase in blood pressure are not observed.
The causes of primary hypertension are still not reliably known. That is why the medicine for it has not gone beyond the effect on the mechanisms of pressure regulation.
In addition, blood pressure may increase as a result of therapy with certain drugs:
- anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics;
- hormonal drugs, contraceptives;
- stero >
And also it is destabilized in the case of the use of alcoholic beverages, tobacco, and poisoning with salts of heavy metals.
A slight decrease in indicators is a physiological norm and becomes a familiar state. The reason for this is considered a feature of the nervous system. If there is no negative symptoms, then you should not worry.
But if a child often has lowered blood pressure values, then this already speaks of hypotension.
It manifests itself with the following signs:
- General weakness of the body.
- Headache, dizziness.
- Increased intraocular pressure (IOP).
- Decreased appetite.
- Depression, lethargy.
This pathology occurs under the influence of the following factors:
- Genetic predisposition.
- Disruption of the hormonal background during transitions, early pregnancy.
- Physical exhaustion.
- Past infectious diseases.
- Lack of vitamins.
- Diseases of the internal organs.
- Impaired functioning of the vessels of the brain;
Also, low blood pressure in a child can be observed due to such reasons:
- Somatic diseases in the mother during gestation (infection, trauma, damage to internal organs).
- Exercise stresses.
- Incorrect daily routine.
- Climate impact.
- Hormonal surge.
It often happens that a teenager complains of a headache, his cheeks turn red. This suggests that the pressure jumped sharply. But this phenomenon at the age of 13 is considered normal, since hormonal jumps occur that cause an increase in adrenaline. And the normal pressure of adolescents ceases to be so and rises.
Stress and overstrain can aggravate the situation, so it is important at this age to provide the child with the most calm and comfortable conditions. But sometimes an increase in pressure indicates diseases of the cardiovascular or endocrine system.
And such a phenomenon as a decrease in the level of pressure also takes place, moreover, quite often. But such a condition is no less dangerous than high blood pressure in adolescents. With what it can be connected? Firstly, with diets and underweight. The cause may also be anemia.
In addition, often heavy periods or other blood loss can also trigger a decrease in pressure. Other causes may include infections, allergies, head injuries, vascular, cardiac, or endocrine problems.
It is worth noting that it is important for parents to closely monitor such an indicator as the pressure of a teenager in order to ensure his health in the future.
Normal pressure in a teenager differs in different years of growing up. But what is the norm?
With age, the pressure in a person changes
Blood or blood pressure is divided into systolic (upper – compression of the left ventricle) and diastolic (lower – relaxation of the heart muscle). Throughout life, the normal pressure indicator tends to change.
What pressure should a teenager have?
In medicine, the average value is called the norm. For an adult, it is considered to be a healthy indicator of 120/80 / – 20 mmHg.
For a more accurate calculation, there is a formula. It is involved on the basis of personal indicators of a person from 13 to 17 years:
- 1,7 * (patient’s age) 83 = systolic or upper blood pressure;
- 1,6 * (patient age) 42 = diastolic or lower blood pressure.
Table “Norm of blood pressure in adolescents 13-17 years old”
|The average value of the formula||Maximum||The average value of the formula||Maximum|
At the age of 15-17 years, a teenager develops adult pressure. The value of the mercury column freezes somewhere around 100/70 – 130/90 mm. It is easy to determine the level habitual for the body using regular measurements. Blood pressure at rest. Preferably at the same time.
It happens that blood pressure is constantly low or high in comparison with the average permissible values. There are no complaints, the patient feels vigorously a long observation period, tests without deviations. Due to the individual characteristics of the body, such cases are appropriate. But they are less common than VSD or vegetative-vascular dystonia.
Causes of pressure surges in adolescence
Statistics say 75% of 12-14 year-olds regularly complain to their parents about overwork and workload. Add here:
- hormonal surges
- mood swings
- teenage dramas
- stresses in the lesson;
- family problems;
- physical inactivity;
- computer fatigue.
The pressure in a teenager can increase from prolonged sitting at a computer
There are plenty of reasons for a fragile growing organism to temporarily malfunction. These are mainly external factors affecting the emotional-mental balance in a child. For example, in every third teenager, the pulse quickens and blood pressure rises as soon as the doctor puts on the sleeve of the tonometer. The so-called “white coat hypertension” when the child is worried about the manipulations of the doctor.
Hormonal storms are a separate provocation of a young organism.
Pressure often jumps from them in girls at 10-12 years and in boys at 12-13. The increased secretion of adrenaline enhances systolic muscle vibrations. Problems with Blood pressure in children under 10 years of age is an alarming symptom.
It is much more serious when the root of the problem stretches from a hidden disease. High blood pressure occurs as a symptom in:
- kidney or heart problems;
- increased lipid content.
Often, adolescents are diagnosed with a hypertensive type of VSD. In 30% of situations, this is a strong prerequisite for hypertension in adulthood.
Low pressure sometimes signals a development:
- problems with the endocrine system (pituitary hormone deficiency);
- infectious diseases;
- heart disease or blood loss;
- traumatic brain injury;
With frequent pressure drops, consult a doctor
When a child complains of malaise, headache, fatigue and lethargy, the first task of the parents is to sign up the teenager to the doctor. It is ideal to undergo a full examination, testing and observation for 5-7 days. Examining and identifying a problem is the easiest way to reduce future health risks.
What to do to normalize blood pressure
Normalizing blood pressure at home is simple, if you know the cause of its fluctuation. Suppose a slight leap up is provided for a tiring day. Home remedies help balance well-being:
- tea from calendula, barberry, rosehip, green with lemon;
- carrot, lingonberry or beetroot juice (from beets, generously dilute with boiled water 1: 2);
- tincture of hawthorn, motherwort, valerian.
Normal pressure in a teenager
The table of normal values of pressure indicators in a child at the age of 12 is reflected in the general norm-table of blood pressure indicators. These data were collected not only in Russia, but also throughout the world. During the existence of such a direction in medicine as angiography, which studies vessels at different ages, and the influence of types on blood pressure indicators, this table has been edited a few times.
Blood pressure refers to the force with which the heart muscle pushes blood. Centile tables will determine the norms of this indicator in each age group of children.
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|Age||Systolic Blood Pressure (upper)||Diastolic Blood Pressure (lower)|
|From birth to 14 days||60-95||40-55|
|2 – 4 weeks||80-110||40-74|
|4 – 8 weeks||82-112||40-75|
|8 weeks – 6 months||85-115||50-70|
|6 – 12 months||86-116||55-78|
It can also be calculated using the formula: 76 2n (where n is the number of months)
Blood pressure in infants depends on the following factors:
- The term of gestation. In premature infants, the value is lower.
- Climate. In mountainous areas, blood pressure levels are lower for natural reasons.
- Physical activity. The more mobile the child, the higher the blood pressure. In children of athletes with constant training, it tends to decrease.
- Height. The higher it is, the greater the blood pressure.
- Weight. Fat children have higher blood pressure.
From a year and older
|Age||Systolic blood pressure|
|Diastolic blood pressure|
|1 – 2 of the year||90-112||60-74|
|3 – 4 of the year||100-113||60-75|
|5 – 6 years||100-116||60-76|
|7 – 8 years||100-120||60-78|
|9 – 10 years||100-123||60-80|
|11 – 12 years||110-125||70-85|
The table of norms by age allows parents to determine when to consult a doctor.
Due to the fact that in children there are strong jumps in blood pressure indicators, age values recorded in 90% of the subjects are taken as normal. Errors of 20 units are not considered a serious deviation, it is a consequence of physical activity or stress.
|Age||Systolic blood pressure||Diastolic blood pressure|
|13, 14, 15 years||112-130||70-82|
|16 – 17 years||115-136||75-85|
The heart rate in children is determined by the age of the child: the older he is, the less heart rate (heart rate).
|0 – 1 month||110-170|
|1 – 12 months||102-162|
|1 – 2 of the year||94-154|
|2 – 4 of the year||90-140|
|4 – 6 years||86-126|
|6 – 8 years||78-126|
|8 – 10 years||68-108|
|10 – 12 years||60-100|
|12 to 15 flight||55-95|
An increased heart rate is called tachycardia, and a lower value is called bradycardia.
NPV best reflects the quality of lung function in children. The algorithm for measuring this value is as follows: a minute is detected and during this time it is necessary to calculate how many breaths a child takes.
|0 – 1 month||40-60|
|1 – 12 months||35-40|
|1 – 2 of the year||30-35|
|2 – 4 of the year||30-35|
|4 – 6 years||30-35|
|6 – 8 years||25|
|8 – 10 years||20-25|
|10 – 12 years||20|
|12 to 15 flight||16-18|
The most reliable results can be obtained during a child’s sleep, when his breathing is even.
So, what should be normal pressure in children 13 years old? Systolic (so-called upper) pressure should be in the range of 110-136 mmHg. And the diastolic (lower) pressure should be 70-86 mmHg. These indicators are normal.
Pressure norm for babies up to 1 year old
Due to the increased elasticity of the walls of the vessels, as well as the features of the development of the capillary network, infants often have low blood pressure. During the first year of life, the crumbs increase in blood pressure as the body grows. For a newborn baby, the numbers 60-96 / 40-50 mm Hg are considered normal indicators. Art. At the end of the first month of life, they already make up 80-112 / 40 -74 mm Hg. Art.
During the first year of life, an increase in vascular tone occurs, due to which, by 1 year old, the arterial blood pressure of the crumbs is within 90/50 – 112/74 mm Hg. Art. The exact value depends on the growth and fatness of the baby. Therefore, do not worry if the indicators of blood pressure in a month-old baby are the same as in the friend’s one-year-old son.
The development of each organism occurs individually, and if one increases gradually, then the other develops rapidly. If you don’t know which figures are considered the norm up to 1 year old, then this can be determined using the following formula: 76 2n, where n is the number of months of life of the baby. The result will be the norm.
Differences in girls and boys
The level of normal blood pressure also depends on gender. In infants up to a year old, it is the same, and then differences appear.
In young girls, it is higher, with peak values recorded in three-year and four-year-old babies. Then the indicators are aligned and become the same at the age of five.
From the age of seven (for some, eight years), a steady increase in the numbers of normal systolic pressure begins. Monthly, the value is added to one unit for girls and two for boys. By the ten-year threshold, the indicators are equalized, then the rise is observed in boys.
From about twelve, thirteen years, the indicators are unstable, there are frequent jumps in blood pressure.
This continues until puberty is reached. In sixteen-year-old (seventeen-year-old) girls and boys, indicators are already approaching the norm of an adult.
Pressure norm for children 10-12 years old
The age interval from 10 to 12 years is considered transitional from the childhood to the teenage period and is accompanied by accelerated growth and development of the body. This cannot but affect the state of the vessels. Therefore, a ten-year or twelve-year-old child often has drops in blood pressure, especially in girls, who develop much faster than boys.
Normally, indicators at 11 years should be 110-126 / 70-82 mm RT. Art., although doctors consider it normal to increase systolic blood pressure to 130 units. Many factors can influence the tonometer readings at this age, among which growth and physique play a large role. It has been proven that skinny tall girls may have lower rates than their athletic peers.
Pressure norm for adolescents 13-15 years old
Extremely high blood pressure and poor health are brought down by drugs. For example, young girls and boys are prescribed:
- Blood pressure lowering tablets (Raunatin, Rauvazan, Reserpine);
- diuretic (Veroshpiron, Hypodiazide);
- adrenergic blockers (Inderal, Obzidan);
- sedatives (Seduxen, Elinium);
- ganglion blocking (pentamine).
Raunatin lowers blood pressure
The tool should be recommended by a doctor. The wrong dosage or the wrong drugs will help now, but will aggravate the overall clinical picture.
With low blood pressure, aromatic drinks are drunk at home:
- ginger tea with honey;
- strong black tea and coffee;
- hot chocolate;
- infusion of cinnamon (1/4 tsp. powder brew 0, 25 ml of boiling water honey to taste, drink a day, if the pressure is as low as possible).
From pharmaceutical preparations are popular:
- psychostimulants (Caffeine or Fetanol);
- pills that improve blood circulation in the brain (Piracetam, Pantogam, Cinnarizine).
Physical activity is an effective way to overcome primary hypotension.
Contrast shower and light massage of the collar zone helps.
With unstable pressure of any type, it is recommended to establish nutrition, sleep, balance mental stress, walk more and get positive emotions. Several times a year to be examined by a doctor.
Determining the blood pressure norm in a teenager is often very difficult. This is due to the fact that at this age in the life of boys and girls there is a lot of stress. Hormonal changes, a sedentary lifestyle, emotional or physical stress – all this can provoke an increase or decrease in blood pressure.
Difference Blood pressure by gender
During the measurement of pressure in a child, in addition to his age, height or physique, it is necessary to take into account gender:
- From birth to 1 year, the value of Blood pressure in boys and girls does not differ.
- By 3-4 years of age, the pressure in girls significantly exceeds that of boys.
- By 5 years, the values are compared.
- At the age of 6 to 10, the indicators for boys are much lower than for girls.
- From 10 years old until adulthood, blood pressure in boys exceeds girls.
It is very important to take into account such gender differences, because if you do not attach importance to them, then you can incorrectly interpret the state of the baby’s vascular system.
General recommendations for pressure normalization
Only a doctor can determine the cause of pressure drops in children. To do this, he conducts a physical examination, sends for examination.
Based on the results of these actions, a diagnosis is made and treatment is prescribed.
If pathologies are not found, it is necessary to review the diet, motor mode.
The menu needs to include more vegetables, fruits, meat, dairy products, fish. For young children, the consumption of cereals and soups is important. It is necessary to minimize the intake of fast food, fried, salty foods. Such nutrition normalizes the functioning of the heart and blood vessels.
It is very important that the child gets enough sleep, gets up and goes to bed on time. It is necessary to monitor the motor mode, regulate physical activity. He should lead an active lifestyle but not overwork. You should also avoid stressful situations at home and at school.
As well as normalizing the pressure in children and adolescents, therapeutic massage, water procedures help.
As a general rule, any initial medical examination begins with a check of the main indicators of the normal functioning of the human body. The doctor examines the skin, probes the lymph nodes, palpates some parts of the body in order to assess the condition of the joints or detect superficial changes in blood vessels, listens to the lungs and heart with a stethoscope, and also measures temperature and pressure.
These manipulations allow the specialist to collect the necessary minimum information about the patient’s health status (make an anamnesis) and indicators of the level of arterial or blood pressure play an important role in the diagnosis of many different diseases. What is blood pressure, and what are its norms set for people of different ages?
For what reasons does the level of blood pressure increase, or vice versa, and how do such fluctuations affect a person’s health? We will try to answer these and other important questions on the topic in this material. And we will start with general, but extremely important aspects.
How to measure the pressure of the child?
In order to obtain reliable values of blood pressure in children, it is necessary to correctly measure. To do this, you need to purchase a special device – a tonometer, and observe the following algorithm of actions:
- Perform the procedure in the morning when the baby is in a calm state.
- An hour before the measurement, it is impossible to give crumbs products containing caffeine. You can not start the procedure immediately after vigorous activity, crying or feeding.
- Children under 2 years old should lie on their back during the procedure, holding the hand with their palms up at the level of the heart. An older child can be seated on a chair. In this case, the legs should stand straight, and the hand on which the measurement is made should lie on the stand, forming an angle of 90 degrees between the brush and shoulder.
- It is very important to choose the right size cuff. It should cover the arm by at least 80%, and its width should be more than 40% of the circumference of the limb. Measurement with an adult cuff is not recommended.
- For more accurate results, pressure should be measured on both hands, 2-3 times, taking a break of 5-10 minutes between sessions.
- After the study, compare the indicators with those indicated in the table of normal values for children of different ages.
It is recommended to have a special diary in which indicators will be recorded. Based on regular studies, you can monitor the health status of your child and, in case of serious deviations, immediately consult a doctor for a thorough diagnosis. If you notice an increased or decreased pressure in a child, then you should not try to normalize it without first consulting with a specialist.
Measuring blood pressure in young and middle-aged children is slightly different from measuring blood pressure in adults.
Firstly, the size of the cuff of the tonometer for adults is larger than is required to grip the baby’s arm. If you measure with it, you get distorted data.
Therefore, for examination, it is necessary to use a special children’s cuff. There are cuffs for babies, preschool and high school children.
The width of the tonometer cuff chamber for children over one year old is 5 cm. For babies there are special cuffs with a chamber width of 3 cm.
Secondly, in order to avoid mistakes, the following requirements must be observed:
The w >
It is recommended to measure the pressure in a small child in the morning and in the evening, an hour after eating. The child should be in a calm state. If he is stressed (excited, crying), he has a rapid heartbeat – the measurement is postponed.
Children under two years of age are laid on a bed, older ones should sit on a chair. Legs should be flat on the floor. If the child does not reach the floor with his feet, you need to put a stand or transplant it on the highchair. After this, the hand is freed from the clothes, a cuff is placed on the upper part and fixed with a fastener.
The hand should be put on the table, palm up. It should be ensured that it is not in a hanging position.
Then air is introduced into the cuff pad. After it is lowered, the tonometer display shows the measurement result.
When is daily monitoring required?
In order to determine the constancy of the increase in blood pressure and the rhythm of fluctuations in its indicators, an examination is carried out, which is called – BPM.
Pressure is measured several times during the day at certain intervals.
Indications for the appointment of daily monitoring are:
- A study to confirm the diagnosis.
- Monitoring the effectiveness of therapy.
- Diseases of the nervous system.
- Suspicion of the development of hormone-dependent cancer tumors.